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Proficiency writing skills 2 newfowler

A

NEW.

FOWLER
PROFICIENCY

WRITING ^
S K ILLS


Introduction

INTRODUCTION
New Fowler Proficiency Writing Skills

2

is t h e

second


part

of a t w o - p a r t c o u r s e which aims to teach the
t e c h n i q u e s s t u d e n t s r e q u i r e t o a t t e m p t any o f t h e
variations among the six forms of writing task s e t in the
revised
Cambridge
Proficiency
examination.
Approximately ten per cent of t h e material in Writing
Skills has b e e n r e v i s e d f o r this b o o k . All t h e o t h e r
material in this book is new. Each of the twenty units
c o n s i s t s of f o u r - p a g e s , w h i c h s h o u l d , under normal
c i r c u m s t a n c e s , be c o m p l e t e d in t w o l e s s o n s , with a
writing task to be done later in approximately o n e hour,
the time allowed for it in the examination.

For t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s w h o have s t u d i e d o n e o f t h e
three set texts, Question 5 consists of three
q u e s t i o n s , o n e for each o f t h e s e t t e x t s . Candidates
are required t o w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:
an
an

article
essay

a

letter

a

review

a

report


T h e t i m e limit (2 hours) and length of writing tasks
( 3 0 0 - 3 5 0 w o r d s ) remain unchanged.
T e a c h i n g w r i t i n g skills

The changes in the examination
The biggest change in the writing paper of the revised
Cambridge Proficiency examination is that it n o w has
t w o parts, as do FCE and CAE.
P a r t I c o n s i s t s of a c o m p u l s o r y q u e s t i o n comprising
i n s t r u c t i o n s and a t e x t or t e x t s w h i c h p r o v i d e
candidates with a clear c o n t e x t . T h e r e is always m o r e
than o n e p o i n t to a d d r e s s in this q u e s t i o n , and
candidates should learn to identify t h e s e points and
ensure that they c o v e r t h e m w h e n writing. The
q u e s t i o n is discursive, and candidates are e x p e c t e d to
w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:
an
an
a
a

article
essay

an
a

Doing justice to oneself in an examination

letter
proposal

In P a r t 2, candidates choose one question
comprising instructions which give candidates
guidance to t h e c o n t e x t . In o r d e r to be successful in
Part 2, candidates should be c o m p e t e n t at narrating,
analysing, h y p o t h e s i s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , giving r e a s o n s ,
persuading, judging priorities, evaluating, making
recommendations,
giving
information
and
summarising. Candidates are e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e o n e
of t h e following, from a c h o i c e of t h r e e :

a

It is important for students to understand that while
credit is given to Proficiency candidates for their use of
s t r u c t u r e and v o c a b u l a r y , t h e s e a r e n o t t h e o n l y
considerations to be taken into account; organisation
and the relevance of the answer to the task are at least
equally important. Different writing tasks require
s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s t o deal w i t h t h e m , and s u c h
t e c h n i q u e s can be taught effectively t h r o u g h m o d e l s
written within the capacity of a g o o d student that can
be analysed, imitated and practised. T h e s e models are
supported with revision of t h e necessary grammatical
structures and lexical items by means of accompanying
exercises and the reference section and the appendix at
t h e end.

article
letter
proposal

a

review

a

report

T h e Proficiency examination requires a considerably
m o r e sophisticated use of English than First Certificate
and t h e difference b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o levels is often
underestimated by students. The difference, however, is
n o t s o m u c h a m a t t e r o f using m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d
s t r u c t u r e s or a w i d e r range of vocabulary as of
providing a n a n s w e r r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n , well
organised in g o o d , clear sentences and paragraphs. The
range of q u e s t i o n s o p e n to the e x a m i n e r is
considerable, as indicated by the contents pages of this
book, but learning the right technique to deal with each
is half t h e battle. T h e r e f o r e , it is r e c o m m e n d e d that
students pay particular attention to the tips provided
throughout the book. These consist of practical advice
on what to do and what not to do in a given situation
and should make it possible for s t u d e n t s taking t h e
exam to realise their full potential.

3

1


Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS
S E C T I O N

!

2

Describing

REVISION

PAGE

1: A R T I C L E S

My working day

Adverbs of frequency

A working day in the life of a florist

6

Prepositions of time
Tenses

2

2

Describing and narrating

A key moment in my childhood

Past & Perfect Tenses

10

Indirect Speech

3

4

1

1

Discussing an issue

Responding to generalisations

Should mothers go out to work?

Crime: genes or upbringing?

S E C T I O N

S

2

Describing

2:

Passive Voice:
impersonal structures

14

Compound Adjectives

18

L E T T E R S

Teacher of the Year

Adjectives

22

Connectors and modifiers:

26

The most unpleasant person
1 have ever met

6

1

Giving opinions

The aims of education

developing an argument

7

2

Complaining

A letter of complaint to an airline

Indirect Speech

30

Conditionals
Should

8

2

Applying for a job

Voluntary summer job

hypothetical

would

34

Student conference

S E C T I O N

9

1

Expressing opinions

3:

E S S A Y S

The future of entertainment

Tenses

38

Inversion


4

1

Comparing

Films vs Books

Comparison

42


UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS
S E C T I O N

2

Applying for funds

REVISION
4 :

PAGE

P R O P O S A L S

Keeping a museum open

Connectors and modifiers:

46

Clauses of Reason

12

2

Assessing choices

The Opera House: renovation

Formal language

50

or demolition?

10

2

Evaluating a situation

Traffic problem in town centre

2

Giving reasons

Promoting a new snack

14

54

Connectors and modifiers:

58

Clauses of Reason

18

S E C T I O N

5 :

R E V I E W S

Reviewing a festival

The Edinburgh Festival

Gerunds and infinitives

62

Reviewing a holiday

A weekend break in Venice

Participle clauses

66

Reviewing a magazine

National

Connectors and modifiers:

70

22

2

Geographic

developing an argument

26

S E C T I O N

Discussing the findings
of a survey

30

6 :

R E P O R T S

Maintown residents' opinions on
how best to spend a donation

Quantifiers

74

Passive Voice: impersonal
and personal structures

Providing solutions

Threatened closure of The Catherine
Wheel

34

2

Evaluating

78

restaurant

Mr Quick Dry Cleaner's
Travel the

Indirect Speech

82

World game

Reference section

86

Appendix

94

CPE Writing S h e e t s

96

38

42


1

Articles

Describing

WmÊHmmMm

Before reading t h e question and article below, l o o k at Reference section 3 o n page 8 6 and c o m p l e t e this e x e r c i s e .
Put t h e adverb in brackets in t h e m o s t suitable place in t h e s e n t e n c e .

2

a

I get up at seven o'clock, (usually)

b

My first a p p o i n t m e n t is at 8.45. (generally)

c

I d o n ' t h a v e t i m e to r e a d t h e p a p e r after breakfast, (often)

d

I have k e p t up with t h e latest r e s e a r c h , (always)

e

I have h a d to go o u t in t h e m i d d l e of t h e night, ( s o m e t i m e s )

N o w read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and t h e n do t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.
You live and w o r k locally. T h e c a r e e r s office In t h e t o w n publishes a m o n t h l y magazine for s t u d e n t s .
T h e magazine has invited local business p e o p l e , d o c t o r s , t e a c h e r s , e t c to w r i t e articles describing their
w o r k i n g day. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e magazine describing y o u r normal w o r k i n g day.

My working day
M o s t G P s t h e s e d a y s b e l o n g , as I d o , to a
m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e s h a r e d with four o t h e r d o c t o r s .
This has the advantage of o u r being able to employ
two n u r s e s a n d two s e c r e t a r i e s . U n l i k e t h e o t h e r
doctors in my practice, I am married with two young
children and my husband, Michael, has a full-time
job in London.
Michael and I usually get up every day about six
thirty and have a shower and get dressed before we
wake the children. We have breakfast at 7.30 and

get the children ready for school. Fortunately, my
husband passes the school on the way to the station
so he d r o p s t h e m off. My first a p p o i n t m e n t is n o t
u s u a l l y u n t i l 8.45 b u t t h e c h i l d r e n n e a r l y always
n e e d something at the last minute so I don't often
have time to read the paper after breakfast.
In our practice, we ask patients to telephone for
an a p p o i n t m e n t unless they are seriously ill. Most of
those who come to the surgery just need a
prescription for the chemist or a certificate to stay
away from work. I normally finish surgery at about
11 o'clock and then start my rounds, visiting patients
in their homes. With luck, I am h o m e for lunch by
1.00, a n d h a v e t i m e t o r e a d o n e o f t h e m e d i c a l
journals before the children come h o m e from school
at about 3.30.1 have always tried to keep up with the
latest research.
T h e c h i l d r e n have lunch at school, b u t I am
always t h e r e w h e n they arrive h o m e and can give
t h e m some tea and get dinner ready for my husband
b e f o r e I r e t u r n for t h e e v e n i n g s u r g e r y a t six.
Michael gets h o m e before then so I never have to
leave t h e m a l o n e . I am n o r m a l l y h o m e again by
8.30. when the children go to bed, and by then t h e
working day is generally over. We don't often go out
in the evenings because I feel t o o tired but I have
sometimes had to get up and go out in the middle of
the night to answer an emergency call from one of
my patients.

!


Articles

3

Underline all t h e adverbs of frequency in t h e article.
6.30

4

C o m p l e t e t h e diary page for t h e d o c t o r in n o t e form,
indicating w h a t s h e d o e s at different t i m e s of t h e day,
as in t h e e x a m p l e .

aei

up

7.30
8.45
11.00
1.00
3.30
6.00
8.30

5

L o o k at Reference sections 13 and 14 o n page 9 0 and c o m p l e t e t h e s h o r t article b e l o w with t h e
p r e p o s i t i o n s provided. You will have to use s o m e of t h e m m o r e than o n c e .

at

on

in

My working day
l w o r k as a porter (1)

t h e G r a n d Hotel (2)

Grippon Road. My w o r k i n g d a y

s t a r t s very early as l have to be at w o r k by 7 am to t a k e over f r o m t h e night porter. My
a\arm clock w a k e s me up (3)

5.30 am, so I h a v e t i m e for a s h o w e r a n d a

good b r e a k f a s t b e f o r e l leave t h e house (4)

6.30 a m . The hotel is a 15-

minute bus ride a w a y a n d I generally bay a p a p e r to r e a d on t h e j o u r n e y .
My j o b is quite interesting as I g e t to m e e t plenty of d i f f e r e n t people; some of
t h e m a r e friendly a n d s o m e t i m e s give u s good tips, w h e r e a s o t h e r s c a n b e quite
r u d e a n d t r e a t us like s e r v a n t s . Most g u e s t s leave (5)

t h e morning, so l

am k e p t busy bringing their luggage down to reception while they check out. Then
t h e r e is usually a quiet period (6)
(7)

the

early

afternoon

As t h e Grand Hotel is (8)

lunchtime b e f o r e things g e t busy a g a i n
when

the

new

guests

arrive.

t h e city c e n t r e , a lot of t o u r i s t s s t a y with us.

Sometimes t w o c o a c h e s will a r r i v e full of visitors, which a l w a y s m a k e s my j o b
m o r e tiring. Another busy t i m e is (9)

New Year, when lots of people s t a y

o v e r n i g h t in t h e city to go to a show, t a k e in t h e sights or go shopping in t h e
sales for b a r g a i n s .
My shift finishes (10)

3 pm when a n o t h e r p o r t e r t a k e s over. I am lucky t h a t I still

have t h e best p a r t of the a f t e r n o o n f r e e to run a few errands or have a walk (11)
t h e p a r k before going home to my family (12)

t h e evening.

1


1
6

Articles

Describing

Look at t h e question below. In w h a t way is it different from t h e q u e s t i o n on page 6?

Your c o l l e g e magazine has d e c i d e d t o run a feature entitled A working day in the life of... . Students
have b e e n asked t o w r i t e articles a b o u t p e o p l e w h o d o different jobs. W r i t e a n article describing t h e
w o r k i n g day of s o m e o n e y o u k n o w w h o s e job y o u think o t h e r s t u d e n t s w o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d in finding
o u t m o r e about.

L o o k at Reference section 1 8 a and c o n pages 91 and 9 2 and t h e n read t h e article below. C o m p l e t e t h e s p a c e s
with t h e c o r r e c t form of t h e verb in brackets.

A working day in the life of a florist
P e o p l e a r e often s u r p r i s e d w h e n I tell t h e m t h a t my m o t h e r is a freelance florist. It's q u i t e an u n u s u a l
j o b a n d is c e r t a i n l y v a r i e d .
My m o t h e r (1)
(be) lucky e n o u g h to w o r k from h o m e , so she (2)
(not h a v e ) a flower s h o p to r u n . She (3)
(arrange) flowers for w e d d i n g s , p a r t i e s ,
b i r t h d a y s , a n n i v e r s a r i e s a n d o t h e r o c c a s i o n s . A l t h o u g h s h e (4)
(put) a small
a d v e r t i s e m e n t in a local p a p e r , m o s t of h e r c o m m i s s i o n s so far (5)
(come) by
w o r d of m o u t h ; w h e n people are pleased with s o m e o n e ' s work, they are quick to r e c o m m e n d t h e m to
others.
A typical w o r k i n g d a y for my m o t h e r (6)
(often start) v e r y early, especially if
it is a d a y w h e n s h e h a s to travel to L o n d o n to t h e flower m a r k e t . This (7)
(be)
a h u g e m a r k e t w h e r e fresh flowers a r e sold t o florists a n d p e o p l e i n t h e t r a d e . T h e m a r k e t
(8)
(begin) at 6 a m , so s h e (9)
( h a v e to) get up at
4 a m t o b e s u r e o f a r r i v i n g early a n d finding w h a t s h e w a n t s .
O n c e s h e (10)
( p u r c h a s e ) t h e b l o o m s a n d foliage, s h e (11)
(bring) t h e m b a c k h o m e in h e r v a n . My father (12)
(build) a special s h e d for h e r
i n t h e b a c k g a r d e n w h e r e s h e c a n w o r k i n p e a c e . Inside s h e (13)
( h a v e ) all t h e
e q u i p m e n t s h e (14)
( n e e d ) a n d p l e n t y of s p a c e for d o i n g t h e flower a r r a n g i n g .
S p a c e is v e r y i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e s h e (15)
(often do) a r r a n g e m e n t s for w e d d i n g s
a n d (16)
( s o m e t i m e s n e e d ) t o m a k e u p t o t w e n t y o r thirty t a b l e d e c o r a t i o n s .
O n s o m e d a y s s h e (17)
(spend) the morning and the afternoon arranging
flowers. S h e (18)
( a l w a y s listen) t o classical m u s i c w h i l e s h e ' s a r r a n g i n g a s s h e
s a y s i t h e l p s give h e r i n s p i r a t i o n . O t h e r d a y s , w h e n s h e (19)
(not h a v e ) a n y
a r r a n g i n g to d o , s h e (20)
(visit) p o t e n t i a l clients to d i s c u s s their r e q u i r e m e n t s or
s h e m a y go s h o p p i n g for s u p p l i e s s u c h as ribbons, b a s k e t s , c o n t a i n e r s a n d so o n . If b u s i n e s s is q u i e t ,
s h e c a n s p e n d t h e d a y w i t h h e r family o r c a t c h u p o n h o u s e w o r k .
I t h i n k m y m o t h e r i s f o r t u n a t e t o h a v e a j o b s h e loves a n d o n e w h e r e s h e c a n a r r a n g e h e r w o r k i n g
t i m e t o suit h e r a n d h e r family's n e e d s . I h o p e t o b e able t o d o t h e s a m e w h e n I start w o r k .


Desct

8

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e an article.
a

b

Your local n e w s p a p e r has a s e c t i o n for t e e n a g e r s w h o are thinking a b o u t w h a t c a r e e r to f o l l o w w h e n
t h e y are older. T h e n e w s p a p e r has invited local p e o p l e to w r i t e articles describing their typical
w o r k i n g day. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e newspaper.

Your t e a c h e r has asked y o u to w r i t e an article describing t h e daily routine of a policeman, a taxi driver
or a teacher. W r i t e y o u r article.

You can prepare for either task by doing t h e e x e r c i s e below.
D r a w up a diary reference like t h e o n e y o u did for t h e d o c t o r on page 7. Think of t h e a n s w e r s to t h e s e
questions:


W h a t t i m e d o e s t h e p e r s o n get u p ?



W h a t t i m e d o e s h e / s h e h a v e b r e a k f a s t , lunch, d i n n e r ?



W h a t t i m e d o e s h e / s h e leave t h e h o u s e t o g o t o w o r k ?



W h a t t i m e d o e s he/she start a n d finish w o r k ?

If you w r i t e a b o u t p e o p l e w h o do n o t w o r k regular hours, think of
h o w their w o r k i n g day is different. Do they w o r k in t h e mornings,
t h e a f t e r n o o n s , at night? Do they do shift work?
Is each w o r k i n g day different?

6.00

2.00

7.00

3.00

Make sure you have understood whether the
question requires an article in the first person
or the third person singular before you start
writing. Check your tenses carefully.

HH^ 4 . 0 0

9.00

5.00

10.00

6.00

11.00

7.00

12.00
1.00

H

@

8.00
9.00

9


Articles

I

Describing and narrating

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.
A Sunday n e w s p a p e r has invited r e a d e r s to s e n d in articles for their s e r i e s on childhood.
Readers are invited t o w r i t e an article entitled A key m o m e n t in my childhood. W r i t e y o u r
article describing an i m p o r t a n t c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e and say h o w it affected y o u r character.

A key moment
in my
childhood
T h i s i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d (1)
I
was a b o u t t e n years old, just after t h e w a r . I
had spent the war years in the country but
when it was over my parents returned to
L o n d o n a n d I f o u n d myself a s t r a n g e r in a
class of 40 boys in a s t a t e p r i m a r y school.
I h a d h a d advantages most of the boys
had lacked. T h e r e were plenty of books in
the house and my parents had encouraged
me to read. T h e teacher in this L o n d o n
s c h o o l , a m a n called J o n e s , (2)
found that w h e n he asked the class a
q u e s t i o n , I w a s t h e first to p u t up my h a n d
and (3)
knew the answer.
Because of this, he started calling me
' P r o f e s s o r ' a n d t h o u g h I w a s n o t trying t o
s h o w off, a lot of t h e boys obviously t h o u g h t
of me as 'The Teacher's Pet'.
(4)
Mr J o n e s asked a
q u e s t i o n a n d several boys failed to a n s w e r it
b e f o r e he t u r n e d to m e . (5)
I got
t h e a n s w e r hopelessly w r o n g a n d h e w a s s o
u s e d t o relying o n m e t h a t h e w a s irritated.
' N o , d o n ' t b e silly, Professor,' h e said.
(6)
l a t e r , t h e bell r a n g
a n d w h e n I w e n t d o w n to t h e p l a y g r o u n d , a

g r o u p of my c l a s s m a t e s followed m e . I tried
to ignore t h e m but they gathered r o u n d me,
l a u g h i n g a n d j e e r i n g a n d calling m e n a m e s .
(7)
a boy I hardly knew pushed
his way t h r o u g h t h e g r o u p , s t o o d b e s i d e m e ,
a n d t u r n e d t o face t h e m . H i s n a m e w a s I a n
Scott a n d I c a n still s e e h i m clearly. He h a d
fair h a i r a n d b r i g h t b l u e e y e s , a n d a l w a y s
wore a r e d jersey. ' W h a t are you laughing
a t ? ' h e d e m a n d e d . ' N o n e o f y o u ever k n o w
the answer and he just got one question
w r o n g , just o n e ! ' H e p u t his h a n d o n
m y s h o u l d e r a n d t h e c r o w d fell silent, a n d
(8)
dispersed.
T h a t incident t a u g h t m e two things t h a t
I h a v e always r e m e m b e r e d . O n e is t h a t m o s t
of us envy those w h o a r e m o r e successful
t h a n w e a r e , a n d i t d o e s n o t t a k e very m u c h
for a g r o u p of o r d i n a r y p e o p l e to t u r n i n t o a
mob, eager to humiliate them. The other is
t h a t o n e b r a v e m a n o r w o m a n willing t o face
such a m o b can m a k e t h e m a s h a m e d of
t h e m s e l v e s a n d b r i n g t h e m to t h e i r senses. I
h a v e f o u n d t h a t as t r u e in politics as it was in
the playground.


Describing and narrating
2

T h e w r i t e r u s e s a variety of t i m e e x p r e s s i o n s to e n s u r e that t h e reader k n o w s t h e o r d e r in which t h e
main e v e n t s occur. Read t h e article again and fill t h e gaps using t h e w o r d s b e l o w .

a few minutes
then

3

4

5

Articles

one day
this time

soon
usually

suddenly
when

Answer these questions.

a

W h y did t h e writer n o t k n o w any of his c l a s s m a t e s ?

b

I n w h a t way w a s t h e w r i t e r privileged i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e o t h e r boys a t s c h o o l ?

c

W h y w a s t h e writer k n o w n as ' P r o f e s s o r " '

d

W h y did t h e boys m a k e fun of t h e w r i t e r in t h e p l a y g r o u n d ?

e

W h a t did this i n c i d e n t t e a c h t h e w r i t e r ?

In t h e article t h e w r i t e r u s e s t h e past simple, t h e past perfect and t h e p r e s e n t perfect t e n s e s . L o o k at Reference
section 18c and e o n page 9 2 and underline all t h e e x a m p l e s y o u can find of t h e past perfect and p r e s e n t perfect
t e n s e s . T h e n d e c i d e which o f t h e t h r e e t e n s e s a b o v e t h e w r i t e r has used t o :
a

p r o v i d e an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h e b a c k g r o u n d to t h e story,

b

tell t h e story of t h e i n c i d e n t .

c

show t h e effect of t h e story on t h e w r i t e r ' s life since t h e n .

T h e article has five paragraphs. W h a t is t h e p u r p o s e of each one?
W r i t e t h e c o r r e c t paragraph n u m b e r o n t h e d o t t e d line.
a

A c c o u n t of t h e situation t h a t p r o v o k e d t h e incident

b

C o n c l u s i o n explaining why t h e w r i t e r t h i n k s t h e incident i m p o r t a n t

c

A c c o u n t of t h e i n c i d e n t t h a t is ' t h e key m o m e n t '

d

G e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n establishing t i m e a n d p l a c e

e

I n t r o d u c t i o n explaining t h e b a c k g r o u n d to t h e incident

II


Articles

Look at t h e s e e x a m p l e s of direct s p e e c h which t h e w r i t e r has used to intensify his writing,
a

' N o , don't be silly, Professor,' he said.

b

' W h a t are you laughing at?' he d e m a n d e d . ' N o n e of y o u e v e r k n o w t h e a n s w e r and he just g o t o n e
q u e s t i o n w r o n g , just o n e ! '

W h i c h e x a m p l e is used to e m p h a s i s e that:
1

t h e t e a c h e r w a s angry?

2

t h e w o r d s said h a d a g r e a t effect on t h e w r i t e r ?

Look at Reference section 7 o n page 8 8 and t h e n w r i t e s e n t e n c e s in direct s p e e c h t o e x p r e s s t h e following
situations.

a

He a g r e e d t h a t we h a d b e e n s t u p i d to think we could get away with it.

b

M r s S m i t h asked h o w long we h a d b e e n listening at t h e d o o r .

c

He advised me to write d o w n any ideas t h a t c a m e to me w h e n I w a s sleeping.

d

S h e w a r n e d me n o t to do it again,, or she w o u l d call my p a r e n t s .

e

T h e y d e n i e d writing graffiti on t h e p l a y g r o u n d walls.

f

S h e refused to let a n y o n e h e l p h e r with t h e project.

g

D a v i d r e g r e t t e d wasting so m u c h t i m e d u r i n g t h e school year.

h

H e r m o t h e r c o m p l a i n e d t h a t she s h o u l d h a v e b e e n m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e .


Articles

2

Look at t h e q u e s t i o n s below, think of an incident for each o n e and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plans which follow
with y o u r ideas.
a

A Sunday n e w s p a p e r has invited readers to s e n d in articles for their s e r i e s on s c h o o l days. W r i t e an article
describing an u n f o r t u n a t e incident t h a t o c c u r r e d at s c h o o l . Say h o w y o u think t h e incident c h a n g e d y o u r
o u t l o o k on life.

Introduction

Hain Body

Conclusion

b

A popular magazine is running a c o m p e t i t i o n for t h e b e s t article entitled A chance encounter. You d e c i d e
to submit an entry. T h e article should d e s c r i b e an i m p o r t a n t c h a n c e m e e t i n g with s o m e o n e , and say h o w
y o u think t h e incident influenced y o u r life.

Introduction

Main B o d y

Conclusion

9

N o w w r i t e an article in a n s w e r to o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o v e ,
using y o u r paragraph plan, and taking t h e things y o u have learnt
in this unit into c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

Remember, the person and incident you
describe do not have to be real, as long as
the description you give is believable.

13


Discussing an issue

Articles

Read t h e question and t h e article b e l o w and t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.
You recently a t t e n d e d a discussion and heard t h e s e c o m m e n t s . T h e discussion w a s a b o u t w h e t h e r m o t h e r s
should g o o u t t o w o r k o r not. You found t h e discussion very interesting and have n o w d e c i d e d t o w r i t e a n
article for y o u r local n e w s p a p e r discussing t h e s e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n point of view.

Children
need
the
stability
that
only
their
mothers
can
provide.

Women have

1 wish
1 coufdstay
at home, hut we
need the second

fought foe equality in
the workplace and should be allowed
to continue working even when
they have children.

income.

Should mothers go out to work?
W o m e n ' s position in society

the workplace to stay at h o m e to look after h e r children

has changed dramatically in

may create p r o b l e m s of its own. She may b e c o m e b o r e d ,

r e c e n t years. G o n e are the days

frustrated a n d even resentful of h e r children if h e r own

when

n e e d s are not met. F u r t h e r m o r e , it is not every w o m a n ' s

a

woman

was

only

expected to get m a r r i e d , have

d r e a m to stay at h o m e with her children. W o m e n who have

children and k e e p the family

worked

h o m e running smoothly, catering

understandably reluctant to give it up.

hard

to

build

themselves

a

career

are

for everyone's n e e d s . Nowadays
women

are

able

to

go

to

Factors other than what a woman wants also play a role

university, pursue a career and delay marriage and

in deciding whether or not a w o m a n goes out to work. T h e

m o t h e r h o o d indefinitely if they choose. However, should

cost of living is high and people now expect a comfortable

those w o m e n who do have a family give up their career in

h o m e w i t h all m o d c o n s , f o r e i g n h o l i d a y s e a c h y e a r ,

order to stay at h o m e and look after their children, or not?

fashionable c l o t h e s and so on, all of which cost m o n e y .
Very often, one salary is insufficient to meet the needs of a

N u m e r o u s arguments have been put forward as to why
w o m e n should stay at h o m e and care for their children. F o r

family's m e m b e r s . As a result, t h e w o m a n is obliged to
work in order to contribute financially to the family.

example, it is known that children n e e d stability in their
lives. Some people believe that this can only come from the

In conclusion, I believe that the decision about whether

m o t h e r and that outside help is detrimental to the children.

a w o m a n stays at h o m e to raise her children or goes out to

However, who is to say that outside help cannot provide

work is o n e that should be m a d e by each family

children with the stability they need? T h e r e is good quality

individually. Everyone's situation is different and such a

childcare available, although it is often expensive. M o r e

wide variety of factors must be c o n s i d e r e d that it is

importantly, forcing a w o m a n who would rather be out in

impossible to come up with one rule for all.


___

Articles

3

Find w o r d s and phrases in t h e article that have a similar meaning to t h e w o r d s and phrases below.

a

providing what each person wants

b

p u t off for s o m e t i m e , m a y b e forever

c

suggested

d

h a s a b a d effect on

e

angry t o w a r d s

f

unwilling

g

a r e partly r e s p o n s i b l e for

h

things in a h o u s e w h i c h m a k e it m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e to live in

an

L o o k again at t h e article and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s below.
a

W h a t g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e d o e s t h e w r i t e r u s e in t h e first s e n t e n c e of t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h to i n t r o d u c e t h e
o p i n i o n t h a t m o t h e r s s h o u l d stay a t h o m e t o c a r e for t h e i r c h i l d r e n ?

b

W h a t e x a m p l e is u s e d as justification of this o p i n i o n ?

c

W h a t a r g u m e n t d o e s t h e writer u s e to show t h a t this o p i n i o n is w r o n g ?

d

W h a t a r g u m e n t s are m e n t i o n e d in t h e second p a r a g r a p h to s u p p o r t t h e idea that this opinion is w r o n g ?

e

H o w m a n y factors d o e s t h e w r i t e r discuss in p a r a g r a p h t h r e e ?

f

W h i c h s t a t e m e n t is t r u e of this article?
(i)

T h e w r i t e r t h i n k s t h a t m o t h e r s s h o u l d stay a t h o m e with t h e i r c h i l d r e n .

(ii)

T h e writer thinks that m o t h e r s should go out to work.

(iii)

T h e w r i t e r t h i n k s t h a t m o t h e r s s h o u l d d o w h a t i s b e s t for their
family d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i r o w n s i t u a t i o n .


H i

4

Look at Reference section 11 on page 8 9 .
Look at h o w this s e n t e n c e taken from t h e article can be rewritten.
it is k n o w n that children n e e d stability in t h e i r lives.'

The impersonal and personal
passive structures can used to give
opinions in more formal writing.

... c h i l d r e n a r e k n o w n to n e e d stability in t h e i r lives.

N o w rewrite t h e s e n t e n c e s b e l o w practising impersonal and personal passive structures.

a

It has b e e n r e p o r t e d t h a t o l d e r p e o p l e benefit from s p e n d i n g t i m e with y o u n g e r m e m b e r s of their families.
Older people

b

A university e d u c a t i o n is said to be invaluable.
It

c

Society is believed to benefit from t h e s e m e a s u r e s .
It

d

It was believed t h a t prison was t h e m o s t suitable p u n i s h m e n t .
Prison

e

F a m i l i e s have b e e n r e p o r t e d to be having fewer c h i l d r e n t h a n in t h e past.
It

f

I t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t o n - t h e - j o b training w a s b e t t e r t h a n t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e .
O n - t h e - j o b training


ig an issue

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e an article. C o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan with n o t e s before
you start writing to help y o u organise y o u r ideas.
gh'e
a

s.

b

You recently w a t c h e d a television d e b a t e y o u found very interesting. T h e d e b a t e w a s a b o u t w h e t h e r
criminals should s p e n d t i m e in prison regardless of their crime. S o m e of t h e points m a d e are outlined
below. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for y o u r local n e w s p a p e r c o m m e n t i n g on t h e s e points
and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

All criminals

Not all criminals

must be punished and

ore a danger to society.

the best way to do this

Shouldn't they be made to help

is by locking

society through community

them up.

service programmes?

Why should
tax payers' money be
spent on feeding, clothing
and generally looking after
criminals! Criminals should
be made to pay for
their crimes in
other ways.

You b e l o n g to y o u r c o l l e g e debating s o c i e t y and a t t e n d e d a d e b a t e a b o u t w h e t h e r it is b e t t e r to have
qualifications or e x p e r i e n c e w h e n looking for a job. T h e c o m m e n t s b e l o w w e r e m a d e . You have
d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e c o l l e g e magazine discussing t h e s e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r
o w n opinion.

Many professions
demand certain
qualifications
before
you can even be
considered
for
a position.

Nothing
prepare
a job

a

can

person
than

better for
on-the-job

training.

Introduction

I n t r o d u c e t h e subject in a g e n e r a l way.

Main Body

A n o p i n i o n o n t h e subject

Different people are
suited to different things and
not everyone excels in
the academic world-

Example

Conclusion

A r g u m e n t ( s ) to s u p p o r t this o p i n i o n

...

A r g u m e n t ( s ) to refute this o p i n i o n

...

P r o v i d e a s u m m a r y of y o u r o p i n i o n .

17


Responding to generalisations
I

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

Your t u t o r has s h o w n y o u t h e following
e x t r a c t o n t h e s u b j e c t o f c r i m e . You
have b e e n asked to w r i t e an article f o r
the college magazine entitled
Crime:

genes

or

upbringing?

Until the second half of the nineteenth century, it
was widely accepted that it is something in a persons
biological makeup that determines whether or not he
will become a criminal. Since then, however, there
have been many theories which claim that criminality
is the result of factors in an individual's environment.

Write

y o u r article taking t h e points raised
on t h e right into c o n s i d e r a t i o n and giving
y o u r o w n opinion.

Crime: genes or upbringing?
Crime
Even
punish
be

is

not

today,

criminals

seen

a

new

problem

instruments

on

during

present-day

criminal

behaviour

resemblance

to

Middle

in

the

is

no need for c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n , nor for criminal

can

punishing

little

barbaric

to

castles.

of

bear

society.
used
Ages

European

methods
may

in

torture

the

display

Although

of

or

no

methods

of

the

rehabilitation.
point

in

cause

is

that

determined
a

many

Although

that

criminals

appearance

lost

ago,

there

are

that

there

are

person

original

had

a

more

accept

is

than

character

is

to

of

by

crime,

means
is

known
have

such

'bad'

involved

criminal

been
are

proved
also

well-adjusted

While

all

people

who

Furthermore,

similar

committed
families

is
are

circumstances

activity.

In

it

what

neighbourhoods,

are

has

the

individual

in

not

in u n f a v o u r a b l e

in

that

on

the

b r o u g h t up

by

and

studies

that

people

from

good

social

circumstances.
The

view

that

responsible

a

century

unpopular

who

believe

person's

character

which

for

one,

a

and

it

believe

individual

life of c r i m e in this w a y ? F u r t h e r m o r e , if this

influences.

traits

is

traits

a

to

person's

criminal

the

birth

dependent

which

that

behaviour

from

that

irrefutable.

as

shown

l

people

is

nature

argument

widespread

criminal

condemn

them

is

no

Therefore,

to

people's

the

In

c o n t r i b u t e to criminal t e n d e n c i e s . Do we have
right

teach

crime

ape-like

traits

there

born

evolutionary

certain

criminologists

inherited

to

behaviour

that a
the

credence
still

people

criminal

biologically,

criminal.

theory

for

that

some

are
it

that

argued

in

behaviour

lives

crimes
difficult

is

environment

true

studies

is

it

be

Difficult as it m a y be to a c c e p t h e r e d i t y as
the

commonly

theory

If

trying

criminal

It

could

b e h a v i o u r is u n a c c e p t a b l e .

external

the

it

to c o m m i t crimes, it follows t h a t t h e r e is little

c e n t u r i e s p a s t , opinions on w h a t causes c r i m e
remain, to all intents a n d p u r p o s e s , divided.

case,

it
in

is

In

fair
be

are

is

doubtful
act

can

genes

behaviour

that

a

isolation.

to

say

that

attributed

conjunction

an

with

to

social

•MMHHHM


Responding to generalisations
2

Articles

C h o o s e t h e s e n t e n c e , a or b, that b e s t d e s c r i b e s w h a t t h e w r i t e r is saying in each paragraph. T h e n read t h e four
s e n t e n c e s t o g e t h e r t o s u m m a r i s e t h e argument.
a P e o p l e still can't agree on the reasons for criminal behaviour,
b T h e m e t h o d s used to punish criminals are sometimes barbaric.

Paragraph I

Paragraph 2 a

Some criminologists believe that it is in some people's nature to commit crimes, and that
these people look alike,
b Some criminologists maintain that criminal behaviour is hereditary, although this opinion
may be difficult to accept.

Paragraph 3

It is easier to accept that people's involvement in criminal activity is due to an
unfavourable upbringing,
b A n o t h e r theory which proposes that people develop criminal behaviour as a result of
being brought up in adverse conditions is also debatable.

Paragraph 4

a Crime is probably caused by a combination of character traits and social influences.
b As the argument that crime is caused by a person's genes is unpopular, it is m o r e likely
that social influences are to blame.

Tip

I

a

WËËÊÊËËÊËËÊËËËËËËÈËÊËËËÊÊÈÊÊËËËËËÊÊ•MMBBMMMHNHHMHHHMflMBHi
. ..

Although you are not expected to be an expert on the subject you are writing about, it is important that your writing is
convincing. One way to achieve this is by supporting statements you make with explanations or examples.

3

Read t h e article again and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s .
a

W h y d o e s t h e w r i t e r m e n t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s o f t o r t u r e o n display i n E u r o p e a n castles?

b

H o w d o e s t h e w r i t e r express h e r difficulty i n a c c e p t i n g t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r i s h e r e d i t a r y ?

c

W h a t e x p l a n a t i o n d o e s t h e writer give for t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e r e is no n e e d for c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n , n o r for criminal
rehabilitation?

d

W h a t e v i d e n c e d o e s t h e w r i t e r give t o refute t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t criminal b e h a v i o u r i s d e p e n d e n t o n t h e e x t e r n a l
e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h t h e individual lives?

Find phrases in t h e article which mean t h e s a m e as:
a

a r e n o t like

b

in almost every way

c

if it is t r u e

d

it is logical t h a t

e

n o t a t all

if


Articles

5

Responding to generalisations

T h e w r i t e r used t h r e e c o m p o u n d adjectives in t h e m o d e l article. Read Reference section 2c on page 86 and t h e n
underline t h e t h r e e c o m p o u n d adjectives that appear in t h e article.

6

N o w rewrite t h e following s e n t e n c e s using c o m p o u n d adjectives.
a

M a n y p e o p l e w h o m e a n well actually d o m o r e h a r m t h a n g o o d .

b

Locals h a v e to p u t up with t o u r i s t s in high spirits m a k i n g a lot of noise late
at night.

c

F o r t h e r e a s o n s which I m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , I believe t h a t new legislation
must be introduced immediately.

d

Scientists w h o a r e f a m o u s all o v e r t h e w o r l d h a v e b e e n a s k e d to c o n t r i b u t e
to the research programme.

e

7

It is only fair t h a t p e o p l e w h o w o r k h a r d a r e r e w a r d e d for their effort.

Based on t h e article on page 18, put t h e paragraph plan b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t order.

a

Discuss o n e of t h e views m e n t i o n e d in t h e q u e s t i o n , s u p p o r t i n g
s t a t e m e n t s with e x a m p l e s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s .

b

I n t r o d u c e t h e subject in g e n e r a l t e r m s a n d t h e n indicate t h a t t h e r e a r e
different views on t h e subject.

c

R e a c h a conclusion, s u m m a r i s i n g y o u r p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n in two or
three sentences.

d

Discuss t h e o t h e r view m e n t i o n e d in the q u e s t i o n . Again, s u p p o r t
s t a t e m e n t s with e x a m p l e s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s .

It is not necessary to agree or disagree with one of the opinions expressed in the question. The important thing to remember
is that you must discuss the views mentioned, but you can come to your own conclusion, which could be a compromise.


io generalise

en

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s a b o u t it before y o u w r i t e y o u r article.
a

You w o r k in a local travel agency. Your e m p l o y e r has s h o w n y o u t h e following e x t r a c t on t h e subject
of tourism. He has asked y o u w r i t e an article for t h e local n e w s p a p e r discussing t h e subject. W r i t e
your article responding to t h e points m a d e b e l o w and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

Local people arc, once again, at loggerheads over the local tourism industry. Some people
believe thai commercialism is destroying the area, both environmentally and culturally,
while others welcome the financial prosperity that visitors to the area bring.

Your t u t o r has s h o w n y o u t h e following e x t r a c t on t h e subject of genetically modified f o o d . You have
b e e n asked to w r i t e an article for t h e c o l l e g e magazine discussing t h e subject. W r i t e y o u r article
taking t h e points raised b e l o w into c o n s i d e r a t i o n and giving y o u r o w n opinion.
The subject of genetically modified food is one which is becoming increasingly difficult to
ignore. While it is true that GM foods can provide plant resistance to drought, disease
and insects, critics say they are potentially hazardous to the environment and to human health.

W h a t d o you k n o w a b o u t t h e subject i n g e n e r a l ?

ii)

W h a t e x a m p l e s or e x p l a n a t i o n s c a n y o u t h i n k of for t h e first o p i n i o n m e n t i o n e d ?

iii)

W h a t e x a m p l e s or e x p l a n a t i o n s can y o u t h i n k of for t h e s e c o n d o p i n i o n m e n t i o n e d ?

D o y o u a g r e e o r d i s a g r e e with o n e o f t h e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n ?

C a n you t h i n k of a title for y o u r article?


Letters

Describing

Read t h e q u e s t i o n a n d t h e l e t t e r b e l o w a n d t h e n c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s t h a t follow.

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competition and L p l a i r i n J why

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Dear Sir/Madam,
When I first h e a r d a b o u t t h e competition to find t h e T e a c h e r of t h e Y e a r , one
n a m e s p r a n g to mind immediately: Mr David Canavan. He has t a u g h t me law
for t h r e e y e a r s now and, in my opinion, this m a n is m o r e t h a n w o r t h y
of t h e title.
One of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t m a k e s Mr Canavan so much more than a
run-of-the-mill t e a c h e r is his e n t h u s i a s m for his subject, it is impossible to sit
t h r o u g h one of his lectures and not be c a u g h t up in it. He m a n a g e s to hold
his s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n a n d m a k e w h a t is a potentially dull subject c o m e to
life t h r o u g h his e x a m p l e s a n d a n e c d o t e s .
His knowledge a n d e x p e r t i s e is, w i t h o u t doubt, as extensive as his
m e m o r y , in t h e t h r e e y e a r s I've known him as a t e a c h e r , l have never once
seen him r e f e r to notes, a t e x t book or even stumble t h r o u g h w h a t he has to
r e l a t e to us. F u r t h e r m o r e , he is a l w a y s p u n c t u a l a n d well p r e p a r e d , showing
t h a t he r e s p e c t s his j o b a n d t h e s t u d e n t s in his classes. In turn, his
s t u d e n t s give him t h e r e s p e c t t h a t he d e s e r v e s and, as a result, his classes
a r e a l w a y s packed.
Another t r a i t which m u s t be m e n t i o n e d is his a p p r o a c h a b i l i t y . His door is
always open a n d s t u d e n t s a r e w e l c o m e to drop by with queries f r o m a lecture
or to talk to him a b o u t s o m e t h i n g t h a t is troubling t h e m . I remember very
clearly one occasion when l w a s in t h e first y e a r of my course. I h a d t a k e n
Company Law as one of my subjects a n d Mr Canavan was the t e a c h e r . I h a d
arranged to spend one month w o r k i n g in a company, r e s e a r c h i n g t h e effect of new
technology on a small business, but the placement fell t h r o u g h at t h e last m o m e n t .
Mr Canavan came to my r e s c u e a n d s u g g e s t e d t h a t I should research
a legal Issue working f r o m his office, which is exactly w h a t l did.
w a s full of i n t e r e s t a n d encouragement and t h e cancellation of my
first placement turned out to be a blessing in disguise.
As f a r as l am concerned, t h e decision of who is T e a c h e r of t h e
Year' is e a s y to m a k e : Mr David Canavan.
Yours

faithfully,

J a m e s Hudson

22

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write
win t h e


Describing
In this kind of letter it is very important to s u p p o r t y o u r c h o i c e of p e r s o n with justification for t h e
p o i n t s y o u make. Look at James' letter again and c o m p l e t e t h e table below.
Characteristic
a

Justification

enthusiastic

——

. ———
•—


:

b

having extensive knowledge/memory

c

respects his subject and students

d

approachable

1

——— — —•

—• —

o r which of t h e characteristics d o e s James also give an example?

\ o w imagine a p e r s o n with t h e following characteristics. W h a t e x a m p l e s could be given that w o u l d justify t h e
person being characterised in this way?
hard-working
dishonest
tolerant
amusing
narrow-minded

L o o k at Reference section 2 o n page 8 6 and c o m p a r e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s :
H e i s p u n c t u a l a n d well p r e p a r e d .
He is a p u n c t u a l , w e l l - p r e p a r e d man.
C o m p l e t e t h e s e s e n t e n c e s , c o n v e r t i n g from o n e form t o t h e other.
a

He is a dishonest, hypocritical m a n .

b

He is h o n e s t a n d h a r d - w o r k i n g .

c

She is an intelligent, b r o a d - m i n d e d w o m a n .

d

He is r u d e a n d i l l - m a n n e r e d .

e

She is cheerful a n d g o o d - h u m o u r e d .

Read the question b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e table with characteristics and justification in support of them. R e m e m b e r
t h a t t h e person you describe d o e s n o t have to be real as long as t h e description you give is believable.
Your local newspaper is running a competition. It is inviting readers to write letters nominating o n e of
their neighbours for the annual 'Neighbour of t h e Year' award. You k n o w s o m e o n e w h o d e s e r v e s this
award and decide to write to t h e newspaper. W r i t e your letter, saying w h o your neighbour is and
explaining why they d e s e r v e to win the award.
Characteristic

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1

Justification

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Describing

Letters

T h e q u e s t i o n on page 22 required a description of a person's character. O t h e r q u e s t i o n s may require s o m e kind
of narrative description or a physical description as well. Look at t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and t h e n read t h e l e t t e r
putting t h e verbs in brackets into t h e c o r r e c t narrative t e n s e .
You have recently read an article in a magazine entitled The most unpleasant person I have ever m e t A t t h e end
of it, t h e w r i t e r asked readers to w r i t e in with their o w n s t o r i e s . You have decided to w r i t e a letter to
t h e magazine a b o u t a p e r s o n you used to w o r k with. W r i t e y o u r letter.

Dear Sir/Madam,
After r e a d i n g y o u r article e n t i t l e d ' T h e m o s t u n p l e a s a n t p e r s o n I have ever m e t ' , I felt I just h a d to write a n d tell
y o u of my o w n e x p e r i e n c e t h a t involves s o m e o n e I u s e d to w o r k with, Mr L a m p i t t .
I (1)

( w o r k ) for a big e n g i n e e r i n g firm called M a r d e x . I (2)

(start) as a j u n i o r typist, b u t after a few m o n t h s , I (3)

( p r o m o t e ) to t h e p o s i t i o n of

s e c r e t a r y to Mr W a l t o n , a kind, g o o d - h u m o u r e d m a n of a b o u t fifty. He (4)
p a t i e n t a n d t o l e r a n t a n d (5)
(6)

( b e ) very

(always h e l p ) m e w h e n I m a d e m i s t a k e s . B u t everything

( c h a n g e ) w h e n M r L a m p i t t , t h e n e w a r e a m a n a g e r , arrived a t o u r office o n e day.

I (7)

(arrive) at t h e office early t h a t day a n d w h e n I (8)

t h e building, I (9)

(enter)

(see) a big, aggressive-looking, m i d d l e - a g e d m a n s t a n d i n g in t h e lobby.

He (10)

( w e a r ) a d a r k b l u e suit a n d (11)

(carry)

a n u m b r e l l a . 'I'm L a m p i t t , t h e a r e a m a n a g e r , ' h e said. ' W h e r e ' s W a l t o n ? A n d w h o a r e y o u ? W h a t d o
you d o h e r e ? ' I told h i m a n d (12)

(show) h i m into M r W a l t o n ' s office. M r W a l t o n

(13)

( c o m e ) in a few m i n u t e s later, with his usual friendly smile, b u t his face

(14)

(feU) w h e n h e saw L a m p i t t . H e (15)

(suddenly look)

tired a n d w o r r i e d .
A f t e r t h a t M r L a m p i t t (16)
(17)

(come) to see us at regular intervals. He even

(bring) a m a n called J a c k s o n with h i m , an efficiency e x p e r t . He (18)

( b e ) a thin-faced, u n t r u s t w o r t h y fellow. J a c k s o n u s e d t o spy o n u s a n d m a k e n o t e s a b o u t o u r w o r k . L a m p i t t u s e d t o
s h o u t a n d accuse u s o f b e i n g inefficient, lazy a n d useless. P o o r M r W a l t o n (19)
o v e r n i g h t . In a few m o n t h s his h a i r (20)
(grow) tired a n d old. H e (22)

(change)

(go) w h i t e a n d his face (21)
(ask) for early r e t i r e m e n t a n d (23)

(leave)

t h e firm.
I (24)

(get)
a j o b with B r a d s h a w ' s , a n o t h e r firm in t h e a r e a . T h e day I (25)
(

(leave) M a r d e x , I (26))

(see) Mr L a m p i t t . T see y o u ' r e still h e r e , ' he said. T s u p p o s e y o u ' r e t h e

best of a b a d lot. Y o u c a n c o m e a n d w o r k for me at t h e a r e a office if you like.' ' N o , t h a n k you, Mr L a m p i t t , ' I
r e p l i e d . T expect m y boss t o b e polite, g o o d - t e m p e r e d a n d p l e a s a n t . ' Y o u s h o u l d h a v e s e e n t h e l o o k o n his face!
I shall n e v e r forget it or h i m , t h e m o s t u n p l e a s a n t p e r s o n I h a v e ever m e t .
Y o u r s faithfully,
Sue Crossman


Describing

Letters

5

T h e letter has five paragraphs. W h i c h paragraph m a t c h e s t h e following points? W r i t e t h e c o r r e c t paragraph
n u m b e r on t h e d o t t e d line.
a

Last m e e t i n g with Mr L a m p i t t

b

First m e e t i n g with Mr L a m p i t t

c

Introduction

d

L a m p i t t ' s effect on t h e staff

e

Some background information

Read t h e letter again and a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w a b o u t Mr W a l t o n and Mr Lampitt.
a

W h a t adjectives d o e s S u e u s e t o d e s c r i b e M r W a l t o n ' s c h a r a c t e r ?

b

D o e s S u e d e s c r i b e M r L a m p i t t ' s c h a r a c t e r o r his a p p e a r a n c e ?

c

W h a t effect did M r L a m p i t t h a v e o n M r W a l t o n ?

d

W h a t d o e s this c h a n g e i n M r W a l t o n show u s a b o u t M r L a m p i t t ' s c h a r a c t e r ?

e

W h a t e x a m p l e s d o e s S u e u s e to r e i n f o r c e h e r o p i n i o n of his c h a r a c t e r ?

Read this q u e s t i o n and c o m p l e t e t h e paragraph plan that follows.
You have recently read an article in a magazine entitled The most interesting person I have ever met. A t t h e
end of it, t h e w r i t e r asked readers to w r i t e in with their o w n e x p e r i e n c e s . You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e a letter
t o t h e magazine a b o u t s o m e o n e y o u know. W r i t e y o u r letter.

Introduction
S t a t e t h a t h e / s h e is t h e m o s t interesting person you have ever met.
Main B o d y

Conclusion

S t a t e w h e t h e r y o u still s e e t h e p e r s o n .

C h o o s e e i t h e r t h e letter in e x e r c i s e
5 or 9 and w r i t e y o u r letter. U s e t h e
n o t e s y o u have m a d e t o help y o u .

Tip
Remember to support your choice of person with justification for the points you make.


Letters

Giving opinions

Read t h e question and the letter b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.
You s e e t h e following e x t r a c t s from t w o letters printed in a magazine.
In my opinion, t h e subjects taught at s c h o o l are n o t relevant to real life, and y o u n g p e o p l e
are ill-prepared for survival in today's cut-throat w o r l d .
Ian

Thompson,

businessman

It is o u r duty to provide t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n with a general e d u c a t i o n of academic value,
regardless of t h e skills n e e d e d to survive in t h e job market.
Sandra

Brown,

teacher

T h e magazine is inviting readers to e x p r e s s their v i e w s on t h e subject of t h e aims of education.
You d e c i d e to w r i t e a letter to t h e magazine, responding to t h e points raised and e x p r e s s i n g
y o u r o w n views.

Sir,
l am w r i t i n g in response to
t h e l e t t e r s recently published
in y o u r magazine r e g a r d i n g
t h e aims of education, while
the s u b j e c t of education is
one which
has always been
c o n t r o v e r s i a l , it is s l o w l y
being
accepted
that
educators are responsible n o t
only f o r s t u d e n t s '
general
knowledge,
but also for
providing y o u n g people with
skills for living.
Many
people
feel
that
so-called
academic
subjects
should
be
studied
by
everyone,
regardless
of
s t u d e n t interest or ability.
S o m e o l d e r people b e l i e v e
that, just as they had to

struggle to pass e x a m s in
subjects t h a t would p r o v e to
b e o f v e r y little p r a c t i c a l
value
to t h e m
in
their
w o r k i n g lives, so t o d a y ' s
s t u d e n t s should be f o r c e d to
do t h e same. Many t e a c h e r s
believe t h a t s t u d e n t s m u s t be
e x p o s e d to certain s u b j e c t s
such
as
literature
and
classical languages during t h e
course of their school y e a r s
precisely because it is highly
unlikely t h e y will come into
c o n t a c t with such subjects
later on in life.
On t h e o t h e r hand, although
t e a c h e r s m a y h a v e a point
regarding
the
reasons
for
c e r t a i n subjects being t a u g h t
at school, it has b e c o m e
increasingly a p p a r e n t over
recent years that students
must also be given the
o p p o r t u n i t y to acquire t h e
skills required In t h e world
for
which
they
are
supposedly
being
prepared.
Many e m p l o y e r s complain of
skills s h o r t a g e s , claiming t h a t
t h e y o u n g people of t o d a y

a r e ill-equipped to apply
t h e o r e t i c a l k n o w l e d g e to a
career.
Moreover,
as
many
students
find
the
more
academic
lessons
boring,
t h e y have no i n t e r e s t in
s t a y i n g on at school and,
consequently, enter the job
m a r k e t with no qualifications
or skills.
i t is, t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l
that
students
have
the
opportunity to study w h a t
a r e known as vocational
subjects, such as business
and information technology,
as
well
as
the
more
academic
subjects,
in
this
way,
students
can
be
provided
with
knowledge
a n d p r a c t i c a l skills w h i c h
a r e m o r e likely t o p r o v e
useful in t h e i r a d u l t lives,
but not at the expense of
m o r e academic qualifications.
I
l o o k forward to s e e i n g
my l e t t e r p u b l i s h e d in a
f o r t h c o m i n g issue.
Sam Henderson


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