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Proficiency writing skills 1 new fowler

4^
Et NEW EDITIONS
SOPHIA

ZAPHIROPOULOS




Introduction

INTRODUCTION
New Fowler Proficiency Writing Skills I is the first part of a

t w o - p a r t c o u r s e which aims to teach t h e t e c h n i q u e s
students require to attempt any of the variations among
t h e six f o r m s of writing task s e t in t h e r e v i s e d
Cambridge Proficiency examination. Approximately o n e
third of the material in Writing Skills has been revised for
this book. All the o t h e r material in this b o o k is new.
Eleven of the twenty units consist of t w o facing pages,

and should, under normal circumstances, be completed
in a l e s s o n , with a writing task to be d o n e later in
approximately o n e hour, the time allowed for it in the
examination. In t h e remaining nine units of four pages,
t w o lessons will normally be required.
The changes in the examination
The biggest change in the writing paper of the revised
Cambridge Proficiency examination is that it n o w has
t w o parts, as do FCE and CAE.
P a r t I c o n s i s t s of a c o m p u l s o r y q u e s t i o n comprising
i n s t r u c t i o n s and a t e x t or t e x t s w h i c h p r o v i d e
candidates with a clear c o n t e x t . T h e r e is always m o r e
than o n e point to a d d r e s s in this q u e s t i o n , and
candidates should learn to identify t h e s e points and
ensure that they c o v e r t h e m w h e n writing. T h e
q u e s t i o n is discursive, and candidates are e x p e c t e d to
w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:
an

article

an essay
a letter
a

proposal

In P a r t 2, candidates c h o o s e o n e question
comprising instructions which give candidates
guidance to t h e c o n t e x t . In o r d e r to be successful in
Part 2, candidates should be c o m p e t e n t at narrating,
analysing, h y p o t h e s i s i n g , d e s c r i b i n g , giving r e a s o n s ,
p e r s u a d i n g , judging p r i o r i t i e s , e v a l u a t i n g , m a k i n g
recommendations,
giving
information
and
summarising. Candidates are e x p e c t e d t o w r i t e o n e
of t h e following, from a c h o i c e of t h r e e :
an



article

a letter
a

proposal

a review
a

report

For t h o s e c a n d i d a t e s w h o have s t u d i e d o n e o f t h e
three set texts, Q u e s t i o n 5 consists of three
q u e s t i o n s , o n e for each o f t h e s e t t e x t s . Candidates
are required t o w r i t e o n e o f t h e following:
an

article

an essay
a

letter

a review
a

report

T h e t i m e limit (2 hours) and length of writing tasks
( 3 0 0 - 3 5 0 words), remain unchanged.
T e a c h i n g w r i t i n g skills
It is important for students to understand that while
credit is given to Proficiency candidates for their use of
s t r u c t u r e and v o c a b u l a r y , t h e s e a r e n o t t h e o n l y
considerations to be taken into account; organisation
and the relevance of the answer to the task are at least
equally important. Different writing tasks require
s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e m , and s u c h
t e c h n i q u e s can be taught effectively through m o d e l s
written within the capacity of a g o o d student that can
be analysed, imitated and practised. T h e s e models are
supported with revision of the necessary grammatical
structures and lexical items by means of accompanying
exercises and the reference section and the appendix at
t h e end.
Doing justice to oneself in an examination
T h e Proficiency examination requires a considerably
m o r e sophisticated use of English than First Certificate
and t h e difference b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o levels is often
underestimated by students. The difference, however, is
n o t s o m u c h a m a t t e r o f using m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d
s t r u c t u r e s or a w i d e r range of vocabulary as of
providing a n a n s w e r r e l e v a n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n , well
organised in g o o d , clear sentences and paragraphs. The
range of q u e s t i o n s o p e n to the e x a m i n e r is
considerable, as indicated by the contents pages of this
book, but learning the right technique to deal with each
is half t h e battle. T h e r e f o r e , it is r e c o m m e n d e d that
students pay particular attention to the tips provided
throughout the book. These consist of practical advice
on what to do and what not to do in a given situation
and should make it possible for students w h o take it to
do justice to themselves in the exam.


Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS

S E C T I O N

I

2

Describing and narrating

REVISION

P A G E

I : A R T I C L E S

What a difference!

Tenses

Close friends again

Used to and would

I

Taking sides

Who's freedom? Theirs or ours?

I

Balancing an argument

Computers: a dream or a nightmare?

10

Connectors and modifiers:

14

balancing an argument

I

Providing solutions

T o o many people, not enough earth

Conditionals

Preserving the planet for future

Should, ought to and would

16

generations

S E C T I O N

5

2

Complaining

2:

L E T T E R S

18

Semi formal: A resident's concerns
Formal: An official complaint

2

Giving information

20

A letter of welcome to
exchange students

2

Making suggestions

Preserving and restoring a town
Improving a town

I

Giving opinions

Young people on the streets

Articles

24

Should

Conditionals

26

S E C T I O N 3: E S S A Y S

Comparing

Public and private transport in the city

Connectors and modifiers

30

Responding to generalisations

Relation between national

Articles

32

Connectors and modifiers

34

character and climate

Ii

I

Providing information

The importance to good health
Alternative medicine


Contents

UNIT

PART

TECHNIQUE

MODELS
S E C T I O N

12

2

Applying for funds

REVISION

PAGE

4 : P R O P O S A L S

First aid facilities at the

38

Five Oaks Sports Centre

13

Assessing choices

Passive voice

42

Decline in local tourism

Should

46

A college newspaper

Conditionals

Spending the proceeds
of a summer fair

14

Evaluating a situation

S E C T I O N

5:

R E V I E W S

IS

2

Reviewing a book

Not without my daughter

Tenses in 'timeless' time

50

16

2

Reviewing a film

Castaway

Tenses in 'timeless' time

52

2

Reviewing a restaurant/hotel

Phrases in apposition

54

The Willows

Compound adjectives

S E C T I O N

2

6:

R E P O R T S

Assessing facilities

The Majestic Hotel

Assessing suitability

The Jorvik Viking Centre

58

Connectors and modifiers:

60

developing an argument

20

2

Giving information

A college film club

62

Reference section

64

Appendix

70

CPE W r i t i n g S h e e t s

72


Articles

Describing and narrating

In this article, Martin Fraser d e s c r i b e s his return to a small t o w n in England after an a b s e n c e of 25 years.
Read t h e article and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

What a difference]

L

W h e n I w a s a b o y I u s e d to s p e n d a
fortnight every s u m m e r with my aunt
E l i z a b e t h in L e a b u r y , a small t o w n in t h e
M i d l a n d s . B u t twenty-five years ago she
r e t i r e d a n d m o v e d to t h e s e a s i d e , a n d I did
n o r return until I had to go there on
b u s i n e s s last w e e k .

villages I u s e d to ride t o . As y o u c o m e into
L e a b u r y , y o u no l o n g e r p a s s a f a r m w i t h
cows grazing in t h e fields. A vast h o u s i n g
estate stretches from the m o t o r w a y to
what used to be the outskirts.

My aunt's house was on the outskirts
of t h e t o w n so I often u s e d to ride o u t into
t h e c o u n t r y on my bicycle. I w o u l d follow
t h e L o n d o n r o a d for a m i l e o r t w o a n d
t h e n b r a n c h off for a c i r c u l a r t o u r of t h e
n e i g h b o u r i n g villages, eventually finding
my way back by the other main road.
A b o u t a mile from h o m e t h e r e w a s a small
p o n d with d u c k s s w i m m i n g on it. I u s e d to
s t o p t h e r e t o w a t c h t h e m a n d skim s t o n e s
across the water. Beyond the p o n d was
H a y w a r d ' s F a r m , with cows grazing in t h e
fields, a n d t h e n I w o u l d c o m e d o w n t h e
hill i n t o t h e t o w n a n d t u r n r i g h t i n t o m y
a u n t ' s r o a d t o c o m p l e t e t h e circuit.

h a v e b e e n k n o c k e d d o w n a n d t h e r e is a big
shopping centre with a multi-storey car
p a r k b e s i d e it. T h e r e a r e n o family s h o p s
in the main street now, only the s a m e
offices, s t o r e s a n d f a s t - f o o d r e s t a u r a n t s
you find e v e r y w h e r e . T h e old t o w n u s e d t o
h a v e a c h a r a c t e r of its o w n b u t n o w it is
like any o t h e r p l a c e in E n g l a n d .

T h e r e have obviously b e e n changes
since I w a s a b o y b u t I w a s n o t p r e p a r e d
for m a n y of t h o s e I saw last w e e k . F o r o n e
thing, the motorway that passes close to
the town actually goes over two of the

The centre of the town has been
entirely transformed. T h e old buildings

On t h e way back, I w e n t to see my
aunt's old house, though I hardly
r e c o g n i s e d it at first. T h e p r e s e n t o w n e r s
have p a i n t e d it bright yellow so it looks
like a big j a r of m u s t a r d . I s h o o k my h e a d
i n disbelief a n d t u r n e d t o w a r d s h o m e . B u t
just before I reached the motorway, I
s u d d e n l y saw s o m e t h i n g familiar, a little
p o n d with a wall r o u n d it, s o m e ducks, a n d
two boys skimming stones across the
water. At least some things have not
changed.


Describing and narrating
2

Articles

This article refers to four separate t i m e s :
A
B
C
D

25 or more years ago, when the writer was a boy
last week, when he visited the town again
the present moment
some time or period of time in between his childhood and now

Study Reference section 12 on page 68 and Reference section 14 on page 69 and then a n s w e r t h e s e
q u e s t i o n s , writing t h e c o r r e c t letter of t i m e reference (A, B, C or D) in t h e space, as in t h e e x a m p l e .
W h i c h p e r i o d o r p e r i o d s a r e r e f e r r e d t o in:
a

t h e first s e n t e n c e ?

b

t h e w h o l e of t h e s e c o n d p a r a g r a p h ?

c

t h e first s e n t e n c e of t h e t h i r d p a r a g r a p h ?

and

d

t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e e n t r y to t h e t o w n ?

e

t h e d e s c r i p t i o n in t h e fourth p a r a g r a p h ?

and

f

t h e writer's c o m m e n t s in t h e last p a r a g r a p h ?

and

W h i c h t e n s e s ( p r e s e n t , p r e s e n t perfect o r p a s t ) o r f o r m s (used t o , w o u l d ) d o e s t h e w r i t e r u s e t o d e a l with e a c h p e r i o d ?

B

C
D

3

Look at t h e pictures of A t h e n s and
w o r k with a n o t h e r m e m b e r o f t h e
class to d e c i d e w h a t changes have
taken place in t h e period of 70 years
between the times when the
p h o t o g r a p h s w e r e taken.

W r i t e an article a b o u t changes
that have taken place in o n e of
t h e following in r e c e n t years:
a

your neighbourhood

b

a p l a c e w h e r e you w e n t on
holiday as a child

c

a city or c o u n t r y y o u first
visited m a n y years ago a n d
h a v e s e e n again recently

Follow this plan of four stages
(though t h e r e may be m o r e than
four paragraphs):

1

Introduction, indicating the place
and your association with it

2

Description of the place as it
used to be

3

Description of the place as it is
now, emphasising changes that
have occurred

4

Your reactions to these changes

7


Describing and narrating

Articles

T h e description of changes in a place (pages 6-7) w a s told from t h e point of v i e w of t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t .
In many articles of this kind, h o w e v e r , t h e main narrative t e n s e is past.
Study Reference section 12b and d on page 68 and t h e n read Gloria's article a b o u t a m e e t i n g with a s c h o o l friend
s h e m e t again after t e n years w h o had changed. M o s t of t h e verbs have b e e n left in brackets.
C o m p l e t e t h e article by putting t h e m into t h e m o s t suitable t e n s e .

Close

friends

again

Soon after I left school my family (1)
(move) to Bristol and I
(2)
(lose) touch with all my friends, when l (3)
(return) to London last year after ten years, l (4)
(find) some of
their names in the phone book and we (5)
(organise) a reunion.
But there was no trace of Eugenia, my closest friend. The others told me they
(6)
(not see) her for a long time.
Eugenia was the most attractive girl in my class. She was tall and slim and
(7)
(have) ioveiy dark brown eyes and long black hair that
(8)
(come) half way down her back, she was very popular because
she (9)
(have) a wonderful sense of humour, she used to invent
games to keep us all amused and always (10)
(seem) to be
laughing and smiling.
One morning last month I (11)

(go)

into

a jeweller's

shop

in the city to buy a watch. The only assistant was a tall woman who
(12)

(look) a few years older than me. Her hair was grey

and although she still (13)
(have) a young, slim figure, there
were lines around her eyes, and she (14)
(have) a long, deep
scar on her cheek. I (15)
(ask) to see some watches, our eyes
(16)
(meet), and she (17)
(give) a little cry of
amazement. She (18)
(stare) at me for a few seconds and
then she (19)
(say): "Gloria, (20)
(you not
remember)

me?"

I (21)
(shake) my head and her face (22)
(grow) sad, but then she (23)
(say) quietly: "No, l (24)
(change) a lot, l suppose. I'm Eugenia."
I was so embarrassed that l (25)
just (26)

(not know) what to say so l

(put) my arms round her. We (27)

(arrange) to meet and then she (28)

life. She said that after leaving school, she (29)
and had married a man she had met there. They (30)

(tell) me the story of her

(go) to America
(live)

together happily for several years until her husband (31)
(kill)
in a car crash, she (32)
(be) injured in the crash and her
hair (33)
(turn) grey overnight. After that she (34)
(return) to London but (35)
(have to) take the first job she
could

find.

I (36)
(see) her several times since then. I want to do
everything I can to help her. it was a terrible shock at first to see how much
she (37)
(change) but now we (38)
(become)
close friends again and can be together.


Describing and narrai:

Gloria gives us a lot of information a b o u t herself and
Eugenia. Find t h e paragraph in which s h e tells us t h e
following and w r i t e t h e c o r r e c t paragraph n u m b e r in
t h e space, as in t h e e x a m p l e .

7

a

h o w s h e lost c o n t a c t w i t h E u g e n i a

b

h o w s h e m e t h e r again

c

h o w s h e feels a b o u t h e r n o w

d

w h a t E u g e n i a w a s like at school

e

w h a t she l o o k e d like at school

f

w h a t she used to do at school

g

w h a t she d o e s n o w

h

w h a t she looks like n o w

i

w h a t s h e w a s d o i n g in t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n

j

w h e r e G l o r i a first m e t h e r

k

why E u g e n i a h a s c h a n g e d

..J....

W h a t do y o u think is t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t point in
t h e story? W h y ? H o w d o e s Gloria e m p h a s i s e it?

Look at t h e pictures of t h e man and t h e w o m a n and
w o r k with a n o t h e r m e m b e r o f t h e class t o n o t e
d o w n h o w t h e y have changed physically in t h e
c o u r s e of thirty years.

W r i t e an article with t h e main narrative t e n s e in
t h e past a b o u t t h e changes y o u n o t i c e d in s o m e o n e
you saw again n o t long ago but had n o t s e e n for a
long t i m e . T h e p e r s o n may b e s o m e o n e y o u k n o w
or a famous p e r s o n y o u saw in real life or on TV
( n o t an a c t o r / a c t r e s s playing different parts).
Follow this plan of four stages (though t h e r e may be
m o r e than four paragraphs):
1

Introduction, indicating how you first saw
the person

2

Description of what they used to look like
If you knew them, what they were like; if
you write about a famous person, say what
impression they gave you.

3

Description of what they looked like when
you saw them again, what they were like, or
the impression they gave

4

Say how and why you think they had
changed, and how you felt about the
changes.

Articles


aking sides

Articles

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s
that follow.
T h e following c o m m e n t s w e r e m a d e during a public discussion, held at y o u r
t o w n hall. T h e discussion w a s a b o u t t h e f r e e d o m of t h e press. You have
b e e n asked to w r i t e an article for t h e local n e w s p a p e r responding to t h e
c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

They are encouraged to
invade peoples privacy
by shameless
celebrities
who want press
coverage at any cost.

Journalists have a
responsibility to the public
î/fou

to investigate a story and
uncover the real facts - no

denij

matter who they upset.

can't

that a aood

\ey

snoui

ashamedof
tfiemsefvesl

dal ielli
can
newipaperi

T'hey

have no respect for

5

an

individuals
privacy!

Journalists are fierce in defence of the freedom of the press but KEITH HUNTER asks

Whose freedom? Theirs or ours?
Every time there is an outcry against the

their servants to disclose the secrets of their

excesses of the popular press and they are t h r e a t e n e d

employers' private lives, the editors who send armies

with some kind of sanction, usually no m o r e t h a n the

of employees with microphones and tape recorders to

responsibility to print an apology w h e r e no one will

t h e h o m e of a n y o n e , rich or p o o r , w h o s e relatives

notice it, editors and newspaper owners take refuge

have died tragically - have a very clear aim in life. F o r

in t h e sacred c o n c e p t of ' t h e freedom of t h e p r e s s '

them the freedom of the press is really the freedom to

and warn against the evils of censorship. They argue

m a k e money out of other people's shame and misery.

t h a t it is t h e i r duty to i n v a d e p e o p l e ' s privacy, in

Most of us would be reluctant to impose

effect to deprive t h e m of their freedom to live their

censorship on the press but would like to put a stop to

own lives in p e a c e , b e c a u s e it is 'in t h e public

their intrusion into p e o p l e ' s private lives. N o t long

interest.'

ago t h e r e was a play on TV t h a t suggested a n e a t

No one who believes in democracy and the

solution. A M e m b e r of Parliament proposed that if a

freedom of speech wants newspapers to be silenced if

newspaper published an untrue story about s o m e o n e ,

they are genuinely engaged in exposing corruption in

he would be given the same a m o u n t of space in t h e

high places. In t h e newspapers' defence, it can also be

n e w s p a p e r to write a story a b o u t t h e j o u r n a l i s t or

a r g u e d t h a t many figures in t h e public eye are

editor, true or false. I wonder how they would react if

d e s p e r a t e for almost any kind of publicity. S o m e of

similar lies and half-truths a b o u t their own private

t h e m seem to have no higher aim in life than a vague

lives and those of their families were published 'in the

desire

public interest'!

to

feature

in

magazines,

posing

for

p h o t o g r a p h s o r r e c o u n t i n g t h e i n t i m a t e details o f
their lives in interviews.
T h o s e who create news stories with sensational
headlines, however, - the photographers who pursue
the famous on m o t o r cycles, the journalists who bribe

If you write an article where you are strongly in favour of
something or against it, remember that others may have
different opinions. It is more effective to mention them and
then show they are wrong than not to mention them at all.


Taking sides
2

Articles

C h o o s e t h e s e n t e n c e , a or b, that b e s t d e s c r i b e s w h a t t h e w r i t e r is saying in each paragraph. T h e n read t h e
c o r r e c t s e n t e n c e s t o g e t h e r t o s u m m a r i s e t h e argument.
P a r a g r a p h 1 a Editors are right to defend the freedom of t h e press when they are criticised.
b Editors use the popular belief in the freedom of the press to justify their invasion of
people's privacy.
P a r a g r a p h 2 a No o n e wants censorship for political reasons and it is true that many well-known figures
seek publicity at all costs.
b Newspapers have a duty to expose corruption and have to publish stories about
well-known figures if they are required to.
P a r a g r a p h 3 a So newspapers work hard to find out the facts of the cases they investigate.
b But newspapers only investigate stories about people's private lives to m a k e money out
of them.
P a r a g r a p h 4 a Newspapers should be censored if they tell lies.
b Newspaper staff should be subjected to the same t r e a t m e n t as their victims if they tell lies.

In which paragraphs is t h e w r i t e r following t h e t e c h n i q u e s u g g e s t e d in t h e tip on t h e o p p o s i t e page?

3

T h e w r i t e r tries t o influence t h e reader with his c h o i c e o f w o r d s . A n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w t o
understand m o r e a b o u t this.
a

F i n d w o r d s or p h r a s e s in t h e first two p a r a g r a p h s t h a t suggest t h e following:
The press
1

go t o o far in p u r s u i n g n e w s stories.

2

a r e n o t really sorry for w h a t t h e y d o .

3

a r e hypocritical in t h e i r d e f e n c e of t h e i r actions.

4

u p s e t p e o p l e ' s lives.

Many

well-known

people

5

will do a n y t h i n g to be n o t i c e d .

6

h a v e no s e r i o u s a i m in life.

7

invite t h e invasion of t h e i r privacy.

b

W h a t is t h e effect of substituting t h e s e w o r d s for t h o s e t h e w r i t e r uses: follow ( p u r s u e ) , p a y ( b r i b e ) ,
i n f o r m a t i o n (secrets), n u m b e r s ( a r m i e s ) , u n h a p p i n e s s ( m i s e r y ) ?

c

W h i c h of t h e s e w o r d s is obviously an e x a g g e r a t i o n b u t effective b e c a u s e it also implies aggression?


S!

Articles

4

Taking sides

Based on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e tip on page 10, put t h e paragraph plan b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t order.

a

Say why you d i s a g r e e with t h e s e a r g u m e n t s a n d d i s r e g a r d t h e m
b e c a u s e t h o s e you s u p p o r t a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t . Give e x a m p l e s .

b

R e a c h a conclusion, s u m m a r i s i n g y o u r p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n in two
or three sentences.

c

T h i n k of o n e or two ideas for t h e o t h e r side of t h e issue a n d
say w h a t sort of p e o p l e a r e likely to s u p p o r t t h e m .

d

I n t r o d u c e t h e subject in g e n e r a l t e r m s . Do n o t r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n
i m m e d i a t e l y t h o u g h you c a n suggest which side you a r e on.

L o o k at this q u e s t i o n and t h e n put t h e paragraph n o t e s b e l o w into t h e c o r r e c t o r d e r according to t h e plan in
e x e r c i s e 4. Can you think of a suitable title?
You heard t h e following c o m m e n t s a b o u t vivisection while y o u a t t e n d e d a d e b a t e on t h e subject at
college recently. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for publication in t h e c o l l e g e magazine responding
t o t h e s e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n opinion.
Under no
So
once
are
its

circumstances should

manu
^atal diseases

now curable and
all thanhs

research,
on

to

animals be used in laboratory
experiments. Animals feel
pain and shouldn't be made
to suffer in this way.

carried out

'Medicalresearch
is acceytahie,
using

animahsjor

cosmetic testing
intoferahfe.

animails.

Q0Q(?QScientists - must carry out research on someone/something - better
animals than humans. 1000s lives saved through medical breakthroughs
- only possible because of experiments on animals. Humans are higher
life form than animals - using animals justified.
Conflict surrounding use of animals in labs - nothing new. Laws brought
in - ban some experimentation. Extend law to cover ALL experiments?
Medical research to save lives OK if NO other way of doing research
possible. Cosmetic research not acceptable - total ban.
Animal rights activists
all forms banned
no justification.
Pain/Suffering extreme. Humans - no right to treat animals like this.
Alternative methods must be found, Some research done for cosmetic
reasons only!

hut

is

There is no
justification
for
vivisection:
animals
have rights too.


Taking sides
6

2

Articles

C h o o s e o n e of t h e q u e s t i o n s b e l o w and w r i t e y o u r article using t h e paragraph plan o p p o s i t e . D o n ' t forget to
think of a title.
You belong to a debating s o c i e t y and o v e r h e a r d t h e s e c o m m e n t s at a r e c e n t d e b a t e . T h e d e b a t e w a s
a b o u t w h e t h e r capital p u n i s h m e n t should be r e s t o r e d for s o m e crimes. You feel strongly a b o u t t h e issue
and have decided to w r i t e an article for y o u r local n e w s p a p e r responding to t h e c o m m e n t s and giving
y o u r o w n opinion.

l{
^Jabln

An eye for an eye,

anotlier

a tooth for- a tooth!

of

perion-'i

life is never riq Lt
wLatever

the restoration
capital punishment
prevents even one
murder, then its
worthwhile.

tL

What

if

someone who's
innocent is
foundguiCty?

plan in

b

You live in a small t o w n s o m e of w h o s e residents are b e c o m i n g increasingly w o r r i e d a b o u t s p o r t s and
h o b b i e s that harm t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e t o w n council held a m e e t i n g to discuss t h e problem and y o u
a t t e n d e d . After hearing w h a t local p e o p l e had to say, y o u d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article for t h e local paper
responding t o t h e c o m m e n t s and giving y o u r o w n opinion.

^Jlie
country

auiet

ianei

around tL

town, are overrun witli
ijouiiii racing
motorlllei

eir

and creating,

nuliance

let

putting

tL

otkeri

In

atone

iivei

oJI

danger.

a

The wildlife of Granger's
Lake is being terrified every
weekend by jet skie shattering
the silence of this once
peaceful haven. It's a
disgrace.

ifl can't
ride my jet ski
on the Cake,
where am 1
sup-posed
to go?

We live in this
town too and should
be able to do what we
like, where and when
we like. Were not
any
laws.

13

i


Articles

l

Balancing an argument

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e article b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.
Your t u t o r has s h o w n y o u t h e following e x t r a c t s on t h e subject of c o m p u t e r s . You have b e e n asked to w r i t e
an article for t h e c o l l e g e magazine entitled Computers: a dream or a nightmare? W r i t e y o u r article taking t h e
points raised b e l o w into c o n s i d e r a t i o n and giving y o u r o w n opinion.
Technological progress in the world of
computers saves everyone time. At the
touch of a button, massive amounts of
information can be accessed. Furthermore,
work done on a computer can be updated
and changes can be made speedily.

Future generations will come to rely on
computer technology to such a great extent
that they will no longer need to learn to do
things for themselves. This would appear to
be acceptable, but what happens when the
machines go wrong?

Computers: a dream or a nightmare?
W i t h i n a few y e a r s , w e h a v e
come to regard computers as an
i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of everyday life.
We see t h e m in o p e r a t i o n in almost
every office and they are increasingly
c o m m o n in the h o m e . While this has
b e e n a g r e a t a d v a n t a g e for s o m e
people because it has m a d e their
work easier, it has b e e n a nightmare
for others, who have had difficulty in
learning new skills. In the same way,
while some parents believe that their
children can learn faster with

computers, others worry that they will
b e c o m e totally d e p e n d e n t o n t h e m
before they have learnt to read, write
and count for themselves.
O n t h e o n e h a n d , t h e benefits
computers have brought are obvious.
Above all, they save space and time.
Vast quantities of data can be kept
economically
on
disks
and
r e p r o d u c e d a t any t i m e i n s t e a d o f
filling r o w s of filing c a b i n e t s , a n d
there are hundreds of timeconsuming tasks that can now be
p e r f o r m e d very simply. In a m i n u t e
or two, a typist can now edit and
r e t y p e a l e t t e r ; in a few s e c o n d s , a
bank can check how much a customer
has in an account in another city.
On the other hand, however,
t h e r e are also d i s a d v a n t a g e s .
Computers do make mistakes
although they are always the result of
a h u m a n e r r o r . We r e a d of p e o p l e
r e c e i v i n g g a s bills for m i l l i o n s o f
pounds because the computer has
been badly p r o g r a m m e d or an

2

T h e writer's approach to t h e subject is balanced. Study
Connectors and Modifiers A3 on page 70 and underline
t h e four w o r d s o r phrases that t h e w r i t e r has used t o
balance his argument.

o p e r a t o r has pressed the wrong key.
T h e trouble is that computers do not
r e c o g n i s e such e r r o r s so t h e r e is a
danger that the next generation may
be taught to rely on t h e m absolutely
before they have learnt the basic
skills necessary to work out problems
for themselves.
On balance, computers are
neither a dream nor a nightmare.
They are admirable tools that
improve the quality of life but, like all
tools, they must be used sensibly. We
must never forget that h u m a n beings
provided t h e m with the information
they contain so we cannot trust them
until w e k n o w e n o u g h t o r e c o g n i s e
when it is inaccurate. In this respect,
the g r e a t e s t risk c o m e s at t h e
national level; the advice given by a
g o v e r n m e n t c o m p u t e r could lead to
d i s a s t e r if t h o s e r e s p o n s i b l e for
m a k i n g t h e decisions w e r e t e m p t e d
to take it just because it came from a
machine that is supposed to be
infallible.

Tip
Good articles of this kind do not require the use of very
complicated structures but they do require connectors to be well
used. Always check the appendix on page 70 before writing one.


Balancing an argument

Articles

3

Answer t h e s e questions.
a

W h i c h two s e n t e n c e s in t h e first p a r a g r a p h a r e e x a m p l e s of t h e w r i t e r b a l a n c i n g by using c o n t r a s t .
Which phrase does he use to show that he regards the examples as equal?

b

W h a t c o n t r a s t exists b e t w e e n p a r a g r a p h s 2 a n d 3?

c

W h a t c o n c l u s i o n d o e s t h e writer r e a c h ? I s h e i n favour o f c o m p u t e r s o r against t h e m ?

d

I n d i c a t e t h e p u r p o s e of e a c h p a r a g r a p h , writing t h e c o r r e c t n u m b e r in t h e s p a c e .
Advantages of computers

Conclusion

Disadvantages

Introduction,

T h e w r i t e r s u p p o r t s general s t a t e m e n t s with explanation o r e x a m p l e s . Underline t h e phrases o r s e n t e n c e s i n
t h e article that s u p p o r t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s .
a
b
c
d
e
f

We r e g a r d c o m p u t e r s as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of everyday life.
F o r s o m e p e o p l e this h a s b e e n an a d v a n t a g e , for o t h e r s a n i g h t m a r e .
C o m p u t e r s save s p a c e .
C o m p u t e r s save t i m e .
Computers make mistakes.
T h e information they contain may not be correct.

A magazine is inviting readers to submit articles a b o u t different forms of transport. You have read t h e
personal a c c o u n t b e l o w and have d e c i d e d to w r i t e an article on t h e advantages and disadvantages of
travelling by train. W r i t e y o u r article responding to t h e points b e l o w and giving y o u r o w n opinion.
It seems that nowadays cars and aeroplanes are much more popular forms of
transport than the train, depending, of course, on whether your journey is short
or long distance. But 1 remember years ago, when 1 was a young child, that
travelling by train was considered the best way to go.

Before writing y o u r article, l o o k at t h e plan b e l o w and make s o m e n o t e s . You can w r i t e four paragraphs,
following t h e s a m e plan as t h e article on c o m p u t e r s .
a

Title. T h i n k of a title for y o u r article. W h i l e it is i m p o r t a n t for y o u r article to h a v e a s u i t a b l e title, do n o t s p e n d
t o o m u c h t i m e o n it.

b

I n t r o d u c t i o n . Give a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n of t h e c u r r e n t situation. Do n o t at this stage give e x p l a n a t i o n s of
advantages or disadvantages.

c

A d v a n t a g e s of travelling by train. List t h r e e in c o m p a r i s o n with cars or p l a n e s , a n d give an e x a m p l e or
e x p l a n a t i o n for e a c h , as in t h e t a b l e .
Advantage

1

.No.traffic.jams.

Example/Explanation

. difficult.to. calculate. time of..

jour.ney.5..

2
3
d

D i s a d v a n t a g e s . List t h r e e d i s a d v a n t a g e s a n d give an e x p l a n a t i o n or e x a m p l e , as for p a r a g r a p h 2.
Disadvantage

Example/Explanation

1
2
very
jrfoTï to be well
we writing one.

3
e

C o n c l u s i o n . S u m up y o u r a r g u m e n t , giving y o u r o w n o p i n i o n .

15


4

Articles

Read t h e q u e s t i o n below, t h e n o t e s
o p p o s i t e and t h e article below, and
c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

Providing

solutions

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 OOK^O
World pop, doubled since 1950. UN predict + 5 0 % by 2050.
World's naturai resources - running out!

You b e l o n g to a s o c i e t y that is
concerned about the environment.
A g u e s t speaker recently gave a
talk t o t h e s o c i e t y o n t h e subject
of t h e p r o b l e m of population
g r o w t h w h i c h y o u a t t e n d e d . You
t o o k s o m e n o t e s and have b e e n
asked to w r i t e an article for t h e
society's m o n t h l y newspaper.
W r i t e y o u r article.

[

Impose

birth

confrot? -

not

Put pressure on govts to find solution. If not = war, famine, disease!

Too many people, not enough earth

At first sight, t h e solution seems simple. Experts in
developed countries argue that we should impose birth
c o n t r o l w o r l d w i d e . If p a r e n t s only h a d t h e children
they really wanted, they say, population growth would
be m a n a g e a b l e , as it is in E u r o p e . P e o p l e should be
educated in reliable methods of birth control, and
where necessary, these should be supplied. If a birth is
n o t desired, t h e p r e g n a n c y should be t e r m i n a t e d by
abortion.
However, the failure of countries to reach
agreement on problems like global warming indicates
that there would be even stronger resistance if a plan
of this kind w e r e p u t into practice. In this case, t h e

3

rights/religion/tradition would

Politicians in developing countries say developed countries use too
many resources - reduce, BUT still not a solution.

Of all the problems the h u m a n race is responsible
for that t h r e a t e n life on E a r t h , p o p u l a t i o n growth is
the most serious. T h e world's population has more
t h a n d o u b l e d s i n c e 1950 a n d t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s
predict that it will grow a further 5 0 % by 2050 to nine
billion. All these additional people will require m o r e
food, m o r e land to grow it on and m o r e houses to live
in, a n d will c o n s u m e m o r e raw materials to p r o v i d e
t h e basic r e q u i r e m e n t s of everyday life. T h e world's
resources cannot support such an increase indefinitely.

2

human

agree (eg China)

opposition would be due not merely to selfish national
interests but to individual wishes and conviction,
family or tribal tradition and the powerful influence of
religious authorities. In some parts of the world, large
families are considered desirable and a son is regarded
as essential. In China, where the government has
p u r s u e d a ruthless policy of limiting families to o n e
child, population growth has only b e e n controlled at
t h e cost of considerable personal suffering.
Politicians in m a n y developing c o u n t r i e s , w h e r e
the population is growing much faster than in E u r o p e ,
refuse to accept that it is the main cause of
environmental problems. They point out that countries
like t h e U n i t e d States c o n s u m e far m o r e t h a n their
fair s h a r e o f t h e w o r l d ' s r e s o u r c e s . D e v e l o p e d
countries should reduce their consumption, but even if
they did, this would not p r e v e n t disaster unless
p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h was b r o u g h t u n d e r c o n t r o l . W e
should p u t pressure on governments to find a viable
s o l u t i o n . O t h e r w i s e , t h e p a i n f u l a l t e r n a t i v e will
b e c o m e unavoidable; t h e population will eventually be
decimated by war, famine and disease.

C h o o s e t h e b e s t heading for each paragraph, and w r i t e t h e c o r r e c t n u m b e r in t h e s p a c e . N o t e that t w o of t h e
c h o i c e s are n o t c o r r e c t .
a

An alternative solution

d

W h y a s o l u t i o n m u s t be f o u n d

b

A straightforward solution

e

Selfish o p p o s i t i o n

c

W h y solutions a r e n o t easy

f

T h e size of t h e p r o b l e m

Look at Reference section 4a and b on page 64 and Reference section I1 on page 67 and then study t h e use of
should, would and will in t h e article a b o v e and underline t h e m w h e r e t h e y appear.


Providing solutions

Articles

Read Sarah's article on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . C o m p l e t e it by putting t h e verbs in brackets in t h e c o r r e c t t e n s e
or using should or would w h e r e necessary.

Preserving

the

planet

Human activity (1)

for

future

generations

(have) a devastating effect on the environment

since the industrial Revolution. Factories and their products have polluted the air in cities, and the

water in rivers and seas; forests (2)
(be transformed) into desert by poor
methods of cultivation; in our hunger for land, we (3)
(invade) the natural
habitat of other species, now in danger of extinction. Our activities (4)
(probably increase) the temperature of the earth, bringing with it the risk of flooding, w h a t
(5)
(we do) to resolve these problems before it is too late?
Solutions certainly exist. In general, we (6)

(consume)

less and recycle

raw materials. In particular, we (7)
(restrict) the use of cars in cities;
we (8)
(close) factories that pollute the air or the rivers; we
(9)
(protect) wildlife by banning indiscriminate hunting; and we
(10)
(protect) the rainforests by providing poor farmers with the means
to cultivate efficiently. Above all, we (11)
(try) to control population
growth, which (12)
(add) to the problems as fast as we take steps to
resolve them.
If we could accomplish this, we (13)

generations. But it (14)
self-interest and (15)

(preserve)

the

planet for

future

(not be) possible unless governments laid aside
(agree) to co-operate. In fact, laws protecting the

environment already exist in almost every country. The trouble is that they are often broken, in
many countries with the consent of the rulers. Perhaps a real solution (16)
(only be found) if every country in the world had an honest, democratic government.
in such circumstances we may think that there is nothing we can do as individuals to save
the environment. But we can do a great deal if we are prepared to make sacrifices. We

(17)

(ask) ourselves if we really need to go out in the car or buy

something new. And we (18)

(19)
We (20)

(respect)

the environment at all times,

we

(not leave) litter around the countryside or throw rubbish in rivers.
(plant) trees and not cut them down.

Sarah is following t h e s a m e paragraph plan that w a s used for t h e article on population growth. In paragraphs
1, 2 and 4, circle t h e t o p i c s e n t e n c e and underline t h e e x a m p l e s that s u p p o r t it.

W r i t e an article in a n s w e r to t h e q u e s t i o n below, using t h e paragraph plan in e x e r c i s e 2.
T h e e x t r a c t b e l o w w a s taken from a letter y o u read in y o u r college magazine. You have d e c i d e d to w r i t e
an article for t h e magazine responding to t h e letter and proposing s o m e solutions to t h e problem.

... is just not the same any more. I remember walking along
the river as a child and even swimming in it when the weather
was warm. Now, the water is stagnant and polluted and the
path along the bank is littered with rubbish.
The town centre itself has also been affected. Traffic blocks
the roads and the poor pedestrians are choked with exhaust
fumes. It really is time that something was done to save our
town and the surrounding countryside before it's too late.

If you answer a problem-solving
question, do not make vague general
statements that you cannot support.
Make use of any facts that you know to
be true from whatyou have experienced
or read. Take account of opposition to
any solution you propose and bear in
mind that there is probably no simple
answer to the question.


Complaining

Letters

Sheila D o n a l d s o n is annoyed a b o u t t h e way in which p e o p l e behave in t h e park near her h o u s e . Read her letter to
t h e s e c r e t a r y of t h e local n e i g h b o u r h o o d w a t c h s c h e m e and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e that follows.

Dear

Anne,

I'm writing on behalf of my family and my neighbours to ask you if you
would mind writing to the council about Russell Park. We are fed up because,
as you know, we've written to them several times to protest but they still
haven't done anything.
The real problem is that there aren't any walls or fences round the park and
young people bang around inside at night shouting and laughing so loudly that
we can't sleep. Some of them are vandals and have broken the swings t h a t
the children play on and trampled all over the flowerbeds.
There
these
looks
people

is also a problem
days - sleeping on
a mess with paper
round to clear up

with tramps - New Age Travellers as they are called
the benches at night. So every morning the park
and beer cans lying about. The council ought to send
every day, instead of once a week.

Really these are just signs of bigger social problems that the council should
try to tackle. They ought to provide a shelter for the homeless and teach the
vandals a lesson by enforcing the laws that l suppose exist.
We would really be very grateful if you could write on our behalf - maybe
your letter would carry more weight and get some results. I'll see you at our
meeting next month.
Best

regards,
In

Sheila Donaldson

2

lamination, you
are not required to write
addresses on your letters.

D e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e following s t a t e m e n t s are t r u e or false. Underline t h e phrases in t h e letter
that justify y o u r answers.
T
F
a

T h i s is t h e first t i m e Sheila has c o m p l a i n e d .
She

b

is

complaining about young people

because

m a k e a noise in t h e p a r k at night.

d

h a v e d e s t r o y e d installations in t h e play a r e a .
Travellers because:

e

they sleep in t h e p a r k d u r i n g t h e day.

f

c r e a t e litter.
She

g

they:

climb o v e r t h e walls r o u n d t h e p a r k .

c

She is complaining about New Age

18

t h e

thinks the council should:

s e n d p e o p l e r o u n d to clean t h e p a r k o n c e a w e e k .

h

p r o v i d e a c c o m m o d a t i o n for N e w A g e Travellers.

i

pass laws to control v a n d a l s .

j

p u n i s h v a n d a l s by enforcing t h e p r e s e n t laws.


Complaining

Letters

Read Anne's letter to t h e council, w r i t t e n in formal language, and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e that follows.

D e a r Sir/Madam,
I am writing on behalf of my neighbours in the vicinity of Russell Park to express our
annoyance that in spite of r e p e a t e d protests, nothing has been done to improve t h e
situation there.
T h e problem stems in part from the fact that there are no walls or fences r o u n d the park
and young people remain t h e r e at night making so much noise that it keeps everyone
awake. A n u m b e r of t h e m are vandals who have broken the swings in the children's play
park and destroyed the flowerbeds.
A p a r t from that, the park is used as a refuge at night by New Age Travellers sleeping on
benches, with the result that every morning the area is covered with litter. In our view, the
park should be cleaned every day, instead of once a week.
We are aware that the real solution lies in dealing with m o r e general social problems
affecting society. However, we consider that action should be taken to provide a shelter
for homeless people and that if laws exist to prevent young people from vandalising t h e
park, they should be enforced.
W e look forward to hearing from you,
Yours faithfully,
_
.
y-\nne DanKs

^jQ

W£KtKtBBKS&

Two ways in which formal and
informal language are different
^
fo i

a r e

m

a

t

o r m s

A n n e Banks

w

e

0

n o t u s e s

e g

I v e )

o r

o r m a l l e t t e r s

^
<" >
f
and we often use passive forms
rather than active (eg, nothing

-zz< at the s e n t e n c e s below, taken from Sheila's letter. Find and underline the equivalent s e n t e n c e s in Anne's letter.
\ c : e the way t h e phraseology changes depending on w h e t h e r the style of writing is formal or semi-formal.
a

W e ' v e w r i t t e n several t i m e s t o p r o t e s t b u t t h e y still h a v e n ' t d o n e anything.

h

Y o u n g p e o p l e h a n g a r o u n d inside at night s h o u t i n g a n d l a u g h i n g so loudly t h a t we c a n ' t sleep.

c

S o m e of t h e m a r e v a n d a l s a n d h a v e b r o k e n t h e swings that t h e children play on.

d

T h e p a r k looks a m e s s with p a p e r a n d b e e r cans lying a b o u t .

e

T h e council o u g h t to s e n d p e o p l e r o u n d to clear u p .

f

T h e y o u g h t to t e a c h t h e v a n d a l s a lesson by e n f o r c i n g t h e laws t h a t I s u p p o s e exist.

Read t h e question and t h e n o t e s b e l o w and w r i t e y o u r letter, using Anne's letter as a m o d e l for form and style.

You a t t e n d e d a residents'
meeting recently which
w a s held t o d i s c u s s t h e
p r o b l e m s with a football
ground near y o u r h o u s e .
You heard t h e complaints
b e l o w at t h e m e e t i n g and
have decided t o w r i t e t o
t h e council on behalf of
your neighbours to ask
them to take action to
improve t h e situation.

% \ s \ s \ \ \ \ \ \
They make so much noise - no games late at night!

Keep rival fans_apart! Stop the fighting! Police should escort
visiting supporters to and from

the ground.

Don't let them park their cars on the pavement! Tow them away!
Buses and coaches in the club car parkl Stop people throwing

stones at visiting teams!

•_


Giving information

Letters

Read t h e q u e s t i o n b e l o w and Tom Aldridge's letter, and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

TrZu^T

1

t 3 k i n

f

P

a

r

t

i

n

a

n

e

x

c

h

a

n

e

S P r o g r a m m e with s t u d e n t s from abroad and has d e c i d e d t o
p r o d u c e a w e l c o m e letter w h , c h s t u d e n t s will r e c e i v e on arrival. T h e e d i t o r has asked y o u t c w r i t e a
w e l c o m e letter g.vmg information on c o l l e g e facilities, describing places of part cu ar interest: hT he
area as well as mentioning special e v e n t s which will take place during their stay
u

L

D e a r Visitor
(!)

Welford College of Education, I would like to welcome you to

our college, and I h o p e that you have a pleasant stay during the Student Exchange P r o g r a m m e . T h e
information which follows is intended to help m a k e your stay m o r e pleasurable.
College Facilities
T h e M a i n Library is o p e n from 8 am - 10 pm on weekdays and from 10 am - 7 pm at t h e weekend.
Books may be borrowed for a one-week period, with the exception of books in t h e Reference Library
( A n d e r s o n Building), which must not be removed u n d e r any circumstances.
T h e Halls of Residence provide half-board accommodation, so lunch can be bought at the college
canteen (Main Building), or t h e Students' U n i o n , or off campus itself. (2)

,

however, that t h e college is some distance from town (20 minutes by bus) so students should ensure
they have sufficient time between lessons if they want to leave campus.
A m a p of t h e c a m p u s can be found on t h e noticeboard situated in the entrance to the M a i n Building.
F u r t h e r information regarding lessons, extra activities, etc can also be found there, while t h e
noticeboard outside the Students' U n i o n is the best place to find out about upcoming social events.
Places of Interest
T h e town itself has lots to offer. W i t h its tiny streets and winding alleys, it is a great place to buy
souvenirs. T h e A r t Gallery and the Natural History M u s e u m are situated in t h e town centre.
Special Events
As part of the National Students' Council Arts Festival, t h e college has organised a week of concerts
to be held in t h e Students' U n i o n from 15th May. P r o g r a m m e s and tickets (3)
m e m b e r s of the E n t e r t a i n m e n t C o m m i t t e e .
A quiz night (4)

25th May. This is a charity event; all proceeds will

go to the local children's hospital. Students interested in taking part should contact Sarah on the
Entertainment Committee.
We hope that this information (5)
Please (6)
information.
Y o u r s sincerely
T o m Aldridge
Student Counsellor

and that you enjoy your stay.
the College Secretary should you require further


Giving information

Letters

Read Tom's letter again and fill in t h e gaps with t h e phrases below.
are

available

from

is being held on

will be helpful

do not hesitate to contact
on

it should be noted

behalf of

T h e q u e s t i o n stated that t h e w r i t e r should give information on college facilities, d e s c r i b e places of particul;
n t e r e s t in t h e area as well as m e n t i o n special e v e n t s which will take place during their stay. C o m p l e t e t h e
chart with t h e things t h e w r i t e r m e n t i o n s on each of t h e t o p i c s .

College facilities

WÊÊ

Places of particular interest

Special events

\~~~ III ^ i p P I !

5

• I

Look again at t h e letter and a n s w e r t h e following q u e s t i o n s .
Why d o e s t h e writer m e n t i o n :
a

the Reference Library?

b

the Halls of R e s i d e n c e ?

c

the fact t h a t t h e college is s o m e d i s t a n c e from t o w n ?

d

the noticeboards?

e

t h e N a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l A r t s Festival?

f

t h e local c h i l d r e n ' s h o s p i t a l ?

It is very important that letters giving
information do not sound like long
lists. The information will sound
more realistic if there is a reason for
giving the information.


6
5

Giving information

Letters

T h e following table s u m m a r i s e s all t h e information given in Tom's letter. C o m p l e t e t h e table w i t h t h e
w o r d s and p h r a s e s b e l o w .

A r t Gallery
Halls
upcoming

charity
of Residence
social

enough time

Entertainment

off campus

events

Reference

I week borrowing

Committee

Library
15th

May

C o l l e g e facilities

library

M a i n Library - 8 - 1 0 w e e k d a y s , 1 0 - 7 w e e k e n d s - A n d e r s o n Building - no b o r r o w i n g a l l o w e d

- half board only; no lunch

lunch
canteen - M a i n Building
S t u d e n t s ' Union

college 20 m i n s f r o m t o w n -

noticeboards

?

M a i n Building - m a p of c a m p u s - info l e s s o n s / activities
S t u d e n t s ' Union -

Places of interest

town

souvenirs

National History M u s e u m

Special events

week of concerts

National S t u d e n t s ' C o u n c i l Arts Festival
S t u d e n t s ' Union

p r o g r a m m e s and t i c k e t s -

quiz night

25th May
- p r o c e e d s to local hospital
interested? - S a r a h , Entertainment C o m m i t t e e


Giving information
6

Letters

I

6

Read t h e question b e l o w and prepare y o u r letter by c o m p l e t i n g t h e table
with t h e kind of information y o u w o u l d give.
T h e Tourist Board in y o u r area has decided to p r o d u c e w e l c o m e letters
which will be given to t o u r i s t s on their arrival at t h e local airport to help
t h e m make t h e m o s t of their holiday. You have b e e n asked to w r i t e t h e
letter for English-speaking visitors. You should m e n t i o n places to visit in
t h e n e a r e s t t o w n , d e s c r i b e t h e surrounding area and r e c o m m e n d any
e v e n t s y o u think visitors w o u l d find interesting.

Surrounding area

Interesting events

23


Letters

Making suggestions

T h e local n e w s p a p e r has offered prizes to readers making
suggestions for improving t h e t o w n w h e r e y o u live.
Read t h e letter from o n e of t h e o l d e r inhabitants of t h e t o w n ,
published recently, and c o m p l e t e t h e e x e r c i s e s that follow.

Sir,
I am writing in response to
your appeal for suggestions for
improving our town. W h e n I
was young it was one of the
most beautiful towns in the
country, but its c h a r m has been
its downfall in recent years. It
has b e e n t u r n e d into a tourist
attraction p o p u l a r with young
p e o p l e who do not appreciate
it. In consequence, most of the
improvements I suggest would
be attempts to preserve or
r e s t o r e w h a t i s left o f t h i s
d e l i g h t f u l p l a c e b e f o r e it is
destroyed.
O n e of t h e m a i n p r o b l e m s
is t h a t air traffic to o u r tiny
airport,
especially cheap
c h a r t e r flights in s u m m e r
arriving at night, has expanded

to such an extent that those
who live nearby are unable to
sleep because of t h e noise. In
my view t h e airport should be
closed at night and tourist
flights should be restricted to
the hours of daylight.
It used to be very p l e a s a n t
to walk through the narrow
streets of t h e old town in t h e
evening, with their restaurants
a n d cafes, b u t now they have
been replaced by bars and
night clubs o p e n till very late,
playing loud music, and t h e r e
are so many cars parked on the
pavements that it is impossible
to walk safely. T h e c e n t r e
s h o u l d b e r e s t o r e d t o its
former attractive state. Bars
should be required to close by
12.00 pm, the streets should be

converted into a pedestrian
precinct and a multi-storey car
park should be built on the
vacant site near the market.
A n o t h e r useful i n n o v a t i o n
the council could introduce
would be an information
c e n t r e for t o u r i s t s i n t h e
s q u a r e o u t s i d e t h e town hall.
At present many visitors arrive
without accommodation and
w a n d e r through t h e streets in
search of hotels and b o a r d i n g
h o u s e s , o r s t o p passers-by t o
ask t h e way. If t h e r e w e r e a
properly equipped information
centre, it would not only be of
help to t h e m b u t would be of
great benefit to the tourist
industry.
Alexander Martin

Read Mr Martin's letter again, and make notes about the problems
he mentions and the solutions he suggests in the table below.
Problem

Solution(s)

a

1

b

2

c

3a
3b

d

4

C h o o s e the best heading for each paragraph, and write the correct
number in the space. N o t e that t w o of the choices are not correct.
a

A t o w n for y o u n g p e o p l e

b

I n f o r m a t i o n for tourists

c

T h e airport

d

The newspaper's appeal

e

T h e old t o w n

f

T o u r i s t s in t h e t o w n

Note the form of address used
to the editor of a newspaper,
unless you know that she is a
woman, in which case
'Madam' is used instead.


Joking suggestions

Letters

Young p e o p l e usually have a different s e t of priorities from their parents and grandparents. Before y o u
read Anna Margolis's letter, l o o k at Reference section I on page 6 4 , Reference section 11 on page 67 and
Reference section 13 on page 6 9 . N o w c o m p l e t e t h e letter by putting t h e v e r b s in brackets in t h e m o s t
appropriate form, using active or passive f o r m s with would, should, must or could, and writing the or a in
t h e s p a c e s , only w h e r e n e c e s s a r y .

Sir,
While I agree with some of (I)

suggestions (2)

improving (3)
town, (4)
is only concerned with attracting (6)

main problem in my opinion is that (5)
tourists. In my view there are (7)

readers have made for
council
number of

improvements that (8)
(undertake) for the benefit of (9)
residents, especially (10)
younger ones.
In (11)
first place, there are not enough sports and leisure facilities. Instead of building
(12)
multi-storey car park on (13)
vacant site near (14)
town centre, they
(15)
(construct) (16)
indoor swimming pool and (17)
tennis courts that (18)
(use) in (19)
winter.
Secondly, I have read that (20)
old railway station is going to be pulled down. T h e space
(21)
(transform) into (22)
park and it (23)
(not cost) much to provide a place for (24)
small children to play (25)
games. Part
of it (26)
(turn into) (27)
adventure playground or (28)
children's zoo.
Lastly, tourists who go as far as (29)
river (30)
(disgust) by
(31)
litter along (32)
banks and (33)
pollution from (34)
few old factories that are still in (35)
operation. The area (36)
(clean up), the factories (37)
(close down) and (38)
serious effort
(39)
(make) to transform (40)
riverside area into (41)
place where (42)
people (43)
(enjoy) (44)
kind of
pleasant walk they once had through (45)
old part of (46)
town.
Anna Margolis

- - - a lists t h r e e kinds of i m p r o v e m e n t s , with a paragraph for each:
a
b
e

introducing something new
t r a n s f o r m i n g s o m e t h i n g a l r e a d y in existence
r e m e d y i n g s o m e t h i n g unsatisfactory

I : —slete t h e table b e l o w b y referring t o her letter.
Problem
a

enough leisure facilities

Solution(s)
1
2

b

Open space created when railway

3

station is pulled down

4a
4b

:

Litter on river bank

5

Pollution of river

6

•"• - :e a l e t t e r addressed to t h e e d i t o r of y o u r local newspaper, suggesting i m p r o v e m e n t s that could be
m a d e to y o u r t o w n or t h e area of a city w h e r e y o u live. Follow t h e paragraph plan of Anna's letter and
t r y to include at least o n e e x a m p l e of each kind of i m p r o v e m e n t .


Letters

Givins opinions

Read t h e q u e s t i o n and t h e letter
b e l o w and c o m p l e t e t h e
e x e r c i s e s that follow.

You have read the extract b e l o w as part of a
e t t e r to a local newspaper. You decide to write a
letter t o the s a m e newspaper responding t o t h e
points raised and expressing your o w n views

J know I am not alone in feeling threatened by
the presence of groups of young people who
seem to have nothing better to do than hang
around the town centre making a nuisance of
themselves.
nowadays:

It is a reflection of our society
a society

that encourages laziness

and allows the younger generation to waste
their time in this way. If something is not done
soon, then 1 fear that these individuals will
turn to crime and our town will no longer be
the safe peaceful place it once was.

you can't get a j o b and if you
clubs o r c e n t r e s i n o u r a r e a
Sir,
can't get a job, how do you get
that
could
provide
some
form
I am writing in response to
experience?
of
occupation
for
t
h
e
m
during
a l e t t e r I r e a d in T u e s d a y ' s
Finally, I am of the opinion
the day. T h e y are forced to
edition of The Kenton Herald
t
h
a
t we should show m o r e
either meet at each other's
a n d h a v e t o say I f e e l t h e
u
n
d
erstanding towards these
homes, often an impossible or
opinions expressed are a little
young p e o p l e , who a r e , after
u
n
d
e
s
i
r
a
b
l
e
o
p
t
i
o
n
,
o
r
i
n
one-sided in that the letter
all, o u r neighbours. Although
public places, namely the town
implies that young people are
it is unpleasant to see people
centre.
to be blamed for this situation
hanging
around on t h e streets,
In addition to this, it is well
and that it is what they want.
it must be even w o r s e for
known
that
u
n
e
m
p
l
o
y
m
e
n
t
in
It is my opinion that the
those who are in this situation.
our area is a serious problem
community should accept
If we were to offer t h e m t h e
a m o n g 18-25 y e a r o l d s . J o b
some of the blame too. If
chance to change their
opportunities are limited and
solutions to this problem
situation, I am sure they
a
n
y
t
h
a
t
a
r
e
a
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e
a
r
e
h a d b e e n s o u g h t earlier, t h e
would do so. It is time for us
t
a
k
e
n
b
y
p
e
o
p
l
e
w
i
t
h
situation might n o t h a v e got
all to take some responsibility
qualifications or previous
so o u t of h a n d .
for t h e m and their position.
work experience. As a result,
While I admit that our
I l o o k f o r w a r d to s e e i n g
it
has
long
been
the
case
that
town c e n t r e is increasingly a
my l e t t e r p u b l i s h e d in a
if
school
leavers
cannot
go
on
place where teenagers and
forthcoming issue.
t o f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n for
young adults congregate, I
whatever reason, they will be
also a p p r e c i a t e that m a n y of
u n l i k e l y to find j o b s locally. J o h n H o l m e s
them have no alternative.
Moreover, there is the age-old
Y o u n g p e o p l e have n o w h e r e
p r o b l e m : without experience,
else to go. T h e r e a r e no youth


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