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Từ vựng, ví dụ và bài tập chủ đề gia đình (Family)

SPEAKING 3

FAMILY
Describing people
Vocabulary
Mother: mẹ // Father: bố
(Dad/ – Mom)
Sibling: anh (chị, em) ruột
Brother: anh, em trai
Sister: chị, em gái
Only child: con một
Aunt: cô, dì, bác (nữ)
Uncle: chú, bác, cậu (nam)
Daughter: con gái // Son: con trai
First cousin: anh em họ gần nhất
Niece: cháu gái ( con của anh chị em)
Nephew: cháu trai (con của anh chị em
ruột)
Spouse: chồng hay vợ.
mother-in-law: mẹ chồng (mẹ vợ)
father-in-law: bố chồng (bố vợ)

brother-in-law: anh(em rể), anh (em) vợ
sister-in-law: chị (em) dâu, chị (em) vợ
daughter-in-law: con dâu
son-in-law: con rể
Step-mother: mẹ kế
Step-sister: chị (em) riêng của bố (mẹ) kế
half-brother: anh (em) cùng cha (mẹ) khác
mẹ (cha)
half-sister: chị(em) cùng cha (mẹ) khác mẹ
(cha)
Grandparents: ông bà
Grandmother : bà
Grandfather: ông
Grandchildren: các cháu
Granddaughter: cháu gái
Grandson: cháu trai
Great-grandmother: cụ bà (mẹ của ông
bà)
Great-grandfather: cụ ông (bố của ông
bà)

Nuclear family = gia đình hạt nhân
Single-parent / one-parent family = bố
mẹ, gia đình đơn thân.
Extended family = đại gia đình, dòng họ
Close-knit family = gia đình hoàn thuận,
gắn bó
Get (well) along with: hòa thuận với
(to) take care of: chăm sóc
support(N, V): giúp đỡ hỗ trợ
(to) share: chia sẽ
mutual(adj): lẫn nhau
(to)give advice: khuyên
 (to) advise s.o to do sth
breadwinner: trụ cột gia đình
(to) earn(money): kiếm tiền
(to) live on: sống dựa vào
part-time job: việc làm thêm
strict(adj): nghiêm khắc
(to) argue with: tranh luận với ...(tích cục)


frank(adj): thẳng thắng
(to) solve problem: giải quyết vấn đề
housewife: bà nội trợ
housework = household chores: việc nhà
(to)look after: trông nom
(to)play an important role/ part: đóng 1
vai trò quan trọng
(to) discuss: bàn luận
Benefit = advantage: thuận lợi
Drawback = disadvantage: bất lợi
Generation: thế hệ
Ancestor: tổ tiên
relatives: bà con dòng họ
paternal >< maternal (adj): nội >< ngoại
=> maternal side:
“Men build the house, women make it home”
(đàn ông xây nhà đàn bà xây tổ ấm)


Examples:
- I live in a happy and close-knit family
= My family is very happy and close-knit
- My father is a doctor and/while my mother is a house-wife
- There are four members/ people in my family
= I come from a family of four members
= My family consists of four members
- I am the only child in my family
- I am doing a part-time job to support my family
- My father works very hard to earn money
- My mother is retired so now she (just) stay at home and takes care of the (whole) family
- I have (got) an elder/ older sister and two younger brothers
- My Mom is usually responsible for doing the house-hold chores
= My Mom usually takes the responsibility of doing the house-hold chores
- Both my Mom and my Dad do the house work
- It is good to live in a big family = Living in a big family is good
- Living in a big family brings many benefits
= There are many benefits of living in a big family
- Family plays a very important role in our life
- I often ask my mother for (good) advice
=> My mother often gives me good advice on ….
- I often share my feelings with my Dad
- I rarely/seldom argue with my brother
- I and my younger sister often argue each other about …
- My parents are very strict:
+ They do not let us go out late with our friends
+ They make us study all the time
+ They ask us to go to bed early

Notes:
- let s.o do sth: để cho ai làm gì
- make s.o do sth: bắt ai làm gì
- ask/tell s.o to do sth: yêu cầu ai làm gì


1. Do you have any brothers or sisters?
(If yes, do you get along well with them?)
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2. What do your parents do?
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3. Do you spend much time with your family?
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4. What is your family’s favorite activity to do together?
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5. How do your parents spend their free time?
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6. Do you often talk with your mom or your dad?
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7. Do you live with your grand-parents?
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8. Do you prefer to spend your time with your friends or your family?
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9. Do you like living in a big family or a small one?
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10. Who takes the responsibility of doing the housework in your home?
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Talk about your family
You should say about:

- Your family members
- Your family’s activities
- It is a happy family?
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Describe a family member you love
You should say about:

- His/her personal information
- What he/she looks like (appearance)
- What he/she like (personality)
- Why you love him/her
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Write meaningful sentences based on the following cues
1. I/ come/ family/ 5 member

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2. mom/ be/ doctor/ and she/ work/ hospital/ next/ my house

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3. dad/ responsible/ take care/ fruit garden

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4. it/ be/ lucky/ live/ happy family (use: “ It + be+ adj + To V”)

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5. There/ lot of/ benefit/ live/ extended family

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6. My dad/ work/ engineer/ factory/ while/ mom/ retire

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7. Dad/ very strict/ so / he/ seldom/ let/ me/ go out/ late/ night

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8. Sister/ always ready/ give me/ useful advice/ when / I/ difficulty

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9. parents/ work/ the rice fields/ at the present

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10. Last night/ dad/ watch TV/ while/ mom/ sleep/ sofa

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DESCRIBING PEOPLE
Vocabulary
I- Appearance
A: Từ vựng về độ tuổi (age), chiều cao (height)
- Young – trẻ
- Old – /əʊld/ : Già
- Tall – /tɔːl/ : Cao
- Middle-aged – /ˌmɪd.l̩ˈeɪdʒd/: Trung niên
- Short – /ʃɔːt/ : Lùn
- Medium-height – /ˈmiː.di.əm/ / haɪt/: Chiều cao trung bình
Ex:
+ He is not very tall. He is about 165 centimeters tall
+ He looks younger than his (real) age
B: Từ vựng về hình dáng (body), da (skin/complexion)
- Well-built – /wel ‘bɪlt/: Khỏe mạnh, to lớn (nice shape)
- Fat >< Slim – Béo – Gầy
- heavy >< light– vạm vỡ- nhỏ con
- strong >< weak(adj)
- Dark-skinned – /dɑːk/ /skɪnd/: Da tối màu
- Yellow-skinned – /ˈjel.əʊ/ /skɪnd/: Da vàng
- Pale-skinned – /peɪl/ /skɪnd/: Da nhợt nhạt
- fair (skin/ complexion) – (da) đẹp
- smooth (skin)- (da) mịn
Ex:
+ He is well-built = He has a nice/beautiful shape (shape = body)
+ She has a fair complexion (complexion = skin)
+ She has a yellow skin = She is yellow-skinned
C: Từ vựng về khuôn mặt (face)
- Round – /raʊnd/: Hình tròn
- Triangle – /ˈtraɪ.æŋ.ɡl̩/: Hình tam giác
- Square – /skweər/: Hình chữ điền
- Oval – /ˈəʊ.vəl/: Hình trái xoan
- Long – /lɒŋ/: Dài
Ex:
She has a round face
= Her face is round


D: Từ vựng về kiểu tóc (hair)
- Bald – /bəʊld/: Đầu hói
- Long – medium-length – shoulder-length – Short
- Wavy- Curly- Straight: Gợn sóng - xoăn - thẳng
- crew -cut: đầu đinh
- dark/black – blond – brown …..
- pigtail(s) – / ˈpɪɡ.teɪl/: tóc bím
- ponytail: tóc đuôi ngựa
(Noun)
- bun: tóc búi
- bunches: tóc cột hai sừng
Ex:
+ He has short black hair
+ She has a ponytail
E Từ vựng về mắt (eyes)
- big – small – narrow:
- round
- dark – brown – grey – blue – green- …..
- beautiful (eyes)
- twinkle (eyes): mắt long lanh
- smiling (eyes): mắt biết cười
- eyebrows: lông mày - eyelashes: lông mi
+ long: dài
+ curved: cong
+ dark : đậm
+ thin >< thick: mỏng >< dày
F- Từ vựng về môi (lips)
- full lips: môi mộng nước
- thick >< thin lips: môi dày >< mỏng
- curved lips: môi cong lá lễu
* Others:
- attractive/ charming: quyến rũ- yêu kiều
- beautiful/ handsome:
- good- looking:
- dimple: (Má lúm) đồng tiền
- mole: nốt ruồi
- head forehead: vầng trán cao
- rosy cheeks: má hồng
- (big/small/ high/ flat) nose: Mũi (to/ nhỏ/ cao/ tẹt)
...etc…


II- Characteristics/ Personalities
- ambitious: có nhiều tham vọng
- careful: cẩn thận
- caring: ân cần chu đáo
- clever: khéo léo
- confident: tự tin
- creative: sáng tạo
- reliable: đáng tin cậy
- honest: trung thực , thiệt tình
- enthusiastic: hăng hái, nhiệt tình
- easy-going: dễ tính
- generous: rộng lượng
- gentle: nhẹ nhàng
- humorous: hài hước
- imaginative: giàu trí tưởng tượng
- intelligent, smart: thông minh
- kind: tử tế
- loyal: trung thành

- optimistic: lạc quan >< pessimistic: bi quan
- patient: kiên nhẫn
- polite: lịch sự
- sociable, friendly: thân thiện
- open-minded: khoáng đạt
- quiet: ít nói
- sincere: thành thật, chân thật
- wise: thông thái, uyên bác
- lazy: lười biếng
- hot-tempered: nóng tính
- selfish: ích kỷ => unselfish: không ích kỷ
- mean: keo kiệt
- cold: lạnh lùng
- silly, stupid: ngu ngốc, ngốc nghếch
- crazy: điên cuồng (mang tính tích cực)
..etc…

Ex: He is kind = He is a kind boy

 Structures used for describing people:

 S(He/ She) + V(be/look/seem…) + Adj
Ex:
+ He is tall
+ She is caring (= She is a caring woman)

 S(He/ She) + has + (a/an )+ adj + Noun
= His/Her/… Noun + V (be/ …) + adj
Ex:
+ He has a round face = His face is round
+ She has long hair = Her hair is long
+ She has big eyes = Her eyes are big

Others examples:
+ She is beautiful and intelligent.
= She is not only beautiful but also intelligent.
= She is both beautiful and intelligent.
+He is quiet but intelligent (tuy... nhưng)


Describe one of your close friends
You should say about:

- His/her personal information
- What he/she looks like (appearance)
- What he/she like (personality)
- Why you like him/her
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Describe a famous people you admire/ your idol
You should say about:

- who he/she is + his/her personal information
- What he/she looks like (appearance)
- What makes him/ her special
- Why you admire him/her
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