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Organizations and Behaviour Assignment 1 BTEC Nguyen Huu Phong 2017


BTEC Level 5 HND Diploma in Business

Unit number and title

Organisational Behaviour

Assignment due

Assignment submitted

____/_____/ ______

Learner’s name

Nguyễn Hữu Phong

Learner’s code



Assessor name


____/_____/ ______

Learner declaration:
I certify that the work submitted for this assignment is my own and research sources are fully acknowledged.
Learner signature



Grading grid










Assignment title

Assume that you used to work as an intern in 2 companies A and B. Leader X of company A tends to lead
his group in a transactional way, while leader Y of company B leads his group in a transformational style.
You realize that the ways they manage, treat and motivate their subordinates are different as well.
Your case must be demonstrated with examples and real life evidences.

In this assignment, you will have opportunities to provide evidence against the following criteria.
Indicate the page numbers where the evidence can be found.

Assessment criteria

Expected evidence



LO2. Understand different approaches to management and leadership
2.1 Compare the effectiveness of
different leadership styles in
different organizations


2.2 Explain how organizational
theory supports the practice of
management in organizations


Define leadership. Introduce and compare transactional and
transformational leadership styles 
Evidence about leadership styles applied by the leaders 
Evidence to show the effectiveness of different leadership
styles 
Explain at least 3 organizational theories (management
approaches) 
Explain contribution of those theories to the practice of
management in organizations 
Explain management functions (planning, organizing, etc…) and
managerial roles (interpersonal, etc ...) 


 Achieved

 Not achieved

 Achieved

 Not achieved

2.3 Evaluate the different
approaches to management used
by different organizations


Evidence about management thoughts applied by the leaders 
Evidence about management functions and managerial roles of
the leaders 
Evaluation on management approaches used by different
organizations 

Assessment criteria
Merit descriptor No.1 (M1)

 Achieved


Expected Evidence


Appropriate judgment on appropriate leadership and management approaches:
1. Judgments on each leadership style (suitable or not, why) 
2. Judgments on applied management approaches (suitable or not, why) 
3. Explanation about the impact of leadership styles and management
approaches on management functions and managerial roles 

Merit descriptor No.2 (M2)

 Not achieved

Select and design and apply appropriate methods and techniques:
1. Compare leadership styles and management approaches in different context
of the chosen companies 

 Achieved
 Not achieved

 Achieved

2. A range of sources of information (books, articles, reliable reference sources,  Not achieved
cases) has been used 


Merit descriptor No.3 (M3)

Present and communicate appropriate findings:
1. Logical structure, with table of content, reference list, introduction, body
(analysis), and conclusion. 
2. Good academic writing: correct grammar, logical writing style, and correct
use of business/technical terminologies. 
3. Coherent and logical definition and implications of concepts for different
background audience have been made. 
4. A range of methods of presentation has been used (chart, graph, picture,
diagram, table, etc…). 
5. Correct referencing, both in-text citation and in reference list, using Harvard
Referencing Style (HRS). 

Distinction descriptor No.1 (D1)

 Not achieved

Use critical reflection to evaluate own work and justify valid conclusion:
1. Thorough analysis with realistic evidence 
2. Recommendation on alternative leadership styles and management
approaches (if proved to be inappropriate in M1) have been proposed against
defined characteristics for success 
3. Validity of the results is evaluated (selected information has been collected
from a wide range of reliable sources) 

Distinction descriptor No.2 (D2)

 Achieved

Take responsibility for managing and organizing activities:
1. Primary (interview) and secondary data have been used 
2. Different sources of data are collected and applied objectively 


 Achieved
 Not achieved

 Achieved
 Not achieved

Distinction descriptor No.3 (D3)

Demonstrate convergent/lateral/creative thinking
1. Application and comparisons on leadership and management theories have
been made against academic models (pros and cons in terms of Vietnamese
context) 
2. Extended academic models of leadership and management theories have
been presented 
3. Creative thinking on practical implementation and implication of leadership
and management theories 
4. Propose new ideas for the Vietnamese context 
5. Critical review, conclusions, and recommendations on terminologies in the
Vietnamese context 

Summative feedback:

Assessor’s Signature



____/_____/ _____

 Achieved
 Not achieved





2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different
organizations 9
2.2 Explain how organizational theory supports the practice of management
in organizations 13
2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different
organizations 19





In a company, the role of skilled people in the staff are very important. They contribute to create the best
conditions for human life. However, to the whole company exists and works well for, the role of the leaders
and management again as even more important. The management theory of business be applied practically
in many companies in the world and bring success. In this assignment, I will analyze more thoroughly so
that we understand and see the importance of the management and leadership in business.


2.1 Compare the effectiveness of different
leadership styles in different organizations
According to BussinessDictionary, the leader is the person who has the ability to set a clear vision. Are
people likely to share that vision to others to the volunteer and they resolved to follow. The leader also
provides information, knowledge and methods to everyone who made the goal in sight of the leaders. The
leader has the ability to balance the interests and conflict of the members or stakeholders. Usually the leader
developer from the crisis period, they have the ability to solve the problem, thinking and creative action in
difficult situations. There are many suggestions that leaders do not like management, leadership cannot be
taught, though can learn and improve through the course. Leadership skills are trained in life environment
and in humans.
According to Mark Miller-VP of Marketing, Emergenetics International pointed out that there are 5 elements
to decide on a leader. 5 factors which are: Trust, Action, Perspective, Focus, Vision. These elements are
formed and developed in each individual and depend on the innate awareness or training to personal
decisions that have leadership or not.
The concept of transformational leadership was initially introduced by leadership expert. According to
Burns (1978) stated that transformational leadership can be seen when the "leaders and followers make each
other to advance to a higher level of moral and motivation." Transactional and transformational are the two
modes of leadership that tend to be compared the most.
Transformational leaders
According to Bass and Avolio (1994), there are four components of transformational leadership – Idealized
Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, Individualized Consideration.
1. Idealized Influence (II)
To get everyone's confidence, loyalty, admiration and respect that people determined to follow their vision,
the leader expressed his influence over the expressed views of charismatic and dynamic rows. They create
a certain influence over people through explaining how to achieve the vision set out a convincing and
attractive. They emphasize the value and also trying it with more action to strong impact on trust and the
trust of the people.


2. Inspirational Motivation (IM)
The leaders stimulate and promote creativity, motivation and inspiration for everyone. Leaders create a clear
structure for the vision that they give and make sure each person's role in the implementation of the common
vision. This makes people get work, creativity to put together complete the goal and vision of the leader.
3. Intellectual Stimulation (IS)
The leader made the exhortation to the people around them by creating a favourable environment for the
creation and sharing of knowledge, motivation and creativity between members. The leader will create an
environment that encourages daring ideas and debate without fear of punishment or ridicule.
4. Individualized Consideration (IC)
The leader listened to the needs and concerns of the supporters. They expressed the praise to motivate each
individual. Leaders recognized the achievements and innovations of each individual. Ensure fairness for
people to grow together. This creates a positive motivator for the individual, the group.
President Ho Chi Minh is one example of Transformational leaders. As Vietnamese people, we always
understood about the leadership style of President Ho Chi Minh. A leadership style inspires, encourages,
and creates a spiritual influence over the people. The change of a business can be difficult but Ho Chi Minh
President has used his leadership style changed a nation, a country and thought of the way the leadership
still affect today. He has infused enthusiasm, spirit, spiritual strength for a whole nation. He outlined a great
vision for the country and promote people development. This has brought the effective when all peoples of
Vietnam stood up strong and winning are the U.S. and France, the two most powerful countries on time.

Transactional leaders
The leaders of this type will guide their adherents to be put off by the clarification of roles and tasks. They
promote lower level work by the rewards and penalties. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a
subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or
capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault,
and is punished for their failure.


Tim Cook is an example for Transactional leaders. He is a businessman and put the issue of profit on top so
he always wanted his followers to complete the work on time and set out the extent of the apparent payoff.
In 2012 when Apple unveiled Apple's Maps as a strategic move against Google Maps, is a critical step by
Apple. However, the result failed and Tim Cook Apple Maps to stand out to apologize to the millions of
users. Bulk Apple array Maps officer was fired and even Scott Forstall-father of the iOS operating system
also must go. It is an example of the rewards and penalties to be applied when Tim Cook Apple executives.
After the punishment too heavy-handed to be Tim Cook put out immediately, the other members are trying
to perfect Apple Maps and try not to make mistakes. Up to now, things are gradually better and efficient in
management and leadership style of Tim Cook has been proven.
Comparing a few different points between Transactional Leadership and Transformational Leadership.
First, Transactional Leadership is a type of leadership whereby rewards and punishment are used as a basis
for initiating the followers. Transformational Leadership is a leadership style in which the leader uses his
charisma and enthusiasm to influence his followers.
Next, in Transactional Leadership leader, lays stress on his relationship is with followers. Conversely, in
Transformational Leadership leader lays stress on the values, beliefs and needs of his followers.
Transactional Leadership is best for a settled environment, but Transformation is good for the turbulent
Besides, Transactional Leadership works for improving the present conditions of the organization. On the
other hand, Transformational Leadership works for changing the present conditions of the organization.
In Transactional Leadership, there is only one leader in a group. In contrast to transformational leadership,
in which there can be more than one leader in a group.
Transactional Leadership is focussed towards planning and execution as compared to transformational
leadership which promoted innovation.
Evidence to show the effectiveness of different leadership styles
Transaction Leadership
Advantages: This leadership style will motivate employees based on rewards and punishment, this
understanding results in boosting staff in production and efficiency at work. This leadership style brought a
short class plan, help employees make an easy step by step and more easily accessible. Clear structure is
also a benefit of transaction leaders, employees will be provided a clear directions as to compliance with


the structure set out to accomplish this goal. Increase productivity and reduce costs as well as benefits of
transactional leadership when bonuses are increased when productivity increases and incentives to
encourage employees.
Disadavantages Don't encourage creation is the first disadvantage of this type of leadership, the staff are
only allowed to do what the manager want. Leadership principles and rigid is a disadvantage for those who
like to be creative. The responsibility of the staff member are set high, the principle applied in work and
required serious, if done wrong, they must take responsibility for results. This will create a disgruntled and
not convenient for employees. Not interested in the feelings of the staff is also very great disadvantage, the
leaders of this type only care what employees can do without emotion and attitude, failed to create
motivation for employees.
Transformational Leadership
Advantages: Having the ability to assess the current situation of an organization and build a vision for
improvement and growth. Promote enthusiasm is a benefit of this kind of leadership, staff will work with
great motivation to help ensure effective. The leaders will use inspiration to motivate employees, encourage
their creativity and passion to overcome these difficult times.
Disadvantages: Leaders of this type often need those assistants and a support person to ensure the
Organization in the right direction. Easy to ignore the truth and fact of being dominant emotional and
passionate is a major drawback. Many restrictions when need to go further and analyse the issue when the
company in trouble. Vulnerable to abuse of morally and spiritually is a huge drawback of this type of
leadership such as multi-level staff, Adolf hitler, ...


2.2 Explain how organizational theory supports the
practice of management in organizations
Explain at least 3 organizational theories
Taylor's scientific management approach
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1916) was a mechanical worker in America, through the Director, Chief
Engineer, general engineering. With his seasoned experience, he has analyzed the process of manipulation,
mobilization of workers, the labor process research, with the non-duplicate, spend less time and effort to
achieve high productivity. It is the rationalization of labor, in a broad sense is that labor held a scientific
way. With the research on "Managing in the factory" (1903), the Principles of scientific management in
1911, he formed the scientific management theory, open "golden era" in American management.
Example: Henry Ford created the application production system by long-line 24 km in the car plants the
capacity reached 7000 vehicles per day.
Content management science based on the following principles: With the aforementioned content, worker
productivity rose significantly, low prices; the end result is higher profits to both the server and all have
high income.
The main thought in Taylor's theory are:
- Optimizing the production process (through labor rationalization, construction labor norms).
- Standardized method of operation and operation conditions; specialized assignment (for the labor of the
workers and for the management function).
- And the last thought "economic man" (paid according to the number of products to stimulate increased
productivity and production efficiency).

Weber's bureaucratic approach
Characteristics of Weber's theory
- Arrange the agencies according to the hierarchical system, administrative structure of the message is in
the Tower, each subordinate agencies under the control of the higher authorities.
- Reasonable labor assignment and have the system, each agency or location have jurisdiction specific
identification is shown into the tasks and powers.


- The rules are written into the text, and the formula is applied consistently. These rules are made and to
comply strictly, in accordance with the legal provisions of the State.
- Human nature confess-the officer relied on a sequence of human claims and implementation criteria are
specified in the official text.
- Neutral is a characteristic expression of active management who work in the mail again. The officer was
recruited and promoted on the path of industrial organization on their abilities, not to consider the other side
of society and individuals.

Fayol's administrative theory
These elements related to accomplishment of tasks, and include principles of management, the concept of
line and staff, committees and functions of management.
- Labor assignment: work must be divided and subdivided again into the smallest element that can be done
to make use of the advantages of specialization, to help workers achieve higher efficiency in work.
- Correspondence between rights and responsibilities: each work should be given adequate powers to
perform assigned responsibilities.
- Discipline: those workers who have to comply with any agreement would have to be clearly defined
between them and the Organization, managers must sanction the Coalition any violations of discipline.
- Individual rights must be serve the general interest: the Organization's interests must take precedence over
the rights of individuals.
- Compensated satisfactorily: public money must base on the work achieved by the target.
- Focus: must have a degree of focus to executives in control of things and is responsible in the end but still
ensure that subordinates have enough power to complete their work.
- Disambiguation: the power is derived and smoothly from senior leadership down to the lowest workers in
the organization. This system is a continuous command through which convey instructions and information
- Order: all equipment, materials, and people need to be put in the right place and the right time. In particular,
people needed the right job, the right position suitable to them.

Explain contribution of those theories to the practice of management in organizations
Taylor's scientific management approach
Contribute, rebuild the management style of the company and the business so they can optimize the
production process, the reasonable assignment as well as increase productivity and production efficiency.


This theory of major Taylor did change a lot of enterprise management structure throughout the years and
help for business boom when applying this theory.
Weber's bureaucratic approach
Helping sort and systems, the division of labor, division of roles within an organization that are reasonable.
Ensure organizations operate in a consistent manner and to comply with reasonable and what the
organization raises. This theory helps a business or organizational operations and management structure,
walks over.
Fayol's administrative theory
This theory contributes to the development and management of the general direction for the organization.
Make sure the given discipline and serve the common interests of the collective rather than individual
interests. Labor assignment and ensure all oriented and focused on a goal. This theory helps an organization
going in the right direction and work based on the common interests of the collective.
Management functions

5 Management functions – Source: Internet


Management functions are the factors in controlling all the work being done to navigate to a target.
Management functions include 5 essential elements are: planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating and
The planning function of management every plan to the plan it works stable. Identify the objectives, the
process most effectively and the activities required to complete the goal. Plans to decide the future of a
business should this function is very important.
This function controls the overall structure of the company. Organizational structure is the Foundation of a
business. Ineffective organizational structure will make business difficult and hard to manage. The
organization specifies the duties and responsibilities of each individual helps complete tasks. Change the
structure to suit each moment.
Staffing is an extremely important factor in a business. This business decision has effectively about quality
or not. The goal is to hire the right people have the ability and right of the work to complete the goal of the
business. Besides recruitment, personnel also include training and staff development to meet the needs of
that target requires.
Directing is the determinants of the business functioning well or not. The parts of a business together to
achieve the fastest and the best. Support each other and together towards a goal that put the business out.
Cities in the media, monitoring, steering and management.
Control to ensure all functions of a business are in place and stable operation. Control to set a certain
performance and ensure that each individual output must meet. This impacts many aspects of an
Managerial roles


Managerial roles are the behavior which are clearly established, separately, suitable for each position,

Mintzberg's Management Roles – Source: Internet
Interpersonal Roles
These rules maintain the relationship between the Manager, leadership with subordinates and other
stakeholders outside the Organization, offer ideas and rituals.
-Figurehead: a symbol, a representative help create inspiration. All social, inspiration, legal and ceremonial


-Leader: the leaders build relationships with subordinates, promote, train and help them grow. Fish
monitoring activities of subordinates as well as balancing everything.
-Liaison: Managers must communicate with internal and external contacts. The exchange of information
between the inside and outside of work in the company.
Informational Roles
Informational rolses include of receiving, collecting, disseminating information and communicating
information from the outside or inside to the members and the headquarters
-Monitor: gather information internally and externally to the synthesis and processing of that information.
The source of information is beneficial and harmful to the organization is collected and stored in order to
process the information according to time.
-Disseminator: disseminate information to all people, all departments concerned to affect the attitudes and
-Spokesperson: transmits information that organizations want to publish outside and keep people outside of
the updated information on the activities that the organization wants to publish.
Decisional Roles
Decisional roles consist of making important decisions that affect the organization.
-Entrepreneur: as a starter, encouraging development and innovation, providing ideas to help the
organization with a new trend in the development.
-Disturbance handler: coping with the sudden difficulties, happened suddenly affect the normal functioning
of the Organization
-Resource allocator: The resource allocator distributes resources of all types, including time, funding,
equipment, and human resources. Resource allocation and effective use of the resources of the organization.
-Negotiator: representing the Organization to negotiate the agreements, projects with partners and
stakeholders not belonging to the internal scope.


2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to
management used by different organizations
Evidence about management thoughts applied by the leaders
Taylor's scientific management approach

Henry Ford is an example of the application of this theory into practice. The evidence is that he has
had a major change in the airline's Ford to reduce costs and increase profits from products. In 1914, he
increased the amount of money paid to workers up to 5 dollars everyday and reduce the number of hours
worked from 9 to 8 hours a day but the benefit is that Ford can operate 3 daily shifts. Results Ford reduce
costs 850 dollars down from 267 dollars after 20 years of application. The application of this theory in a
radical way have helped Ford develop very strongly.
Weber's bureaucratic approach


Steve Jobs has applied this theory to the Apple when he returned to Apple in 1997 to the company
from the crisis area. He did change and rearrange everything at Apple from the change the people who hold
the role of product development, software development, marketing, ... Division of roles for each position
within the company. Issued many rules as to keep secret everything at Apple, all ideas must be through him.
He changed everything and rearranged the reasonable labour to ensure Apple's escape from the crisis.
Results Apple change the music market when it launched the iPod.

Fayol's administrative theory

Satya Nadella has applied this theory when reorganized Microsoft from pile of surplus of Steve
Ballmer. Specifically he has reorganized the management and development of Microsoft in the general
direction. Microsoft eventually dropped the plate match the company and focused on business customers
and the array of arrays of core operating system, removing windows phone because it was come out of the


main goals of the company. The provisions of Microsoft also focused on collective interests rather than
personal interests such as limitations to bring pets on campus to avoid the influence of others, targeted
product development companies than is the favorite of each Member.
Evidence about management functions and managerial roles of the leader
Apple - the company has the world's highest value to 617 billion dollars (2016). Is a company with the
highest brand value in the world with more than 100 billion dollars. As one of the symbols of technology in
the technology world. To be successful, they have gone through a lot of difficulties and create the revolution
changed the lives of human beings. Apple has the most talented people and great, which can not fail to
mention the Tim Cook. Apple CEO helped boom during the last 5 years. And Tim Cook is a best example
to mention in this section.

CEO Apple – Tim Cook, Source: Internet
First thoughts about management - management style of Tim Cook. As noted above, Tim Cook is a majority
of transactional leader, but besides that, he has always coordinated the characteristics of a Transformational
Leader. For Tim Cook, his staff management with a softer predecessor Steve Jobs. If Steve Jobs bluntly


shouted at staff, Tim Cook is always calm and quiet, it is a separate definition of how to manage his staff.
He friendly staff and people around, there are always doing things like friendly people and staff breakfast,
chatting in the afternoon, visit the factories, motivate staff and boost morale of everybody. But the way the
friendly, it is also fierce, Tim Cook harshly sacked anyone mistake affecting the company. The proof is that
he fired, Scott Forstall - the father of the iOS and a student of Steve Jobs as Apple's fault that appears wrong
Maps launches in 2012. A lot of former Apple employees that they are afraid to share the silence of Tim
Cook and the risk of being fired at any time if they make mistakes. Tim Cook to manage employees based
on what they do and must do, mistakes are not acceptable. By combining the two types of transactional and
Transformational Leaders Leaders, Tim Cook has been a loyal and higher productivity of employees besides
also being the beloved and respected by everyone.
Managerial roles and functions on management, Tim Cook is considered a master of supply chain
management, profit maximization and cost reduction to the lowest level. He always brings the logical
organization to bring the greatest benefits. He always select the right people for each truly talented individual
arrays and associated methods are private organizations to do it. Tim Cook understand every person in the
company and what they do for over 10 years with Apple, the ability to use more talented people to be
promoted when he became CEO. And this brings a strong human resources for the company. Tim Cook has
long-term plans and always carefully prepared, Tim Cook accepted a decrease when holding an iPhone 7
boring to launch a powerful breakthrough in 2017, he was ready to take the decision the confusing but then
bring great benefits like Didi and invest in China's Wind Power, ... Everything in the plan of Tim Cook and
he once bluntly told investors: "Let's sell Apple's stock if desired the short-term profits." He always has
been given control of what is happening and willing patiently to the end. Control of each company's products
and the ability to supply customers. Tim Cook at Apple controls everything. Tim Cook is a sample image,
a symbol of inspiration at Apple and is the first thing that comes to employees to think about the company.
He built relationships with subordinates, employees and external partners very well and is a prerequisite to
help better manage Tim Cook. He has always been a company representative talked about everything from
the company's strategy and vision, one role of the media is very big heart. The role of Tim Cook's decision
and his highest is always thoughtful about their decisions, the decisions are always in the plan. a symbol of
inspiration at Apple and is the first thing that comes to employees to think about the company. He built
relationships with subordinates, employees and external partners very well and is a prerequisite to help
better manage Tim Cook. He has always been a company representative talked about everything from the
company's strategy and vision, one role of the media is very big heart. The role of Tim Cook's decision and

his highest is always thoughtful about their decisions, the decisions are always in the plan. a symbol of
inspiration at Apple and is the first thing that comes to employees to think about the company. He built
relationships with subordinates, employees and external partners very well and is a prerequisite to help
better manage Tim Cook. He has always been a company representative talked about everything from the
company's strategy and vision, one role of the media is very big heart. The role of Tim Cook's decision and
his highest is always thoughtful about their decisions, the decisions are always in the plan.
Evaluation on management approaches used by different organizations
Next, In this section we will also talk about Apple and its rival Microsoft to better understand the
management approaches used by two companies.
Microsoft said through the company, this is the revolution created the Windows operating system that so
far it is the most popular in the world. However, from a leader and the mistakes made, a leading Microsoft
from Apple has been overcome.
Human relation approach
Microsoft and Apple use management methods to manage their organizations. As discussed above,
Microsoft care about its employees wrongly. Steve Ballmer has adopted a management system that ruin the
creativity of people, making them bored with their jobs. Now the technology company Apple dominates
For Apple, they care about employees own way. They give employees a passion for Apple and loved deeply.
Apple created the freedom for employees in the creation, construction and product improvements. They
created the challenge to promote employee development, they maintain the corporate culture even though
the company was great and only recruit people who love Apple products. Because of these things that the
Apple employees always want to work, and dedication.
The contingency approach
According to Grimsley have mentioned that: "A contingency approach to management is based on the theory
có management effectiveness is Contingent, or dependent, upon the interplay of management giữa
application specific behaviors and Situations. In other words, the way shouldnt you manage phụ thuộc on
the Circumstances change. One size does not fit all. "


Both Apple and Microsoft knows that if they do not change and adapt to the circumstances, they will be left
behind. Apple is always changing and developing to grow in each period and the results they pass Microsoft.
Microsoft they also realize this and have made their own plans to stand and take back the leader position. It
was a tough competition, and both are changing the lives of everyone.

The development and going up daily, constantly. The business must always learn and strive to innovate and
succeed. This is also a good condition to work out and develop management ability, leadership to help a
business thrive and grow.



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