Tải bản đầy đủ

Principles of economics openstax chapter23


The International Trade and Capital Flows

Chapter 23

+ Chapter Outline

Measuring Trade Balances

Trade Balances in Historical and International Context

Trade Balances and Flows of Financial Capital

The National Saving and Investment Identity

The Pros and Cons of Trade Deficits and Surpluses

The Difference between Level of Trade and the Trade Balance

+ Figure 23.2

The current account balance and the merchandise trade
balance in billions of dollars from 1960 to 2012. If the lines
are above zero dollars, the United States was running a
positive trade balance and current account balance. If the
lines fall below zero dollars, the United States is running a
trade deficit and a deficit in its current account balance.


These same items—trade balance and current account
balance—are shown in relationship to the size of the U.S.
economy, or GDP, from 1960 to 2012.

+ International Flow of Investments & Capital


International Flow of Investment & Capital

The top portion tracks the flow of exports and imports and the payments for those.
The bottom portion tracks international financial investments and the outflow and
inflow of monies from those investments. These investments can include investments
in stocks and bonds or real estate abroad, as well as international borrowing and

+ International flow of investments & capital

Each element of the current account balance involves a flow of financial payments between

The top line shows exports of goods and services leaving the home country;

The second line shows the money received by the home country for those exports.

The third line shows imports received by the home country;

The fourth line shows the payments sent abroad by the home country in exchange for these



Determinants of trade and current account balances

national saving and investment identity provides a useful way to understand the
determinants of the trade and current account balance

Supply of financial capital = Demand for financial capital

S + (M – X) = I + (G - T)

S = private savings; M = imports; X = exports; I = investment; G = government
expenditure; T = taxes

Trade defici = Domestic investment – Private domestic savings – Government savings

(M – X) = I – S - (T - G)


Pros and cons of Trade Deficits and Surpluses

Makes economic sense for a nation to borrow from abroad, as long as the money is
wisely invested in ways that will tend to raise the nation’s economic growth over time

United States (1831 – 75) - a trade deficit in 40 of those 45 years (importing capital)

Invested in projects like railroads that brought a substantial economic payoff

South Korea (1970s) – trade deficit; mid ‘80s – ’90s trade surplus, after economy grew


Pros and Cons

Large economies in Latin America borrowed heavily during ‘70s, no resulting increase in
productivity; trouble paying back during ‘80s

Similar issues with African countries

During ‘90s in East Asia – capital flight late ‘90s (after inflow during early ’90s)


Level of trade and trade balance

level of trade — measured by exports of goods and services as a share of GDP

“How much of production is exported?”

Factors influencing level of trade:


Size of economy


Geographic location


History of trade

Balance of trade separate from level of trade


Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay