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Body massage therapy basic 2nd rosser

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Mo Rosser

Hodder Arnold

Orders: please contact Bookpoint Ltd,
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 340 81660 0
First Edition published 1996
Second Edition published 2004
Impression number 10 9 8 7 6 5
2007 2006 2005



Copyright © 1996, 2004 Mo Rosser
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information
storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or under licence
from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited. Further details of such licences (for reprographic
reproduction) may be obtained from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited,
of 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP.
Cover photo from: Doug Plummer/Photonica
Typeset by Charon Tec Pvt. Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in India for Hodder Arnold, an imprint of Hodder Education, a division of Hodder Headline,
338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH by Replika Press Pvt Ltd.

I am indebted to my friends and colleagues at the London College of Fashion for their
encouragement and support during the preparation of this book.

I would like to thank my family for all their help and support; a special thanks to Greta
Couldridge for her help, advice and support.
Finally my thanks to the following students for their time and patience while modelling for the
photographs: Emma Avis, Lisa Barham, Nicola Christodulou and Georgina Vassili.
Mo Rosser

The publishers would like to thank the following individuals and institutions for permission to
reproduce copyright material:
© Ronald Sheridan/Ancient Art & Architecture Collection Ltd: Figure 0.1; © The British Library,
Or.6810,f.27v: Figure 0.2; © Andrew Brookes/Corbis: Figure 1.1; © Michael Keller/Corbis:
Figure 3.1; © Carlton Professional: Figures 10.1, 10.2; © Dimitri Iundt/Corbis: Figure 11.1.
The commissioned photographs were taken by Susan Ford.
Every effort has been made to obtain necessary permission with reference to copyright
material. The publishers apologise if inadvertently any sources remain unacknowledged
and will be glad to make the necessary arrangements at the earliest opportunity.


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Learning and assessment guidance


Brief history of massage


Part A: Underpinning knowledge
1 Health, safety and hygiene
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
The therapist’s role in maintaining health and safety
in their place of work
Safety considerations when dealing with hazardous substances
Safety considerations when using electrical equipment
Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations 1985 (RIDDOR)
First aid at work
Manual handling
Fire precautions
Risk assessment

Body systems and the physiological and psychological
effects of massage
Organisational levels
The integumentary system
The skeletal system
The muscular system
The cardio-vascular system
The lymphatic system
The respiratory system
The digestive system
The nervous system
The urinary system
The endocrine system
Psychological effects of massage



Part B: Consultation, preparation and massage movements
3 Professional conduct, ethics and preparation
Client consultation
Contra-indications to massage
Referring clients to a medical practitioner
Preparation for massage

Classification of massage and the effleurage group
Classification of massage movements
The effleurage group



The petrissage group
Picking up
Skin rolling
Muscle rolling



The percussion and vibration groups
The percussion (tapotement) group
The vibration group


Part C: Massage routines and adaptations
7 Massage routines
Basic guidelines
Chest and abdomen
Face and head



Adapting massage for specific conditions
Conditions that benefit from massage
Reducing stress and tension


Combating mental and physical fatigue
Relieving oedema
Reducing cellulite
Male clients
Evaluation of treatment
Home advice
Breathing exercises
Evaluation of own performance


Additional techniques
Massage techniques for musculo-skeletal problems
Neuromuscular-skeletal techniques
Passive movements
Body brushing



Mechanical massage
Gyratory vibrator
Percussion vibrator
Audio-sonic vibrator
Heat treatment



Introduction to sports massage
Benefits of sports massage
Use of massage in sport
Pre-event massage
Post-event massage
Training massage
Treatment massage
Contra-indications to sports massage


Answers to questions from Health, safety and hygiene chapter


Appendix: Terminology of surfaces and structures







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This book has been revised and updated to meet the new standards and requirements of the
various awarding bodies. It will provide the student with a comprehensive introduction to
massage and will also be of value to those already practising in this field. The broad-based
information provided will guide the therapist towards safe and effective practice. For those
wanting to progress further, additional information explaining some advanced massage
techniques and the techniques of passive movements has been included, together with the
rationale for their use.
Great emphasis is placed on the responsibility carried by every therapist to be well informed
and to maintain the highest standards of safety and hygiene. Relevant information regarding
the regulations and legal requirements is provided. The text will provide underpinning
knowledge of anatomy and physiology, and will explain the application and the effects of
massage on body systems and tissues. Guidance is also provided for dealing with, and caring
for, each client on an individual basis. Contra-indications are carefully explained and advice
given on the appropriate action to be taken.
The importance of consultation and accurate assessment is discussed, with guidance on
meeting the needs of each client. Advice is given on planning effective treatments, selecting
appropriate techniques and setting realistic targets.
Consideration is also given to the timing and costing of treatments, together with posttreatment observations and feedback.
Emphasis is placed throughout on high standards of client care and all the factors that will
contribute to the success and effectiveness of the treatment.
Revision notes and questions are included among the text or at the end of each chapter, with
model answers at the end of the book.
The aim of the book is to help the student become a caring, competent and successful
practitioner. It will emphasise that the accomplished therapist will require an understanding of
biological principles, an appreciation of the technique and effects of all massage
manipulations, together with highly developed motor skills, sensitivity, integrity and dedication.
Massage forms an important part of all courses in beauty therapy, and also in the growing field
of holistic and complementary therapies. Many techniques are combined with shiatsu, and
acupressure routines, while the application of aromatic oils through massage is the basis of
aromatherapy treatments.


Body Massage Therapy Basics
Therapeutic techniques are once again recognised in mainstream medicine, for the relief of
pain, improving the circulation and in general health care. Basic massage and other more
advanced techniques are now carried out in hospitals, health centres, clinics etc, by therapists,
nurses, and other health staff who have received training in these specialised areas. Athletes,
sportspeople, dancers and actors include massage in their training schedules to aid recovery,
promote relaxation and to prevent or treat soft tissue injuries. A qualification in massage offers
numerous opportunities for employment in a variety of establishments such as beauty salons,
health spas/clinics, leisure centres, sports complexes, and also in hair and beauty centres in
hotels, large department stores and on board luxury cruise liners.
Massage continues to be practised throughout the world and we have much to learn from other
cultures. It is hoped that this book will provide students with a sound foundation on which to
build, explore and evaluate other techniques and theories. Expertise and excellence will
develop through constant practice, self-assessment and evaluation of results. Massage offers
an extremely rewarding and fulfilling career for those seeking a caring role in society.


Learning and assessment
This book provides the basic information and direction for those interested in studying head
and body massage treatments.
The material has been selected and organised to meet the requirements set by the various
awarding bodies in line with National Standards. The text includes the main components,
namely underpinning knowledge, understanding and skill instruction.
When you pursue this course of study and practice, you will acquire:

the underpinning knowledge and understanding to make you a safe and competent


the skills necessary to perform all the massage manipulations on the various parts of the
body and on different types of client.

❖ Learning ❖
Skills learning
Learning how to massage is the same as learning any other skill, such as playing an
instrument. You may find it difficult at the beginning but it will become easier with practice
and experience. The more you practise, the faster you will improve. Watch carefully when
manipulations are demonstrated by your tutor, then practise these yourself to develop the
correct techniques immediately.
Before you start practising, learn the names of the main groups and the type of movement
involved, e.g. those in the effleurage group are stroking movements; those in the petrissage
group are kneading or pressure movements. Then learn the names of each manipulation and
the movement involved.
Massage manipulations vary greatly in the dexterity required to perform them; some are very
much easier than others.
Each time you practise a new manipulation try to break the movement down into small steps.
Practise each step on a model until you are satisfied that you are performing them correctly,
then link them together to perform the complete movement. The text has been organised to
help you follow this step-by-step approach. Follow the technique section for every


Body Massage Therapy Basics
manipulation. Once you have mastered the movement you can then move on and concentrate
on improving co-ordination of speed, depth and rhythm.
Remember that regular practice of hand exercises will improve strength and dexterity.

Knowledge and understanding
You will require background knowledge to be competent in your work and to be able to explain
the effects and benefits of the treatment to your clients.

Health and safety legislation
You must understand the health, safety and welfare requirements related to your work. These
will enable you to practise safely and protect yourself, colleagues and clients from harm. The
relevant health, safety and welfare issues are discussed in the next chapter together with Local
Authority regulations. These are legal requirements for all people in the workplace and are
concerned with the hazards and risks in your place of work. They cover important emergency
procedures such as fire drill and first aid.
They include safety issues related to equipment and practices, and stress the importance of
high standards of hygiene, which must be practised at all times to prevent the spread of
diseases; staff, clients and others must be protected from cross-infection and infestation.
Hygiene relates to your own personal appearance and hygiene practices, e.g. clean overall,
short nails, frequent bathing, hand washing before touching the client and after each
treatment. It includes salon hygiene, e.g. clean boil-washed linen and towels for each client,
prompt and safe disposal of waste into covered waste bins. It also covers client hygiene such
as taking a shower before treatment, cleansing the areas to be massaged, checking and dealing
with any contra-indications.

You must be able to communicate effectively and pleasantly with all types of people. You must
recognise the importance of carrying out and recording a detailed client consultation and
obtaining a signed consent form before starting the treatment. You must be able to create the
right conditions and prepare the room and the client for treatment.

Anatomy and physiology
A knowledge of the structure and function of the body is necessary, as this will enable you
to identify the structures you are working over and understand the effects produced on the
body systems.


Learning and assessment guidance
It will help you to learn this subject if you try to visualise the tissues underneath your hands as
they move over a part when massaging.
Your hands are in contact with the skin: what is the skin composed of? Could you draw and
label a section through the skin?
Under the skin is the subcutaneous layer: what is it made of?
Under this lie the muscles: can you name these muscles and give their action?
Under the muscles lie the bones connected at joints: can you name the bones and the joints?
In this book you will find the anatomy of each part immediately before the massage routine for that
area, e.g. the anatomy of the leg is immediately before the leg massage routine. As you massage
the leg, think of the structures underneath your hands and mentally answer the following:
➛ Name the bones and the joints that lie underneath.
➛ Name the muscles and note the fleshy parts, which can take heavier manipulations and are
easier to knead, wring, pick up and roll than the more tendinous parts.
➛ Name the lymph nodes and their location.
Remember that arteries are deep, and blood flow through the arteries is governed by the
contraction of the heart. You are not likely to affect this arterial blood flow with massage. Veins
lie towards the surface, therefore massage will increase blood flow in the superficial veins.
Lymphatic vessels lie throughout the tissues and the flow of lymph will be increased by massage.
Revise the relevant anatomy both before and after the massage lesson. It becomes easier to
remember when you relate it to practical work.
During assessment you may be required to give the name, position and action of certain
superficial muscles.
You are required to know the parts and functions carried out by the body systems and how
massage may affect them.
When you are studying the text, use the summaries, write your own notes on key points, ask
yourself questions and answer them.

❖ Assessment ❖
Any assessment is an opportunity for you to show how able you are. You will provide
evidence of this ability to the assessor, who will judge your performance against the
requirements of the awarding body.


Body Massage Therapy Basics
Throughout the course you will be required to provide various types of evidence, which the
assessor will judge and say ‘Yes this student is competent and capable of working to the
National Standards’.
Do not be apprehensive when you come to be assessed. Providing you have worked
consistently you will have gained the skills and knowledge required to succeed. You may
decide when you are ready to be assessed.
Each assessment is your chance to demonstrate how good you are, and to provide evidence
of your knowledge or skill.
This book has been designed to help you achieve your goals.
Ask your tutor or teaching centre for a copy of the unit you are studying. Do this at the
beginning of the course. Read each section carefully. The unit will tell you exactly what you
need to know. Do not be put off or be apprehensive as you read it; remember that you are
going to acquire this knowledge one step at a time. Each awarding body will specify its
own requirements but they must all work towards the same National Standards.
The Hairdressing and Beauty Industry Authority (HABIA) identifies the skill needs in these
industries and sets the standards of competence, knowledge and understanding required to
meet these needs. Units can be downloaded from the website of the awarding body; your
college or tutor will have this information. The HABIA website is www.habia.org.
Remember, you are responsible for providing evidence of your competence; your tutor or
assessor will help you by providing guidance and support. Make sure that you understand what
is required of you.
If you know where you are going you are more able to help yourself get there.
Discuss the unit with your assessor, and develop and agree assessment plans. Make sure that
you understand the procedure and what evidence is to be presented at each assessment.
You may have past experience and achievements that may count towards the competence for
this unit. This is usually referred to as accreditation of prior learning. Remember to ask if past
employment or training can be taken into account.
Before undertaking any assessment, the assessor must provide you with a list of criteria and
the range statements. These will inform you of the knowledge and skill competences required
to succeed.
The assessor should read through the criteria and range statements with you and offer support
and advice. Make sure you understand everything that is said and ask for clarification if in doubt.
Your assessor will watch you working and will assess your performance against National
Standards. You and the assessor will decide on the type of assessment and where the


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Learning and assessment guidance
assessment is to take place. Evidence may be collected when you are treating a client in
college or in the workplace. More evidence may be gathered through special tasks, e.g.
projects or case studies. Your knowledge may be assessed by oral or written questions.
You may produce evidence in different ways:
Being observed performing massage a specific number of times on different types of client.
This will demonstrate that you have the necessary skills to carry out a full body massage
including face and head, and that you can adapt the manipulations to suit the needs of
different clients.
You may be questioned by the assessor during or after the performance. Do not stop the
massage when questioned unless told to do so. Learn and practise answering questions
whilst massaging without losing rhythm.
You may produce evidence of knowledge and understanding by writing assignments,
projects or answering written questions.
Some suggestions for topics suitable for projects are:
a) Health and safety requirements: are these being upheld in your college or workplace?
Information can be obtained from the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) at
b) Lubricants used for massage, their advantages and disadvantages. Information on these
products could be obtained from manufacturers, journals, magazines or exhibitions.
c) Adaptation of massage for different types of client and differing skin types. This could be
supported by video evidence, photographs, record cards, letters, etc.
After every assessment you will be given feedback by your assessor. S/he will discuss your
performance with you and tell you if you have been successful or unsuccessful. If you have
been successful this will be recorded. If you have not been successful you will be offered
further training. You have the right to appeal against an assessor’s decision; your training
centre will inform you of the procedure to follow should you wish to do so. You will find it
helpful to keep your own written record of each piece of evidence as you provide it and an
account of every practical assessment. Include the comments and advice of the assessor.
All the evidence you produce to demonstrate competence, knowledge and understanding is
recorded and collected into a portfolio of evidence that is finally presented for certification.
Remember, to succeed you must:
➛ satisfy all evidence requirements
➛ meet all performance criteria
➛ include all aspects of the range
➛ meet all knowledge and understanding requirements.


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Brief history of massage
After you have studied this chapter you will be able to:
1. explain how massage was used in ancient civilisations
2. explain the derivation of the word ‘massage’
3. describe the development of massage from ancient to modern
4. explain why massage became little used as a therapeutic
treatment in hospitals
5. discuss the development of massage in the beauty and leisure

Massage has been practised throughout the centuries since the earliest civilisations. It has
been used medically as a therapeutic healing treatment and also for invigorating, soothing and
beautifying the body. Massage or rubbing is an instinctive act for relieving pain and discomfort,
and for soothing and calming. The use of fats and aromatic oils for anointing and lubricating
the body is referred to in the Bible and the Koran.
The word ‘massage’ has its origin in the Arabic word mass or mass’h, which means ‘to press gently’.
The Greek word massage means ‘to knead’ and the French word masser means ‘to massage’.

Massage in ancient times
The earliest evidence of massage being used is found in the cave paintings of ancient cave
dwellers. These wall drawings and paintings show people massaging each other. Various
artefacts also found contain traces of fats and oils mixed with herbs. These indicate that
lubricants may have been used, perhaps for healing, soothing or beautifying purposes.
As early as 3000 BC, the Chinese practised massage to cure ailments and improve general
health. Records of this can be found in the British Museum. Ancient Chinese books record lists
of massage movements with descriptions of their technique. One of these books, The Cong Fau
of Tao-Tse, also contains lists of exercises and massage used to improve general health and
well-being. The Chinese found that pressure techniques were very effective on specific points
and they developed special techniques called amma (see Figure 0.1). This was the beginning
of the development of acupressure and acupuncture.



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Brief history of massage

Figure 0.1

An ancient Chinese
acupuncture and massage
study figure, showing
treatment points.

Figure 0.2

This ancient Persian
document shows bathing
and massage in a Turkish

These massage techniques spread to Japan, where they were further developed. The Japanese
used similar pressure techniques on specific points, which they called tsubo. This form of
massage has been practised over the centuries; it has recently regained recognition and
popularity and is now known as shiatsu. Many therapists have studied these techniques, which
they combine with other forms of treatment for the benefit of their clients.
Records show that the Hindus practised massage as part of their hygiene routines. A sacred
book called the Ayur-Veda (The Art of Life), which was written around 1800 BC, describes
how shampooing and rubbing were used to reduce fatigue and promote well-being and
The Egyptians and Persians used massage for cosmetic as well as therapeutic effects (see
Figure 0.2). They mixed fats, oils, herbs and resins for care of the skin and beautifying the
body and face. Pots and jars containing these creams have been found in Egyptian tombs.
Cleopatra is said to have bathed in milk and then to have been massaged with aromatic oils
and creams by her handmaidens.
The practice of massage spread from the east into Europe, where it was well established by
500 BC.


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Body Massage Therapy Basics

Massage in classical Greece and Rome
The Greeks believed in the cultivation of a healthy mind and body, which is similar to the
‘holistic approach’ practised by many people today. Rituals of bathing, massage, exercise or
dancing were practised by men and women. They encouraged the pursuit of physical fitness
and organised regular sporting, gymnastic and athletic competitions. Massage was used before
events to improve performance and after events to relieve fatigue and aid recovery. Gladiators
and soldiers were massaged before battle to give vigour and promote fitness and health, and
afterwards to aid recovery, healing and relaxation. Homer writes in the poem The Odyssey of
Greek soldiers being rubbed with oils and anointed by beautiful women to aid their recovery
and regain strength on return from battle.
Around 500 BC the Greek physician Herodicus used massage with oils and herbs to treat
medical conditions and diseases. Hippocrates, who is now thought of as the father of medicine,
was a pupil of Herodicus. He began to study the effects of massage on his patients. He
concluded and recorded that ‘hard rubbing binds, soft rubbing loosens, much rubbing causes
parts to waste but moderate rubbing makes them grow’. Hippocrates also concluded that it was
more beneficial to apply pressure in an upward direction, i.e. towards the heart, as we practise
today. In Hippocrates’ day, the function of the heart and the circulation of the blood were not
known. It is therefore remarkable that he reached this conclusion only by observing the effect
on the tissues of different strokes. With our knowledge of the heart and circulating blood we
understand why pressure upwards is more beneficial: the condition of the tissues improves
because deoxygenated blood and waste products are removed quickly as massage speeds up
blood and lymph flow. Even without the benefit of this knowledge, Hippocrates taught his pupils
that massage movements should be performed with pressure upwards to promote healing.
The Romans followed similar routines to the Greeks. They practised bathing, exercise and
massage for health and social relaxation. Large private and public baths were built. These
included water baths and steam rooms, gymnasium and massage areas. The baths were
maintained at different temperatures and progress was made from cold to hot baths. Wealthy
Romans would use these daily for cleansing, exercising, relaxing and socialising. Servants were
always in attendance, with oils and creams to massage their masters when required. The
Romans built similar baths in the countries that were conquered by their armies. Many such
baths were built after the Roman conquest of Britain in 55 BC, and their ruins can be seen in
Britain today in towns and cities such as Bath, Caerleon and St Albans. Massage techniques
recorded from those times include manipulations known as squeezing, pinching or
pummelling. They relate to the petrissage and percussion movements used today.

The Dark Ages to the Renaissance
Little is known about massage or health and beauty practices throughout the Dark and Middle
Ages, i.e. from the decline of the Roman Empire around 500 AD until the Middle Ages around



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Brief history of massage
1400 AD. Few records remain from those days of wars, strict religions, superstition and
persecution. Little value was placed on education, the arts, physical health and fitness.
Following this period came the Renaissance (rebirth) in 1450 AD. Interest in the arts and
sciences flourished and there was renewed interest in health practices. Once again we see
massage advocated and practised for therapeutic purposes.
In the sixteenth century, the French surgeon Ambroise Paré (1517–90) promoted and developed
the use of massage. He was the personal physician to four French kings. He is reputed to have
successfully treated Mary Queen of Scots with massage. Paré graded massage into gentle,
medium and vigorous. We use similar categories today, namely soothing or relaxing, general, and
stimulating. Many other physicians copied his methods and massage was established medically.

The development of modern massage techniques
Modern massage techniques have evolved mainly from a system developed by a Swedish
physiologist called Per Henrik Ling (1776–1839). He developed a system of passive and active
exercises known as ‘Swedish Remedial Gymnastics’ and also a system of massage movements.
Ling used the terms ‘effleurage’, ‘petrissage’, ‘vibration’, ‘friction’, ‘rolling’ and ‘slapping’.
Most of these terms are still used today, but some changes and modifications have been made
in the groupings and names of manipulations.
Dr Johann Mezgner (1839–1909), a Dutch physician, developed massage for use in
rehabilitation and used it successfully to treat many diseases and disorders. He adapted
massage techniques in the light of his knowledge of anatomy and physiology. His theories,
based on sound scientific principles, became accepted as medical practice and gained him
many followers, particularly in Germany and America.
The work of Ling and Mezgner established massage as an effective therapeutic treatment.
Techniques were taught in medical schools and the beneficial effects became widely
recognised and accepted in the medical field. In England, the eminent surgeon John Grosvenor
(1742–1823) used massage to treat joints. He recommended massage for the treatment of
rheumatism, gout and stiffness of joints.
Nurses were encouraged to train and use massage for the treatment of patients, under the
guidance of doctors. In 1894 a group of women founded the Society of Trained Masseuses.
Rules and regulations for training and examinations for qualifying were established. These
women raised standards and fought to establish massage therapy as a reputable profession.

Twentieth-century developments
During the First World War the demand for massage to treat the injured grew and many more
massage therapists were trained. Membership of the Society of Trained Masseuses grew and in
1920 it amalgamated with the Institute of Massage and Remedial Exercise. In recognition of
the valuable work contributed by its members during the war, a Royal Charter was granted and
the title was changed to the Chartered Society of Massage and Medical Gymnastics. The title


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Body Massage Therapy Basics
was changed again in 1943 and became the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. In 1964 its
members became state registered. This protected and gave status to those qualified therapists
who were practising in clinics and hospitals, and made it impossible for those without a
recognised qualification to practise in hospitals.
With the development of alternative electrical-based treatments, the use of massage to treat
medical conditions declined. There was rapid growth in electrotherapy and eventually massage
ceased to be part of physiotherapy training. It became little used as a therapeutic treatment in
hospitals. There was, however, a continuing demand for massage in clinics, health farms,
fitness and leisure centres.
In 1966 the City and Guilds of London Institute explored the possibility of establishing a course
in beauty therapy to include massage. This course would provide thorough training, background
knowledge and a recognised professional qualification that ensured a high standard of practice.
In 1968 the first full-time course was offered in colleges of further education. The British
Association of Beauty Therapists and Cosmetologists, the International Health and Beauty
Council and other organisations also developed courses and offered certificates and diplomas.
The growth in complementary medicine and the holistic approach to health has increased the
demands for well-qualified practitioners, not only in massage but also in aromatherapy,
reflexology, shiatsu etc. Courses are now validated by the Health and Beauty Therapy Training
Board and therapists must meet the criteria of the National Council of Vocational Qualifications.

1. Outline the evidence which
indicates that massage
was practised by cave
2. Name three languages from
which the word ‘massage’
may have derived.
3. Explain briefly what is
meant by the Chinese
technique of acupuncture.
4. Describe briefly how the
Greeks and Romans
incorporated massage into
their rituals.
5. Name the Greek physician
who concluded that massage





pressure should be applied
in an upward direction.
Explain why little is known
about massage in the Dark
Name three eminent doctors
who promoted massage for
healing purposes.
Explain why the reputation
of massage grew during and
after the First World War.
Name the examining body
that established the first
beauty therapy course in
colleges of further and
higher education.




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Part A



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Health, safety and hygiene

After you have studied this chapter you will be able to:
1. understand the legal requirements under the Health and
Safety at Work Act
2. distinguish between hazard and risk
3. explain the role of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
4. list the actions that may be taken by the HSE
5. differentiate between health, safety and welfare issues in the
6. discuss the ways of protecting everyone in the workplace
from exposure to hazardous substances
7. explain the safety considerations related to electrical
8. understand the importance of reporting injuries, diseases
and dangerous occurrences
9. describe the importance of administering first aid in the
10. describe the correct techniques for lifting
11. state the precautions that must be in place to meet fire
12. carry out a risk assessment
13. distinguish between infection and infestation
14. differentiate between bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa
15. distinguish between natural immunity and artificial immunity
16. explain the ways in which micro-organisms enter the body
and may be transmitted
17. list the required conditions for growth of bacteria
18. distinguish between ectoparasites and endoparasites
19. discuss the factors to be considered in maintaining high
standards of salon hygiene
20. discuss the factors to be considered in maintaining high
standards of personal hygiene.



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