Human Resource Management:
Gaining a Competitive Advantage
Employee Separation and
Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
To compete, organizations must ensure:
Good performers are motivated to stay.
Chronically low performers are allowed, encouraged
or if necessary, forced to leave.
2 Types of Turnover:
Involuntary turnover—initiated by the organization
(often among those who would prefer to stay).
Voluntary turnover—initiated by employee
(often those the company would prefer to keep).
Employment-at-will doctrine- in the
absence of a specific contract, either an
employer or employee could sever the
employment relationship at any time.
Violence in the workplace caused by
involuntary turnover has become a major
A standardized, systematic approach to
discipline and discharge is necessary.
Principles of Justice
Outcome fairness-the judgement that
people make regarding outcomes received
relative to outcomes received by others with
whom they identify.
Procedural justice- focuses on methods
used to determine the outcomes received.
Interactional justice- the interpersonal
nature of how the outcomes were
4 Stages of
Open Door Policy
Employee Assistance Programs
EAPs attempt to ameliorate problems
encountered by workers who are drug
dependent, alcoholic, or psychologically
EAPs are usually identified in official
documents published by the employer.
Managing Voluntary Turnover – Job
Progression of Withdrawal Theory-
dissatisfied individuals enact a set of
behaviors in succession to avoid their work
1. behavior change
2. physical job withdraw
3. psychological job withdraw
Withdrawal behaviors are related to one
another, and partially caused by job
Job DissatisfactionJob Withdrawal Process
An employee's first response to dissatisfaction
would be to try to change conditions that
When employees are unionized, dissatisfaction
leads to increased grievances.
Employees sometimes initiate change through
whistle-blowing-making grievances public by
going to the media or government.
4 ways a dissatisfied worker can physically
withdraw from the organization:
Leave the job
Companies spend 15 % of payroll costs to
make up for absent workers on average.
2 Forms of Psychological
Job Satisfaction and Job
Job satisfaction is a pleasurable feeling
that results from the perception that
one's job fulfills one's important job
3 aspects of job satisfaction:
Sources of Job
Negative affectivity is a dispositional
dimension that reflects pervasive individual
differences in satisfaction with any and all
aspects of life.
Tasks and Roles
The nature of the task itself is the key
predictor of job dissatisfaction.
Sources of Job Satisfaction
Supervisors and Coworkers
A person may be satisfied with his or her
supervisor and coworkers due to:
shared values, attitudes, and philosophies,
strong social support
Pay and Benefits
Pay is a reflection of self-worth, so pay
satisfaction is significant when it comes to