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Negotiations 6e mcgraw hill chapter 14

McGraw -Hill/Irw in

Copy right © 2010 by The McGraw -Hill Companies, Inc. A ll rights

Individual Differences I:
Gender and Negotiation

• Distinguishing between the terms sex and
• Reviewing the theoretical perspectives on
why one might expect differences
• Examining empirical research evidence
about the underlying psychology of gender
in negotiation

Defining Sex and Gender p.404-5
• Sex:
– Refers to the biological categories of male and female
– “the property or quality by which organisms are classified
as female or male on the basis of their reproductive organs
and functions”

• Gender:
– Refers to cultural and psychological markers of the sexes –
the aspects of role or identity that differentiate men from
women in a given culture or society


Research on Gender
Differences in Negotiation
p. 405
There may be no simple answer to the
question of how gender influences
negotiation, but recent studies are shedding
light on differences that do exist and on why
it can be hard to find them in broad-brush
comparisons of male and female

Male and Female Negotiators:
Theoretical Perspectives
Several important factors affect how women and
men approach negotiations: p. 406-7

Relational view of others
Embedded view of agency
Beliefs about ability and worth
Control through empowerment
Problem solving through dialogue
Perceptions and stereotypes

Male and Female Negotiators:
Theoretical Perspectives

Relational view of others p. 406

Women: place greater emphasis on interaction
goals (the interpersonal aspects of the
Men: are driven more by task-specific goals

Embedded view of agency p. 406

Women: see negotiation as a behavior that occurs
within relationships without large divisions
marking when it begins and ends
Men: tend to demarcate negotiating from other
behaviors that occur and signal the beginning and
end of the negotiations behaviorally.


Male and Female Negotiators:
Theoretical Perspectives
• Beliefs about ability and worth p. 406
– Women: are more likely to see their worth determined
by what the employer will pay
– Men: expect to earn more than women over the course of
their career

• Control through empowerment p. 406
– Women: are more likely to seek empowerment,
“interaction among all parties in the relationship”
– Men: use power to achieve their own goals or to force the
other party to capitulate

Male and Female Negotiators:
Theoretical Perspectives
• Problem solving through dialogue p. 406-7
– Women: seek to engage, listen and contribute
– Men: convince the other party their position is the
correct one and support various tactics and ploys that
are used to win points during the discussion

• Perceptions and stereotypes p. 407
– Negative stereotypes about female bargainers shape
expectations and behaviors
– Men have an advantage as a “dominant cultural stereotype”


Empirical Findings on Gender
Differences in Negotiations
• Men and women conceive of negotiations
differently p. 407-409
– Relationship versus task orientation
– Competition versus collaboration
– Is the situation perceived as a negotiation
– Outcome expectations

• Men and women communicate differently
• Men and women are treated differently 410

Gender Differences in the
Ultimatum Game
Box 14.1 – P. 411

Women and Salaries
• Women do not fare as well on salary
negotiations as their male counterpart,
• Mainly because they do not ask for it.
– Why not?
– Women see their worth as what the
market will pay

Empirical Findings on Gender
Differences in Negotiations P.

• Men and women are treated differently


Empirical Findings on Gender
Differences in Negotiations
• Similar tactics have different effects when used by
men versus women p. 413
– Exchange tactics: studies suggest that not only do men
and women receive different outcomes during salary
negotiations but that the same tactic may have opposite
effects on salary negotiation outcomes
– Aggressive tactics: male and female candidates were
less likely to be hired when they bargained aggressively.
Females were 3.5 times less likely to be hired when

Empirical Findings on Gender
Differences in Negotiations
• Gender stereotypes affect negotiator
performance p. 413 -4
– Stereotypes undermine the performance of female
– The negative effect of stereotypes about gender
differences can be overcome
– The activated stereotype may matter more than the
actual gender of the negotiator

Overcoming the Disadvantage of
Gender Differences p. 414-5
• Motivational interventions
– Emphasize the mutual dependence of both parties in the
negotiation relationship

• Cognitive interventions
– Focus on things that negotiators have in common that
transcend gender, such as common goals or identities

• Situational interventions
– Alter the social roles that women assume in a negotiation to
reduce the extent to which women feel constrained to
conform to gender role

Overcoming Disadvantages
• Cognitive Interventions – Having a
powerful frame of mind can prove to be
beneficial in negotiations.
• Power mind set is the awareness of the role
of power as it relates to tactics and

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