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Reading for the real world 1



Reading for the Real World 1 Second Edition
Casey Malarcher · Andrea Janzen · Adam Worcester

© 2009 Compass Publishing
All rights reserved. No part of this book
may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,
or otherwise, without prior permission
in writing from the publisher.
Acquisitions Editor: Jordan Candlewyck
Content Editor: Rob Jordens
Copy Editor: Kelli Ripatti
Cover/Interior Design: Design Plus
email: info@compasspub.com

The authors of this book would like to acknowledge the following writers for
contributing materials to this series: Michael Souza, Michael Pederson,
Paul Edmunds, Paula Bramante, Kandice MacDonald, Barbara Graeber
ISBN: 978-1-59966-420-0
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6
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pp. 113, 114, 119, 121 © Yonhap News
pp. 77, 78, 79 © Jupiterimages Corporation

Unit 1

Strange & Unusual
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

American Superstitions / 5
Bigfoot / 11

Unit 2

Computers & Technology
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

The History of the Internet / 17
Gamers: Image and Reality / 23

Unit 3

Health & Medicine

Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

Body Mass and Weight / 29
Studying Headaches / 35

Unit 4

Social Issues
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

High School Dropout Rates on the Rise / 41
Where Are All the Boys? / 47

Unit 5

Environmental Issues
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

Sixth Extinction / 53
A Plan to Curb Greenhouse Gases / 59

Unit 6

Law & Crime
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

The History of the Death Penalty / 65
Bounty Hunters / 71

Unit 7

Language & Literature
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

King’s March on Washington Address / 77
Desiree’s Baby By Kate Chopin / 83

Unit 8

Space & Exploration
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

The Space Race / 89
Asteroid Impacts on Earth / 95

Unit 9

Sports & Fitness
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

Cheating in Sports / 101
Gi / 107

Unit 10

People & Opinions
Reading 1 :

Reading 2 :

Barack Obama’s Keynote Address at the Democratic National
Convention / 113
Anita Roddick / 119

Unit 11

Cross-Cultural Viewpoints
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

Ideas About Beauty / 125
Bribery or Business as Usual? / 131

Unit 12

Business & Economics
Reading 1 :
Reading 2 :

Adventure Tours for Charity / 137
Rating Companies / 143



S t r a n g e & U nusua l 1

Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1. What are some good-luck superstitions?
2. What are some bad-luck superstitions?
3. Do you follow or believe any of these superstitions?

Vocabulary Preview
Match each word or phrase with the correct definition.
1. clover

a. inclined to believe in chance or magic

2. conduct

b. a small plant with white berries; a Christmas decoration

3. confess

c. a small flowering plant, usually with three leaves

4. optimistically

d. to do

5. mistletoe

e. to admit

6. superstitious

f. positively; in a positive way


American Superstitions


Track 1

very culture has superstitions. Some people
believe them more than others. Even in our
modern technological society, superstitions

still hold a powerful influence. Most people seem to

outgrow them. But how many people continue to
believe (or at least act like they believe) these
superstitions as adults?
A survey conducted for the journal American Demographics by the research
firm Market Facts found some surprising results. In modern America, where


superstitions are seen as nothing more than the beliefs of a weak mind, 44
percent of the people surveyed still admitted they were superstitious. The other
56 percent claimed to be only “optimistically superstitious,” meaning they were
more willing to believe superstitions relating to good luck over ones related to
bad luck. For example, 12 percent of those who said they were not really


superstitious confessed to knocking on wood for good luck. And 9 percent
confessed they would pick up a penny on the street for good luck. A further
9 percent of non-believers also said they would pick a four-leaf clover for luck if
they found one. And some still believed in kissing under the mistletoe for luck.
Of the 44 percent of Americans who admit their superstitious beliefs, 65


percent said they were “only a little” superstitious, 27 percent were “somewhat”
superstitious, and 8 percent were “very” superstitious. Among this group of
believers, some interesting differences appeared when the men and women were
considered separately. In the survey, women comprised 60 percent of the
entire superstitious group, seeming to indicate that women tend to be more


superstitious than men. However, more than half (64 percent) of the “very”
superstitious believers were male.
Additionally, age also showed significant differences between the believers
and non-believers. More young people admitted their superstitious nature than


comprise --- to make up
indicate --- to show; to suggest
significant --- major; large


expect --- to guess; to consider likely
respondent --- a person who answers a survey
minimal --- low; of the smallest amount
common --- usual; occurring frequently
check --- to mark
widely --- over a large range or area
cross one’s fingers --- to put the second finger over the first finger

older people in the survey. For people between the ages of eighteen and twenty30

four taking the survey, 64 percent claimed to be at least a little superstitious. But
for seniors 65 and older, only 30 percent admitted to believing any superstitions.
It might be expected that people with more education would be less
superstitious, but results from the survey indicated almost equal numbers of
believers between those with and without college degrees. Of those survey


respondents who never finished or only finished high school, 42 percent
reported being at least a little superstitious. For those with a college education,
47 percent claimed the same minimal level of belief.
In the survey, ten common superstitions were listed for the people who
responded. Of these superstitions, five were related to good luck and five to bad


luck. Respondents were then asked to check the ones they believed. Of the
superstitions in the list, good-luck superstitions were more widely held. The top
superstitions related to good luck that most people followed “very much” were
picking four-leaf clovers (79 percent), knocking on wood (72 percent), picking up
pennies (70 percent), and crossing fingers for luck (59 percent). Of the bad-luck


superstitions, the most common belief was that breaking a mirror
brought bad luck (82 percent). Other bad luck superstitions
listed in the survey included seeing black cats, walking under
ladders, seeing the bride before the wedding, and doing
anything on Friday the 13th.


Many people would like to think it could not hurt to do
something like knocking on wood or crossing your fingers to
bring a little luck. After all, who doesn’t want a little luck?
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds

574 words



R eading Comprehension
A Mark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
1. ____ The majority of people said they do not believe in bad luck.
2. ____ None of the non-believers think four-leaf clovers are lucky.
3. ____ It is bad luck to climb a ladder.
4. ____ Few people thought that breaking a mirror was bad luck.

B Choose the best answer.
1. Which of the following would bring bad luck?

A cracked mirror
Crossed fingers
Money on the street
Walking under mistletoe

2. Which of these good-luck traditions was most commonly followed by

Avoiding black cats
Kissing under mistletoe
Knocking on wood
Picking up money

3. Who would be most likely to admit being superstitious?

A nineteen-year-old, female, college student
A thirty-year-old, male, high school drop-out
A forty-year-old, male, college graduate
A seventy-year-old, female, college graduate

C For the next two questions, look for the answers in the passage and
write them on the lines provided.
1. What was the main purpose of the survey?
2. What are the different groups of superstitions?

S ummary
Fill in the blanks with the phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once.
in good-luck
picking four-leaf clovers

breaking a mirror
who responded to

confessed to being
the superstitious beliefs

A marketing research firm conducted a survey to find out information about
1 _________________ of Americans. It was found through the survey that many
Americans actually 2 _________________ at least “somewhat” superstitious.
Most people see themselves as “optimistically superstitious,” meaning they believe
more 3 _________________ than bad-luck superstitions. Some common
good-luck superstitions in the survey included 4 _________________ and
kissing under mistletoe. Bad-luck superstitions on the survey included walking under
a ladder and 5 _________________ . Of the people 6 _________________
the survey, young people said they were superstitious more often than old people.

V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words that are related to the topic but are not in the reading.
Fill in each blank with the best word from the list. Use each word only






1. An __________ can tell your fortune by the stars.
2. Oh, no! I just saw a crow. That’s a bad __________.
3. According to my __________ in the newspaper, I will have a good day today.
4. Have __________! Everything will turn out all right in the end.
5. The archeologist had bad luck after he opened the tomb. He received the
mummy’s __________.
6. I can’t do anything about it. It’s my __________ to be in this situation.



S upplemental Reading
“Unlucky” Number 13


Track 2

998 was a very bad year, especially for people
who believed the number 13 is an unlucky
number. In 1998, three months had a Friday that

fell on the 13th of the month--February, March, and

November. That is actually the most Friday the 13ths
possible in a year.
The origin of the number 13 being an unlucky number goes back to the time
of Jesus’s death. At the last supper, Jesus gathered his twelve followers for a
special meal, but including himself, there were a total of 13 people at the table.


One of those followers later betrayed Jesus and turned him over to be killed.
Today, superstitions about the number continue to worry people. As a
result, most American skyscrapers do not have a 13th floor. In addition, most
airplanes lack a 13th row because few customers would buy tickets to sit there.
Perhaps surprisingly, when asked, only 13 percent of the American population


admit they believe that Friday the 13th is an unlucky day. The percentage is slightly
higher among young people. About 30 percent of Americans between the ages of
eighteen and twenty-four say they try to generally be a little more careful on a
Friday falling on the 13th. Interestingly, the nine movies of the horror series
Friday the 13th were all released during this age group’s formative years (1980-


1993). Perhaps the series has had a greater effect on people than anyone would
like to admit.

Discuss the following questions.
1. Can superstitions ever be helpful?
2. Do you have any item that brings you luck? What is it and where did you get it?



S t r a n g e & U nusua l 2

Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1. Do you know any stories about mysterious creatures?
Where were they seen?
2. Do you think that strange creatures like the Loch Ness monster
exist? Why or why not?
3. What have you heard about “Bigfoot”?

Vocabulary Preview
Match each word or phrase with the correct definition.
1. aggressive

a. a dead body or bones

2. remains

b. a smell; a scent

3. creature

c. to travel; to move from one country or area to another

4. description

d. a statement that tells what something looks like

5. migrate

e. an animal or monster

6. odor

f. quick to attack; not afraid




Track 3

ative American and Canadian Indian tribes
have passed down stories going back
thousands of years about giant ape-men

living in the forests of the western United States and


Canada. They called these creatures Sasquatch, Yerin,
or Mountain Devils. Regardless of the name, the
descriptions of these animals are usually the same. The
Bigfoot is usually described as being very tall, well over
two meters. It is covered in thick, dark hair and usually gives off a bad odor.


The Bigfoot’s body is usually very muscular and ape-like, yet it walks upright
and has a face more similar to that of humans than of apes. For the most part,
these creatures appear not to be violent or aggressive. Bigfoot sightings are
usually of lone, or single, creatures, but there have been reports of people seeing
groups, or families, of Bigfoot.
People in other countries also tell stories of similar ape-men. In the


Himalayas, a mountain range in Nepal, people call these creatures Yeti, or
Abominable Snowmen. The Africans call them Ngoloko, and the Chinese tell
stories of the Gin-Sung, or bearman.
Though sightings have been reported for centuries, is there any scientific

evidence for the existence of these creatures? Some say yes, and others say no.
Dr. Grover Krantz, a physical anthropologist at the University of Oregon,
believes that Bigfoot may be a type of creature known as a Gigantopithecus.
A Gigantopithecus is an animal that lived in Asia over 300,000 years ago and
looked like a mix between an ape and a very large man. Dr. Krantz believes that


these animals, which lived long before humans, may have migrated from Asia
and decided to settle in the heavily wooded area of the Pacific Northwest,


pass down --- to tell from one generation to the next
regardless of --- in spite of; not considering
abominable --- terrible
sightings --- fact of seeing; something seen
anthropologist --- a person who studies the development of humans
mix --- a combination
wooded --- having many trees


trickster --- a person who cheats others
deeper --- farther inside
elusive --- not easy to find; good at hiding

where food was plentiful.
Is it possible that creatures like these could have survived for so many years
unknown to humans? Cryptozoologists compare the case of Bigfoot to that of the

coelacanth. The coelacanth is a type of fish that was believed to have gone
extinct over 70,000,000 years ago, but this fish has been discovered to be still
living off the coast of South Africa. Cryptozoologists believe that the animals that
we now call Bigfoot have been able to survive by living in an area that people,
until recently, have seldom gone.


There are, however, some questions that science has been
unable to answer. For example, why have no dead Bigfoot
bodies ever been discovered? And where is the physical proof
of their existence? Bigfoot researchers point out that it is
unusual to find the dead remains of any animal in the forest.


Most of the time, they say, other animals eat the remains soon
after death; this may be the case for Bigfoot, too. Many
skeptics, people who do not believe in Bigfoot, say that the video and
photographs of Bigfoot are really pictures of people wearing an ape costume.
They also believe that the Bigfoot footprints are really the footprints of a bear, or


footprints made by tricksters trying to fool scientists.
It is possible that we may never know the truth about these animals. If they
have avoided being seen for the last several thousand years, then maybe they will
stay hidden for another several thousand. Or it may be that as we humans go
deeper and deeper into the forests of Northwest America and Canada, we may


finally come face to face with the elusive Bigfoot.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds

572 words



R eading Comprehension
A Mark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
1. ____ Stories of Bigfoot are only very recent.
2. ____ Bigfoot could be related to an animal that lived thousands of years ago.
3. ____ Many people think that Bigfoot evidence is not real.
4. ____ The coelacanth is an extinct Bigfoot.

B Choose the best answer.
1. Why do cryptozoologists think that the coelacanth is good evidence for the
existence of Bigfoot?

The coelacanth is an old kind of fish that can live out of water.
The coelacanth also looks strange.
The coelacanth is originally from Asia.
The coelacanth shows that living ancient animals exist without being easily

2. Why don’t skeptics think Bigfoot exists?

Only pictures of Bigfoot have been taken.
They believe that the footprints were made by bears or tricksters.
Skeptics made a Bigfoot costume.
They are very big.

3. According to the reading, what do cryptozoologists probably study?

All animals
Unknown or mysterious creatures

C For the next two questions, look for the answers in the passage and
write them on the lines provided.
1. What is Dr. Krantz’s theory about Bigfoot?
2. If Bigfoot does exist, why is the Northwest a good habitat for it to live in?

S ummary
Fill in the blanks with the phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once.
believers say
a bad odor

found or sighted
came from Asia

are not aggressive
usually eat them

Descriptions of Bigfoot indicate they are larger than men, have lots of hair, and
usually have 1 _________________. One theory says that Bigfoot
2 _________________ originally, but it migrated to North America to find food.
Some people wonder why more people have not 3 _________________ a Bigfoot.
Bigfoot researchers say it is because these creatures 4 _________________ and
hide when humans come near them. Skeptics also point out that no one has ever
found a dead body of a Bigfoot; however, 5 _________________ that fact is not
so strange. It is actually rare to find the remains of any dead animal because other
animals 6 _________________.

V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words that are related to the topic but are not in the reading.
Fill in each blank with the best word from the list. Use each word only






1. Where does the fox live? Its __________ is over there.
2. Is the Loch Ness monster real? I think it is just a(n) __________.
3. Long ago, people thought that rain was __________. They didn’t realize that it
was a natural process.
4. “Do you think __________ exist?” “Well, I’ve never seen one.”
5. Bob had a(n) __________ experience. He still feels strange about it.
6. There are many __________ about ghosts.



S upplemental Reading
The Death of Bigfoot?


Track 4

s Bigfoot dead? The answer is “yes” according to the
family of Ray L. Wallace, who died November 26th,
2002 in Seattle, Washington. After the death of his

father, Michael Wallace told a story that surprised many


people who have been trying to solve the Bigfoot mystery.
He claimed that his father thought of the idea of a Bigfoot
creature; though he did not make the name, Bigfoot, he developed it as a
practical joke to make money. According to Michael, Ray Wallace asked a friend
to make a pair of 16-inch (40 cm) footprints out of wood. He then used these


footprints for making fake Bigfoot tracks around the woods near his house.
Mr. Wallace would use these footprints to support stories about Bigfoot that he
would tell to newspapers. Some of these stories were quite strange.
He once told a newspaper reporter, “Bigfooted creatures are people, they
speak a language.” Mr. Wallace then used these stories to make money. He made


tape recordings of strange sounds that he said were “Bigfoot conversations” and
sold the tapes to tourists along with Bigfoot photos, posters, and pieces of
animal hair that he said came from Bigfoot.
Though his family claims that Bigfoot died with Ray Wallace, others are not
so sure. Scientist Jeff Meldrum, a professor at Idaho State University, does not


believe that Bigfoot was imaginary. Professor Meldrum claims to have copies of
over forty footprints that he says belong to a very large, unknown creature,
which he believes is Bigfoot.

1. If Bigfoot exists, what kind of creature do you think it could be?
2. What other kinds of hoaxes have you heard about?



C o m p u t e r s & Te c hnology 1

The History of
the Internet
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1. During which decade were computers first used in homes?
2. During which decade did lots of people start using the Internet?
3. Was the original use of the Internet for business or some other

Vocabulary Preview
Match each word or phrase with the correct definition.
1. accelerate

a. a set of operation instructions for a computer program

2. access

b. easily carried by hand

3. cable

c. to go faster

4. code

d. a person skilled at programming, usually having
a mischievous purpose

5. hacker

e. a cord made of strands of metal wire

6. portable

f. to use by permission


The History of the Internet


Track 5

lmost everyone knows about the Internet. More than a billion people
around the world are now online. The Internet is a powerful tool for
information and communication.

The basic concept of the Internet was first thought of in the early 1960s. It


began as a military research network, designed to be decentralized or spread out
over many locations. If one location was attacked, the military could communicate
from another location. The first small network went online in 1969. It connected
four universities in the United States.
This network was very successful from the beginning. Scientists could now


share information about their research. In 1972, email was invented and quickly
became the most popular application. By the end of that year, the network
connected many universities and government research centers. The general
public became aware of the network in the late 70s. A new version allowed
anyone to get online. People from all over the world joined online groups to talk


about thousands of different subjects.
The term Internet was used for the first time in 1982. New technology had
created a common language for the network computers. The Internet was now
recognized as an international
network. This was also at
the time when privacy and


security started becoming
important issues. Hackers
and viruses began to
In 1990, the original


military network went
offline, and a year later the

online --- connected to the network
decentralize --- to put in many different locations
application --- a special purpose for which something is used
aware of --- conscious of; informed about


navigate --- to direct or manage its course
search engine --- a computer program that searches the World Wide Web
annual --- yearly
approximately --- nearly
consortium --- a group formed with the purpose to work together
data --- information

World Wide Web was born. The World Wide Web is in fact a browser for the
Internet---a kind of software program that allows users to access and navigate

within information on the net. With the introduction of the World Wide Web, the
development of the Internet accelerated at a rapid pace. The first computer code of
the web was created in 1991 allowing programmers to combine words, pictures, and
sounds on web pages.
In the early nineties, the first search engine, Gopher, and the first web


browser, Mosaic, were developed, allowing easier and simpler access to the Net.
Traffic on the Internet started growing at an annual rate of approximately
340,000 percent.
At the end of the 1990s, Internet2 was born.
Internet2 uses fiber optic cables to link together a


consortium of hundreds of high-speed networks
around the world. Instead of connecting to the
Internet solely through telephone lines, people
could now connect in a wide variety of ways, including
via satellite. These new methods have more data carrying capacity, or bandwidth,


than telephone lines. This made the Internet faster and able to convey much more
information. People could soon watch TV shows and movies online.
In the future, people will not need a computer to access the Internet. The
browser will become a platform for the Web. Information will no longer need to
be stored in a computer hard drive. Instead, it will be stored in places around


the world. People can retrieve it through cell phones, music players, and other
portable devices. This is called “cloud computing,” because it seems as if
information floats down from the sky. A 2008 study said that the Internet will
continue to grow. By 2020, a low-cost global network will allow people even in
remote areas to have Internet access. English will remain the primary Net language,


but other languages, especially Mandarin, will increase. Also, a segment of society
will refuse to use the Net and live without modern technology.
Reading Time _______ minutes _______ seconds

562 words



R eading Comprehension
A Mark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the
1. ____ The first small network went online in 1969.
2. ____ Gopher was the first Internet search browser.
3. ____ The Internet2 allowed people to watch TV online.
4. ____ By 2020, English will no longer be the primary language of the

B Choose the best answer.
1. Which of the following is NOT an Internet-based technology?

World Wide Web

2. The first computer virus probably appeared in ____.

the early 70s
the late 70s
the early 80s
the early 90s

3. What was Gopher?

A computer company
A computer virus
A program application
A search engine

C For the next two questions, look for the answers in the passage and
write them on the lines provided.
1. Why was the first small network useful for scientists?
2. In the future, why will people no longer need computers to access the

S ummary
Fill in the blanks with the words from the list. Use each word only once.



Although it has only a short history, the Internet has had a great impact on
modern society. The concept of the Internet came from military research in the
1960s. The military wanted to 1 _________________ its research and control
centers through connections to many locations by computers. As more and more
people began using the system during the 1980s, privacy and security became an
issue due to the threat of 2 _________________ and viruses. In the 1990s, the
development of the Internet 3 _________________ rapidly thanks to the World
Wide Web and the invention of the first computer 4 _________________ for web
pages. Soon after, fiber optic 5 _________________ made the Internet faster and
able to carry much more information. In decades to come, 6 _________________
devices will be used instead of computers to retrieve information from the Internet.

V ocabulary Extension
Here are six words that are related to the topic but are not in the reading.
Fill in each blank with the best word from the list. Use each word only






1. I lost all of my homework when my computer __________.
2. Do you know how to __________ this program?
3. To open the file, just __________ on its name.
4. Casey has __________ over 400 MP3 files.
5. If your computer is __________ for a few minutes, the screensaver will start.
6. The computer screen is not responding to the mouse. I think your computer is



S upplemental Reading
Internet and Freedom of Speech


Track 6

ne of the most important things that the
Internet has fostered or strengthened
has been freedom of speech and

freedom of expression. The Internet is a very large


common public area that is shared by people all
around the world. Due to the diversity of the Net’s
users, no one standard can be applied to govern
speech on the Net. Furthermore, the Internet technology itself prevents complete
blocking of access to information.


The Internet has helped to promote political freedom in many cases and
allowed protesters a way to express their discontent. In 1990, the Internet
allowed Chinese dissidents to bypass government censorship and inform the
world Chinese community of the rebellion in Tiananmen Square and its tragic
outcome. Similarly in 1991, people both in the Soviet Union and around the


world were able to access eyewitness accounts of the attempted coup against
Mikhail Gorbachev in spite of an information blackout. During Iraq’s invasion of
Kuwait, Internet users got up-to-date information through Internet connections
with Kuwait even though radio and television broadcasts had been cut off.
In the late 1990s, many countries became alarmed at the freedom of speech


accessible on the Internet and tried to restrict it. Singapore mandated that
political and religious sites must register with the government. China ordered
that all Internet users register with the police. And Saudi Arabia restricted
Internet use to only universities and hospitals. However, due to the nature of the
Internet, none of these efforts has had much lasting effect.

Discuss the following questions.
1. What do you usually use the Internet for?
2 How has the Internet changed since you first began using it?



C o m p u t e r s & Te c hnology 2

Image and Reality
Pre-Reading Questions
Think about the following questions.
1. What are the most popular computer games today?
2. Do you know any people who play a lot of games on the computer?
What are these people like?
3. What do you think most gamers have in common?

Vocabulary Preview
Match each word or phrase with the correct definition.
1. antisocial

a. highly developed; complicated

2. activity

b. a picture; an idea of how something looks

3. image

c. an action to hurt or kill others

4. recognize

d. disliking other people; not fitting in with others

5. sophisticated

e. an action; a way to enjoy free time

6. violence

f. to see and understand


Gamers: Image and Reality


Track 7

ideo games have become very popular. There are
numerous games for the personal computer.
Additionally, game systems, like the Sony

Playstation and the Xbox, can be found in many


homes. As video games have become more popular
and sophisticated, they have influenced popular
culture. The character of Lara Croft from the
game, Tomb Raider, is well known even to people
who have never played the game. There have been


several movies based on video games, Tomb
Raider included. Obviously, the video game industry is highly profitable, and
the designers of a successful game can become very rich. Of course, what this
means is that there are many people buying and playing video games. What
kinds of people are they?
There are many stereotypes about gamers. The first one is that most gamers


are males. Another stereotype about gamers is that they are not interesting or
attractive people. According to this view, gamers are mostly fat because they
always play games instead of exercising. Even if they are not fat, they are still
unhealthy because they rarely go outside or do anything active. Another part of

this image is that gamers are ugly. They play games because it is impossible for
them to find girlfriends. Not only are they ugly, but they are also boring. Gamers
have no interests outside games, so games are all that they can talk about,
besides computers. Further, this image of gamers implies they are antisocial.
They do not know how to communicate with other people. This is the main


reason that they play games. Gamers spend all of their time alone with their
computers, and they only connect with other people through the Internet, where


numerous --- many
character --- a person in a story
based on --- originating from; taken from
profitable --- able to earn money for a company
rarely --- seldom; not often
imply --- to suggest; to seems to mean



emotional problems --- extreme emotional reactions not usually
found in others
destruction --- damage; complete ruin
views --- ideas
commit --- to do; to carry out

they can pretend to be different people. This sort of communication is not real,
since gamers would never be able to talk the same way with people in the normal

The most negative stereotype about gamers is that they possibly have
emotional problems. Many video games are violent, so gamers might be
influenced by that violence. They may start to feel that it is OK to use violence in
real life. Further, gamers spend too much time in the false worlds of their games.
The result is that they can no longer recognize the real world. They may come to


believe that they are characters in a game. The result of this could be violence or
destruction of property, either real or through computer hacking.
Of course, these views are only stereotypes. There may be some gamers that
fit the negative stereotype. However, a recent study about gamers was conducted
in the United States by the Pew Internet and American Life Project. This research


involved a survey of 1,162 college students across the United States. The survey
found that most gamers are the same as normal people. According to the survey,
both gamers and non-gamers spent the same amount of time doing different
kinds of activities, like studying and exercising. Gamers did not spend all their
time playing games. They did not spend all their time alone, either. Most of the


gamers in the survey lived normal lives and had normal friends. For them, gaming
was a social activity. These gamers were unlikely to commit violence against others.
Finally, the survey found that just as many women as men played video games.
According to this survey, at least, gaming has
become a normal hobby, like any other, and as is the


case with many other stereotypes, the stereotypical
image of gamers does not seem to match with

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