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Những bài nói mẫu speaking và viết mẫu writing theo topic

1. Talk about your favourite TV channel.
You should say:

What is it

How often do you watch it

What type of programmes does it broadcast
and explain why do you like this TV channel.
Model Answer:
I do not watch TV that much but it is a great electronic and mass media for education and
entertainment. Sometimes I watch TV, mostly in my free time and among the channels I watch,
'Discovery Channel' is my favourite one. Whenever I held the TV remote control in my hand, I look
for either a news channel or Discovery channel. This is the channel I watch more often than any other
channels. I watch it for 4-8 hours per week. On my day off, if I am in front of TV, I watch the great
educational and recreational programs that this channel broadcasts.
It broadcasts mainly documentary programs focusing on popular science, technology and history. But
recently they have started showing some other types of programs like reality shows and pseudotechnologies and entertainments. There are some unique programs that they present to their audiences
like Myth Busters, Unsolved History, automobiles, and occupations etc. This channel started
broadcasting from 1985 and has become one the most popular TV channels in the world because of
their emphasis on high-quality programs.

I like this TV channel because of the programs and documentaries they present. Most of the
programmes are thoroughly enjoyable and offer lots of information to the viewers. This is one of the
great sources for me to learn history, technology and other educational knowledge. The picture quality
is really nice and this channel is easily available via the cable service providers. I found this channel
really interesting and I can learn many new things watching it.
2. My holiday
Last summer, I had a good holiday. I never forget that meaningful holiday. When I came back my
home from my holiday. First of all, I went to visit all my uncles and aunts then I and some my friends
went to visit all my old teachers. We talked about our lives and works very much.
After that days, I stayed at home with my family. I helped my parents to paint the house and did
something else. I talked about my life in Ho Chi Minh city and my work. My parents was very proud
of me and I was very happy. After my holiday, I came back Ho Chi Minh city to go on working. I
think that I had a good holiday and I’ll never forget it.
3. Studying abroad.
I will miss my family members and I think for the first few weeks this would be terrible. All my life I
lived with my family members and being in a foreign country would mean that I can contact them over
the phone and have video calls, but can’t spend time with them in person.
The language barrier would be another problem. My English is better than average but still
understanding and communicating with people of a different country who have a different accent is

sometimes an unavoidable problem. Hopefully, this won’t last for a long as I am a quick learner and I
will try my best to learn the manner, custom and accent of this country very quickly.
Another problem that might arrive is loneliness. This is going to be a new country and I won’t have
any friends and relatives. So the first few days would be lonely I guess. Travelling and not knowing
the route and bus number would be another problem. The different kinds of foods in this country
might be a problem as I am habituated to eat common types of foods available in my country. It might
happen that I won’t find foods of my preference near my living place.
Finally finding a senior student, classmate or a teacher who would spend some time to explain some of
the lessons that I might find difficult would be another problem I guess. In my country, I always had
resources and helping hands for my studies. I guess that would not be available initially in a new
country where I would go for study.
I think these are the main issues I will face in first few weeks after I arrive in a different country to
4. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of living in a large city.
Nowadays, large cities are becoming more and more inhabited. The majority of the population prefer
living in a big town mainly because of the great advantages it has compared to living in the
countryside. However, what are the benefits of this situation, and what are the drawbacks? In this
essay, I will explore the pros and cons of living in a large city and try to draw some conclusions.
Let’s start looking at the advantages. One of the main positives of a big town is the large amount of

shops available in every corner of the city. What I mean by this is that whenever you live, there are
some useful stores like supermarkets, banks, tobacconists and clothing stores where you can easily buy
everything you need without going to the city center. Secondly, living in a big town is a big challenge
for evening parties. In London, for example, there are so many things to do in the evenings like going
to the cinema, to the pub or to the park during the summer period.
Turning to the other side of the argument, traffic could be one of the major disadvantages of living in a
big city. Many people take the car everyday and it has also been proved that the majority of the
families have at least two cars. This means that you have to deal with rush-hour traffic on your way to
work and on your way back. In addition, in a big town there is consequently a lot of smog and this can
really affect people’s health.
To sum up, living in a big city has great advantages but also some significant negatives.You have to
weigh up to the pros of enjoying evenings’ nights outside and the availability of many shops and the
cons of cope with smog and traffic issues. Personally, I believe that the benefits of enjoying the citylife and the comfort of having shops at every corner, eventually overweigh the negatives.
Please comment on my essay about the advantages and disadvantages of living in a large city.
5. The role of men and women in our life.
Nowadays, the role of women has become much more dominant than it used to be in the past. It's the
fact we can't deny that the liberation of the women from domestic duties and subservient status has
actually brought them an independently social equal position or superior to that of men. Furthermore,
it's easy to detect in Vietnam that women' role is still changing in both family and social functions in
modern community for the better.

From the archaic centuries in any eastern countries like Vietnam, women had been underestimated for
their feeble and forbearing nature. Therefore, the sterner sex always claimed superiority of ability and
looked down on the fair sex. Therefore,only men could study and work while women must be stay at
home to take care of household duties. That's what happened in the past, how about the moment? Of
course, women still do housework but now the vocation is also shared with men. In some families, the
fathers help their wives to pick children up, organize the furniture of the house and even wash clothes
or cook meals. It seems that domestic duties are ascribed to both men and women since women also
have their own jobs like men.
Women also take part in many social functions of the communities. There are women ambassadors,
ministers, women commander-in-chiefs and senators in Vietnam. They even achieve high positions in
their companies or offices. In my opinion, women are better managers than men, since they attain such
mild and lenient delicacies to settle tense affairs in the most suitable, convenient ways. They also get
the calmness and composure to face with difficult, puzzling and urgent problems rather than being
impatient like men. Moreover, women have also got the confidence to stand out among men.
In conclusion, women's role is becoming more and more prominent in the society. Their functions are
now quite active and this definitely will make the world better since both men and women can work
together to improve and build it more perfect.
6. Cause & Effect Essay: Traffic Problems of a Big City
Cities like New York, London, and Paris have all had to deal with thousands of cars running through
their streets each day. Traffic congestion is a big problem for everyone within the city. The main
reasons why traffic congestion occurs are more cars, poor road management, and poor practices on
behalf of employers.
One of the main reasons why there’s more congestion is due to more cars on the road. The adult
population is increasing and therefore more people want their own personal transport to get around
with. As the number of cars increase the chance of congestion also increases. It’s why in smaller towns
and villages congestion is almost unheard of.
This is coupled with a lack of proper infrastructure. Councils and national governments fail to act on
the looming threat of heavy congestion until it happens. The city doesn’t expand along with an
increasingly car reliant population. A single street with a lane on each side before might not suffice in
ten years after the population has increased. Authorities often fail to convert this into a dual
Alternate routes are also a problem. Cities have limited capacity to expand due to poor funding and
planning restrictions preventing building on green belt spaces. Cities are forced to work with the
routes they already have. If they can’t increase the number of lanes it leads to congestion.
Employers can also play a part in dealing with congestion. Congestion almost always happens when
people are travelling to and from work. Traffic congestion has eased in recent years as a result of
growing unemployment and the introduction of more flexible work hours.
By adhering to the traditional 9-5 routines, there’s a greater chance of congestion. Everyone has to
travel to and from work at the same time each day.
A lack of public transport, or poor public transport options, will also cause problems. If there isn’t
enough buses, trams, or local trains people are forced to take their cars to work. The ratio of

passengers to vehicles decreases, whereas if they were able to take the bus people would feel less of a
need to drive their cars.
In many places, commuters are forced away from public transport by the private companies which run
them. Increasing fare prices, especially on the trains, make driving a car with its associated high fuel
costs cheaper than public transport. By pushing people back to their cars again they only exasperate
the congestion problem.
In conclusion, congestion is mainly caused by a desire for people to drive their cars coupled with a
failure by local government to act. If they invested in more affordable public transport options and a
better infrastructure the incidence of congestion would decrease in major cities.
7. Describe the environmental pollution in your city.
You should say:

What type of pollution it is/ are

Cause and effect of pollution

Why it had happen
and explain how can this pollution be controlled.
Model Answer:
I live in (..say the name of your city..) and this city has got some several issues related to
environmental pollution. The major environmental pollutions that this city has are water pollution, air
pollution and sound pollution.
The main reason for these pollutions is overpopulation and a rapid and unplanned industrialisation of
this city. The city has more than (…say the current population of this city..) whereas the number
should have been far less than that. It is evitable that a large number of populations in a small city
always cause environmental pollution as they use more cars, consume more energy and natural
resources and create more wastages ad noises.
The reason for the water pollution is the uncontrolled number of industries, factories and other
constructions that have been grown up beside the rivers. These factories and industries produce a large
number of chemical and other wastages which directly affects the water. Inappropriate and
uncontrolled construction is another reason for water pollution in our city. The effect of water
pollution is severe, the water supply would be affected and the supply of safe and clean water would
be threatened. A large number of people rely on the water available of the rivers and they would be
directly affected. Lots of people would get sick due to water pollution and those diseases can become
epidemics if not controlled and that results in an immense loss of innocent lives.
Air pollution is also very concerning in this city and the chemical smoke, carbon dioxide and carbon
monoxide emitted from automobiles and industries are the main reason for air pollution. This city has
more than million automobiles and thousands of industries which are omitting the dangerous gases,
and ingredients which are causing the air pollutions. Air pollution is the direct reason people suffer
from various dangerous diseases including lung cancer, asthma, heart disease etc. In fact the number
of people currently suffering from these diseases in alarming and if steps are not taken to prevent air

pollution immediately, this number would rapidly increase.
Sound pollution is produced by the loud horns used by the cars, loud sound used for announcement
and cacophony created due to loud sound. The airplanes that fly over the resident area created a very
loud noise as well. Air pollution is a silent killer that causes lots of serious diseases including hearing
and brain cancer. The air pollution directly affects the natural balance by affecting the wild lives.
The most important thing to reduce pollution in our city is to create public awareness. We are mostly
creating that pollution and endangering ourselves, the Earth and other species. Without our awareness
and strict determination to prevent our city from pollution, we can’t reduce or prevent it. Strict laws
should be introduced and be applied against any environmental pollution and all the illegitimate
industries and companies should be banned. The decentralisation of industries and offices can be
effective as it would reduce the number of people currently living in this city.
Job opportunities and other facilities should be improved in the rural areas so that people can manage
works in their own cities and villages other than coming to this city. The education and morality are
two important aspects that help people understand the necessity of keeping the city clean and healthy.
8. Your favourite entertainment in your free time.
I studies during this week, and I have only sunday of. I go to the school every morning. Sometime I
was work even on sunday. And I am attending an evening class improve my english. I am very busy
with my study. When I have free time, I read book, newspaper, magazine, listen to music. There are
many kinds of music avaliable on tapes including everything : rock, pop, dance ...
Sometime I go to shopping with my friends and my relative. We often go to the supermaket example :
Big C, Vincom, Metro ...
Sometime I go to the zoo, park... but my favourite entertaiment is collection stamp. I collection stamp
when I 15 year old. Now I have 500 in collection stamp : bird, tree, person…
9. Your idea of an interesting job.
To prepare for a good job, we must be highly education acording to me. Most people who are going to
do professional work must have additional formal education beyond the high school level.
The amount of time needed for with their education varies acording to me the profesion for with they
are preparing themselves. They must go to colleges and universities to became an engineer, a architect,
a lawyer a professor, a science.
I opinion an interesting job it tobe helpful to ourselves, our families, our country and the society.
We will be able to choose a career that suits us best and to lead a happy and useful life.
As for my career : I would like to become a businessman. I will travel to foreign countries to transact
business, visit various places of interest, contact with all kinds of people and have chances to
communicate with them in english.
I hope that my dream would came true in the very near future.
10. Your favourite sport.
Sport is necessary for everyone. Sport not only brings good heath for every body but also brings joy
ment for many elderly to live longer so acording to me. Sport is good for our heath.
Most people like sport. So do I, I like sport because sport is my favourite entertaiment in my free time.
Futhermore sport is good health for me.
I like two sport, it is soccer and badminton. When I have free time I play badminton with my
roommate. I play soccer at the last week, I play soccer with my friends class room. We are formation
the team football.
I like many football team national example : Manchester United-it football team in england and Real
Madrit-it football team in Spain.

I would like to become a footballer.
I wish my dream can be true.
11. What would you do if you were a rich person.
A rich person. No, I don't think because I am not rich. But if I were a rich person. I would buy a big
house in capital and a new limosine.
Second : I would go to the shopping with my relationship and my friend. We go to the some
supermaket pasion, vimac, metro. I would to travel by air, It more comfortable. I would visit to all
beautiful places in our country; an around the world : I would travel to Paris, Rome, Newyork,
Moscow, China. I would see The Eiffel tower, Vatican city, the Statue of Liberty, the Red Square and
the temple Tamahal.
Further more if I were a rich person, I would like go to South Africa see World Cup.
12. Advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city.
As we know, living in a big city is supplied move facilities than anywhere esle. However, there are
advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city.
First, I think living in a big city dwellers are provided a lot of society services, such as health care,
education, good job and they have much chance to contac or work with foreigners, residents can easily
travel fast, thanks to good infrastructure. In addtion that, social services help life be easy and
On the other hand, people living in a big city have to suffer from many disadvantages : smoke rising
from factories and all kinds of vehicle on the streets makes environment polluted and influence
people's health. The noise all day and night makes their minds tense. Traffic jams happen every day.
13. Tell about yourself:
Today, I’m very happy to introduce my self.
My name’s Hải. My full name’s Vũ Ngọc Hải. I’m twenty years old. I’m a first-year student at Thái
Nguyên University of Technology. My major is mechanical engineering. I’m very busy with my
studies at school.
I’m from Cẩm Thủy district, Thanh Hóa province. Now I live alone in a rental house near here.
Everything is still new to me. I live in here without my family, my friends… So sometime I feel so sad
about that. However, I’m believe that I’ll make some friends soon. Maybe you’re…
I have many hobbies. I like playing badminten, swimming, eatting ice-cream in winter, walking in the
rain and many other hobbies… In my free time, I usually read books or listen to rock mussic. My
favourite rock band is The Wall. I like the songs by this band. Especially I like learning English
because English is an international language. English is very important for my career in the future.
When I was child, I wanted to be a teacher like my mother. But now my dream is to become a good
and a successful engineer in the future. I want to make a lot of money. I want to have a successful
career and a happy family. I wish my dream could come true someday.
I love my life because It’s very wonderful.
Finally. Thanks for your listening!!
14. Tell about your mother:
There are four people in my family: my father, my mother, my little brother and me.
My mother is the person I love most in my family.
Her name’s Hòa. She is forty-three years old. She is a primary school principal.
She is not very beautiful, but there is something attractive about her. Her face is oval with big black
eyes and red lips, which are always smiling. She has long black hair, a slim build and a fair
complexion. Her character is admirable. She is very sweet and kind to her husband and children. She
never gets angry with anyone. As a simple person, she does not like wearing expensive clothes and
jewels. She is very busy with her teaching from early morning until late at night.
I love my mother very much. I miss her a lot when I am away from her for a long time. When I am
free, I help my mother with the washing, cooking and errands. I always obey and respect my mother
and try to study hard to please her.
I wish she would live with me forever.
15. Tell about your brother:
There are four people in my family: my father, my mother, my older brother and me. My older brother

is the person who understands me best in my family.
His name is Dương. He’s twenty-eight years old. He has been maried for five years. He is married to a
woman named Lan. They have two children. Their son Nam is four years old and their daughter Huệ is
only one year old. He is an electrician by profession. He works very hard. He is very busy with his
work from early morning until late at night. But he try to spare much time for his family.
He is not only handsome but also smart. Especially, he smiles a lot and when he laughs he makes me
laugh too. He always makes everyone laugh by his funny stories. He is very friendly with everybody.
He never gets angry with anyone.
We are both Manchester United fans. We love everything relate to MU. We usually watch and
comment about MU matches. It helps us to understand each other better, and makes us happier. He
always gives me advice as well as money when I run into trouble.
I’m so proud of him and love him so much!!
16. Tell about your best friend:
Everyone of us has at least one best friend. Me too, my best friend is a friend who studied in high
school with me. At that time, I was very bad at English, and it was him helped me improve my
His name is Dương, he is not only handsome but also smart. Especially, he smiles a lot and when he
laughs he makes me laugh too.
We studied in high school together. We went to school together everyday. May be, we are together on
every activities. Even that we skipped class to play billiards, play Age of Empire game together.
Although we played game very much, but we was still study very well, because we helped each other
in study and never forget to do exercise at school.
We get along very well. He understands me and me too. We have a lot of the same characters. May be
those thing made some misunderstanding between him and me. But all things had solved.
Now, we are studying at University, and often get in touch together. Indeed, I enjoy him very much.
17. Tell about your family:
My name’s Hải. I’m twenty years old. I’m a first-year student at Thái Nguyên University of
Technology. My major is mechanical engineering. Today, I’m very happy to introduce my family.
There are four people in my family: my father, my mother, my little brother and me. My family has
lived in Thanh Hóa city since I was born in 199x.
The first person I want to tell about is my father. He is forty-three years old. He is a mechanic. He
works very hard. He was very strict when I was child, but he is a person I respect most. He knows how
to motivate people. Especially, I and my father are Manchester United fans. We love everything relate
to MU. We usually watch and comment about MU matches. That helps us to understand each other
better, and makes us happier. With me, he is both a father and a close friend.
The second person I want to tell about is my mother. She is forty-three years old. She is a teacher. Her
character is admirable. She is very sweet and kind to her husband and children. She never gets angry
with anyone. As a simple person, she does not like wearing expensive clothes and jewels. She is very
busy with her teaching from early morning until late at night.
Finally, I want tell about my little brother. He is only six years old. He’s really intelligent – really
My family is really happy home. I love my family very much!!
18. Tell about your favourite food and drink:
Vietnam is a tropical country. So there are many kinds of food and drink to choose. My favourite food
is Phở. Every Vietnamese know a noodle soup which is named Phở. They all like Phở and eager to
enjoy it. Phở has been known as a delicious and nutrient dish. It’s Vietnamese national soul food.
There are two main kinds of Phở: Phở with beef and Phở with chicken. I can eat it everyday without
Besides, I like all kinds of fruits such as banana, mango, orange, apple… When I was child, I very
hated eating green vegetables. At the first time, I felt that it was really horrible. But now I like eating
most green vagetables. Because green vegetables contain many types of vitamins and minerals. It very
good for health.
I like drinking green tea. Green tea help to prevent cancer. When I feel tired, bored, sad and very

sleepy I often drink a glass of green tea. It will help me recover. Besides, I also like drinking beer. So
when I’m free, I often go to pub with my friends.
19. Tell about your weekdays:
My name’s Hải. I’m very happy to introduce my weekdays. I’m a student so I’m very busy with my
I usually get up at about half past five in the morning. I never get out of bed after 6 o’clock in the
morning except Sunday. Then I brush my teeth and wash my face. I have breakfast with milks or
bread. After that I go to university. I often go to university on foot. I leave my house at half past six
and come my class at quarter to seven. My lesson starts at quarter to seven and finish at half past
eleven in the morning. Then I come back my house and cook lunch. I’ve a quick nap after lunch.
I get up at about two o’clock in the afternoon. Then I do my homework. I go to market at about half
past five in the afternoon. After that I cook dinner. I’ve dinner at six o’clock in the evening.
I go to English Clup, after dinner. And I com back house at half past eight in the evening. Then I do
my homework. At about half past eleven I go to bed. I fall asleep as soon as my head hits the pilow.
In my free time, I usually listen to music, read books, watch TV or learn English. At weekends, I often
visit my relation. My life isn’t very exciting but I really like it. I love my life.
Finally. Thanks for your listening!!
20. Tell about your favourite thing:
My favourite subject is English. It is not surprise that my favourite thing is my dictionary. It is very
important to me. I like to look up words in my dictionary. My mother decided to buy that dictionary 3
years ago. It is a gift which my mother gave me in my birthday. My mother bought it in Tiền Phong
Athough it isn't new and beautiful, but I really like it. I like the blue color. It's clear, fantastic and
comfortable. I can use it very easily. It has got many words. It helps me to check meaning of
vocabulary words and pronunciation. It consists of good structures and clear examples. Sometimes, I
feel interested in idioms in it. I always bring my dictionary to my class. So I make progress in learning
I love my dictionary!
21. Tell about your hobby:
I have many hobbies such as reading, traveling, playing sports, watching TV, swimming… But I like
reading books best. I often reading books whenever and wherever I can. For examples at weekends, on
holidays or before going to bed…
When I was a kid, my mother used to tell me a story before I went to bed. The stories were so
interesting that always felt they weren’t enough. So I began to read books by myself.
I always lose myself in the interesting stories. I enjoy reading very much, because books bring me a
colourful and limitless world. In the past years, most of my knowledge has been obtained from books.
Books can also teach me how to be a good person. Books even can solve many problems for me. I will
read more good books to improve myself.
Reading has become a part of my life. Everyday, I spend some time reading books, newspapers and
magazines. I have great fun in reading. I love reading!!
22. Tell about a famous person:
There are many famous people in the world. One of them is Lionel Andrés Messi. He was born on
June 24, 1987 in the city of Rosario, Argentina. Everyone knows him now as the best football player
in the world. In fact, a lot of people say he might become the greatest player ever. He also helped his
club team Barcelona win the European Champions League and the World Club Championship.
Messi grew up playing football. He joined his first club when he was five. Messi started breaking
records as soon as he played his first game for Barcelona. He became the youngest footballer ever to
play a La Liga game and the youngest to score a goal. He helped his team win the league in his first
Messi has an amazing career ahead of him. He is set to shine in South Africa. Many football experts
compare him to the legendary Pele and Maradona. This World Cup could be the stage for him to show
people he really is the best. His skills on the ball, ability to get past defenders and his goal-scoring are
breathtaking. Top soccer coach Arsene Wenger said Messi is “like a PlayStation. He takes advantage

of every mistake teams make”.
He is my football idol!
23. Tell about life in Vietnam:
Most Vietnamese people live in houses. Most house have gardens. But in the city centre most people
live in tenements not houses.
Most office workers go to work from seven o’clock to eleven o’clock in the morning. They have lunch
with their family. They usually have short nap after lunch. Then they go to work at about two o’clock
and finish at five o’clock in the afternoon. They come back home and have dinner in their house after
Children go to school at about quarter to seven and finish at eleven o’clock in the morning. After
school, they come back home and have lunch with their parents. In the afternoon, children go to school
at about two o’clock and finish at about half past five. Children start primary school when they are six
years old and leave high school when they are eighteen years old.
Shops open at about seven o’clock in the morning and close at about six o’clock in the evening.
Normally, they don’t close for lunch. Most shops open on a Sunday, too. Markets and supermarkets
close at about nine o’clock in the evening, but most pubs and restaurens close at about eleven o’clock
in the evening.
At the weekend, Most people often visit relations or go to the picnic. Vietnam is a beautiful country
and Vietnamese people are not only friendly and lovely but they also are very intelligent and hard
working. I love life in Vietnam!
24. Tell about your past life:
I was born and grew up in Thanh Hóa province. It is a poor countryside. Being born and grew up in a
contryside, I found that people are good-natured and good-hearted, plain and hard-working. I was their
first son. I think when I was born, my parents were very happy.
I could speak when I was one year old. My wishes were started when I was a child. I wanted to be a
teacher like my mother. I wanted to make a lot of money. I started primary school when I was six. I
learned how to ride a bike when I was ten. That was the happiest time of my life.
When I was eighteen, I left high school and I took an entrance examination to Thái Nguyên University
of Technology. Luckily, I got into Thái Nguyên University of Technology .
You know, before I was so bad at English. But when I got to university, I realize that English was very
important for me, for my job in the future. So I started gettting interesed in English. I am still trying to
learn English everyday!
25. My favourite food
There are a lot of foods but I like meat best. I think that everyone always eats meat and meat
is popular food.
Meat is sold everywhere. For example: Supermarket, Market. Everybody always buys meat
for the big party because it is delicious and cheap.
Meat has a lot of proteins, if everyone eats a lot of meat they are intelligent and strong that’s
the reason. Why everyone eats meat.
I like meat but sometimes I don’t eat meat because I have to change different food each day
I will become fatter if I always eat only meat. However, I like meat best
26. Life in the city
Life in the city is full of activity. Early in the morning hundreds of people rush out of their
homes in the manner ants do when their nest is broken. Soon the streets are full of traffic.
Shops and offices open, students flock to their schools and the day's work begins. The city
now throb with activity, and it is full of noise. Hundreds of sightseers, tourists and others
visit many places of interest in the city while businessmen from various parts of the world
arrive to transact business.
Then towards evening, the offices and day schools begin to close. Many of the shops too
close. There is now a rush for buses and other means of transport. Everyone seems to be in a
hurry to reach home. As a result of this rush, many accidents occur. One who has not been to
the city before finds it hard to move about at this time. Soon, however, there is almost no

activity in several parts of the city. These parts are usually the business centres.
With the coming of night, another kind of act vity begins. The streets are now full of colorful

lights. The air is cooler and life becomes more leisurely. People now seek entertainment.
Many visit the cinemas, parks and clubs, while others remain indoors to watch television or
listen to the radio. Some visit friends and relatives and some spend their time reading books
and magazines. Those who are interested in politics discuss the latest political developments.
At the same time, hundreds of crimes are committed. Thieves and robbers who wait for the
coming of night become active, and misfortune descends upon many. For the greed of a few,
many are killed, and some live in constant fear. To bring criminals to justice, the officers of
the law are always on the move.
Workers and others who seek advancement in their careers attend educational institutions
which are open till late in the night. Hundreds of them sit for various examinations every year.
The facilities and opportunities that the people in the city have to further their studies and
increase their knowledge of human affairs are indeed many. As a result, the people of the city
are usually better informed than those of the village, where even a newspaper is sometimes
difficult to get.
The city could, therefore, be described as a place of ceaseless activity. Here, the drama of life
is enacted every day.
27. Living in a multiracial community
Living in a community where there are people of various races could be a rewarding and an
exciting experience. Such a community is like a small world with many types and races of
people in it.
Everyone, young or old, enjoys listening to stories about people in other lands. We read books
and newspapers to learn about the habits, customs and beliefs) of people who do not belong to
our race, but when we live in a community composed of many races, we have the opportunity
to meet and talk with people or various races. We can learn about their customs and beliefs
directly from them. In this way, w have a better understanding of their ways of life. For

example, in Singapore and Malaysia, which are known as multiracial countries, Malays,
Chinese, Indians and others have lived together for several decades. They have learnt a lot
about the cultures of one another, more than what they could have learnt by reading books or
newspapers. By living together, they have also absorbed many of the habits of one another to
their common benefit.
Further, living in a multiracial community teaches us how to respect the views and beliefs of
people of other races. We learn to be tolerant and to understand and appreciate the
peculiarities of those who are not of our race. In this way, we learn to live in peace and
harmony with foreigners whose ways of life are different from ours in several respects. We
become less suspicious of strangers and foreigners.
The relationship that develops among the people from common understanding in a multi
racial community makes life in such a community very exciting. Any celebration of any race
becomes a celebration of all the other races. Thus, there is a lot of fun and excitement during
every celebration. In this way, better understanding is promoted among the peoples of the
world. Through each of the races of the people in a multiracial community, we come to know
about their respective countries. For example, through the Chinese and the Indians in
Malaysia or Singapore we have come to know much about China and India. As a result, we
have a better understanding of the peoples of China and India as a whole.
It could therefore be said that life in a multiracial community teaches us many useful lessons
in human relations.
28. A visit to a famous city
A few months ago my father and I visited Singapore, one of the most famous cities in Asia.
Singapore, a small island, lies at the southern and of West Malaysia. A long and narrow piece
of land joins Singapore with Johore Hahru, the southernmost town of West Malaysia.

Singapore is now an independent.
The city of Singapore is extremely beautiful. It is well known for its centres of business and
other activities. There are many places of interest such as the Tiger Balm Garden, the
Botanical Gardens and Raffles Museum. There are also many important centres of learning
such as the University of Singapore, Science Centre, the Nanyang University and the
Polytechnic. Being a famous city, hundreds of people come every day from various parts of
the world to do business or to enjoy the sights of the city. Singapore therefore has large and
beautiful airports and its harbours are full of ships.
There are many night schools where people who cannot go to the day schools for some reason
or other can continue their studies. And, the government of Singapore is still doing its best to
make further improvements in the city for the benefit of the people.
During my stay in Singapore, I went out every day with my father to see the beautiful and
interesting places and things in the city. One day we went to the Tiger Balm Garden where I
saw several statues of people, animals and other strange creature beautifully made and kept.
The sea near this garden makes this a pleasant place to visit. We spent almost half of the day
at this place.
Another day we visited the museum where I saw hundreds of curious things preserved for
scholars and others. It was indeed an education to see all those things. There is so much to
learn here that every visit by any person is sure to add to his knowledge.
I also visited some of the harbours and saw the large ships anchored there. The sight of the
ships aroused a desire in me to cross the oceans and go round the world. I was indeed deeply
impressed by the activities at the harbour.
Then every night, I went round the town and visited some of the parks and other places of
interest. The numerous sights and the constant stream of traffic kept the city alive. I visited a
few of the cinemas as well. In short, I enjoyed every moment of my stay in this famous city of
29. An unusual opportunity I had
Seldom does one have opportunity of seeing a fight between a tiger and a crocodile. I,
however, had this opportunity one day when I went with my father into a forest in search of
some wild plants.
I had never been to a forest before. Therefore, whatever I saw in the forest interested me
greatly. I looked t the rich vegetation all round as well as the variety of colourful flowers

and birds, large and small. I saw the activity of some of the wild creatures, such as snakes,
squirrels and insects. Occasionally, I heard the cry of some strange animal in pain, perhaps
while being eaten by a larger animal. I also heard some rustling noises in the undergrowth; but
I was not afraid of all these. Such things, I knew, were natural to the forest.
My father whose only interest was in the type of plants he wanted for my mother's garden,
however, paid little attention to the sounds and movements in these green depths. He
continued his search for more and more of those plants until we reached one of the banks of a
large river in the forest. There we stopped for a while to enjoy the sights around.
The scene was peaceful. Then, to our surprises and honor, we saw a tiger on the other side of
the river. It was moving quietly and cautiously towards the water for a drink. A hush fell upon
the jungle. My father and I were now too frightened to move from there.
However, as the tiger put its mouth into the river there was a sudden swirl of the waters, and
before the tiger could rush out, it was seized by a huge crocodile. The tiger's howl of pain and
anger filled me and my father with terrors. Yet we waited there to see the end of the struggle
between these two lords of the forest and the river. The crocodile had the advantage from the
beginning. It used all its strength to pull the tiger deeper into the water, and the tiger too
fought desperately to free itself from the jaws of the merciless reptile; but the tiger soon gave
up the struggle and all was quiet again. I now felt pity for the tiger which had died just to
slake its thirst.
Then, my father reminded me of the narrow escape that we had ourselves had. If the tiger had

been on this side of the river, one of us might have died in the way the tiger did, a victim of
animal appetite. And as we were returning home, I began to think of the struggle for life and
savagery that lurks beneath peaceful scenes.
29. The value of libraries
A good library is an ocean of information, whose boundaries continue to extend with the
endless contribution of the numerous streams of knowledge. Thus, it has a peculiar fascination
for scholars, and all those whose thirst for knowledge is instable.
The usefulness of libraries in the spread of knowledge has been proved through the years. The
field of knowledge is so extensive and life is so brief that even the most avid reader can never
expect to absorb it all. Those who have a love for knowledge, therefore, try to master only a
small fraction of it. Even this requires reading of hundreds of books, cheap and expensive,
new and old. But few people are able to buy all the books on the subject in which they wish to
attain proficiency. It is therefore necessary for them to visit a good library, where they can
read a great variety of books on the subject they love. Besides, many old and valuable books
on certain subjects are found only in a good library. Even the original manuscript of an
author, who died several years ago, can be found in it, sometimes.
Today, men everywhere have discovered the benefits of learning. More and more books are
being written to extend human knowledge and experience. Governments and individuals
throughout the world are, therefore, opening more and more libraries to enable people to read
as many books as possible. Libraries have been opened even in the remotest regions of the
earth, so that people who are unable to buy books from the towns can still gain access to the
various sources of knowledge. Mobile libraries serve the people in various parts of the earth.
The importance of libraries, however, is felt most acutely by students in schools and
universities, where most students are engaged in deep studies. The number of books that a
student has to study, especially at a university, is so large that unless he comes from a rich
family, he can hardly buy them all. Besides, many of the books may not be available in the
bookshops within his reach. It is therefore to his advantage to visit a good library.
Some people even have then own private libraries in which they spend their leisure, reading
the books that they have collected over the years and drive great intellectual benefit and
In short, libraries have contributed so much to the extension of knowledge that they have
become almost indispensable to all literate men.
30. A horrible sight
On the main roads of West Malaysia accidents occur almost every day. Most of them are
caused by young drivers who are long of speed. The recklessness has caused the death of even
careful drivers. What I am about to relate concems the death of some young people, resulting
from the reckless driving of a young man.
On the day in question, I was travelling with my brother to Ipoh. As my brother's car was old,
he had to drive slowly. We left Singapore, our hometown, very early in the morning, so that
we could reach our destination before . The slow journey soon made me so tired that I fell
asleep. However, we broke our Journey at Yong Peng, a small town in Johore for some
refreshment. When we resumed our journey, we saw a number of badly damaged vehicles in
front of the Police Station of that town. My brother then began to talk about the various
accidents that he had seen on that road. I began to grow uneasy about the rest of the journey.
My brother had told me that most of the accidents occurred within a few miles of that town. I
now began to fear for our own safety. Then, suddenly, a car, running at great speed, outtook
our car. My brother then predicted that the car would be involved in an accident soon. After
that my heart began to beat fast.
The car was soon out of sight. My brother, however, assured me that I would have an
opportunity to see a very bad accident, and sure enough, we soon arrived at a distressing
The car that had overtaken our car was in a ditch and four young girls were lying dead on the
roadside. Their faces and clothes were covered with blood. Some people were trying to

extricate the other occupants, including the young driver, who were still alive in the car. But
all of a sudden, the car was on fire, and their efforts failed. Thus, the occupants in the car were
burnt alive, and it was indeed heartrending to hear their last screams. Soon a fire engine and
the police arrived with an ambulance, but it was too late.
This was indeed a horrible sight, and even today the mention of accidents reminds me of those
piteous screams of the dying ones in that car.
31. Discuss the part that money plays in our lives
Money plays an important part in our lives. In several aspects, it is the most important thing in
life. It is therefore much sought after.
Without money we could not buy our food, clothes and all the other things that we need to
live comfortably. We require money to travel, to buy medicine when we are ill and also to pay
for the services rendered to us by others. In truth, money is almost indispensable to our
survival. Most of our activities are therefore directed towards earning as much money as
We use money not only to meet the basic needs of life but also to pay for our own
advancement. We use it for education which helps us to live a better life. Thousands of
students are unable to attend school or continue their studies for want of money. Lack of
money also causes great hardship and sorrow in hundreds of families. Thousands of people
are dying everyday throughout the world because they are not able to pay their doctors fee or
because they cannot buy nutritious food.
As money is so important, many crimes are committed everyday in all parts or the world to
gain possession of it. Some are driven by hunger and desperation to steal, rob, and even kill to
get at least what they require to keep body and soul together. Others commit the most serious
crimes out of sheer greed for money. Such people cause much trouble and unpleasantness in
society, and to bring them to justice, large sums of money are spent by every government.
Today, millions of dollars are being spent by the various governments in the world for the
betterment of the people. Numerous schools and hospitals are being built, and hundreds of
acres or land are being cultivated to produce more food for the growing population of the
world. As a result, the world is gradually becoming a better place to live in.
At the same time, however, much money is being wasted in producing deadly weapons of
war. Countries which have more money than the others have become more powerful by
strengthening their armed forces. This has led to rivalries among the powerful nations, and
several parts of the world are in turmoil. All this shows what an important part money plays in
human affairs.
32. Science and its effects
One of the most striking features of the present century is the progress of science and its
effects on almost every aspect of social life. Building on the foundation laid by the
predecessors, the scientists of today are carrying their investigation into everwidening fields
of knowledge.
Modern civilization depends largely on the scientist and inventor. We depend on the doctor
who seeks the cause and cure of disease, the chemist who analyses our food and purifies our
water, the entomologist who wages war on the insect pests, the engineer who conquers time
and space, and a host of other specialists who aid in the development of agriculture and
The advance of science and technology has brought the different parts of the world into closer
touch with one another than ever before. We are able to reach distant lands within a very short
time. We are also able to communicate with people far away by means of the telephone and
the wireless. The invention of the printing machine has made it possible for us to learn from
books and newspapers about people in other lands.
Indeed, man's curiosity and resourcefulness have been responsible for the steady stream of
inventions that have created our civilization.
At the same time, however, there have been harmful effects. Our machine civilization is
responsible for numerous accidents and industrial rivalries among nations. Everyday hundreds

of people are dying from serious wounds and injuries. Further, the rapid tempo of modern life
results in widespread nervous disorder. Moreover, science, which has helped man to secure
control over nature, has also made it possible for him to develop more deadly weapons or war.
More and more countries are competing with one another in the production of war material.
But in these instances the fault lies not with science, but rather with man’s intention to misuse
the discoveries of science.
Science is admittedly the dominating intellectual force of the modern age.
33. The rights and duties of a citizen
Almost every modern state, especially a democracy, allows its citizens several rights; but in
return, it expects its citizens to perform certain duties.
Among the rights enjoyed by the citizen in a democracy are the right to pursue his own affairs
as he prefers;. the right to express his views, however silly they may appear to others, and the
right to move about as he pleases. The citizen is considered so important that his rights are
protected by the law of the state, and whenever they are infringed, he can secure redress.
But in a totalitarian state, the rights of the citizen are so restricted that he has practically no
freedom. The citizen is supposed to exist for the state. His interests are always subordinated to
those of the state. Thus, his duties exceed his rights.
Even in a democracy, however, the citizen is expected to exercise his rights within the limits
of the law. He should not do or say anything that may affect the rights of others. In exercising
his right to act as he pleases, for example, he should not try to elope with another man's wife
or say anything slanderous about her or anyone. In the same way, his actions should not cause
injury or damage to any individual or his property. He cannot kill as he pleases. If his conduct
infringes the rights of others, then those who have been affected by his misconduct could take
legal action against him and he will be punished according to the law of the state. In this way,
the state protects its citizens and their rights from the thoughtlessness of any individual in the
state. This means, of course, that every citizen in the state is expected to do his duty to his
fellow citizens.
The citizen is also expected to give his services for the protection of the state in times of war,
and to maintain law and order in his state, at all times.
Thus every citizen who is conscious of his rights should also be conscious of his duties to the
state and his fellow citizens.
34. The most important day in my life
The most important day in my life was the day when my parents decided to send me to
I was then about seven years old. I had been playing with the children living around my house
for some years. I had no thought of ever going to school. I enjoyed playing to catch fish from
the shallow streams near by. Sometimes we went to the forest to catch birds and squirrels, and
I had always thought that life would continue to be the same for me. But, one day, to my great
sorrow, my parents suddenly announced that I was no longer to play about and that I was to
go to a school.
Words can hardly describe how sad I felt at the thought of having to go to a school. I had
often heard that school teachers were very strict and cruel. I had also been told that there were
many difficult subjects to learn in school and I could not bear the thought of being compelled
to learn them. But everything had been decided for me and I had no choice but to go to
Soon after I was admitted to school, however, I discovered to my great joy that learning in
school was a pleasure. I began to learn about the people and other wonderful things spread
throughout the world. The teachers were very kind and friendly and they often told many
interesting stories. The subjects that they taught were also very interesting as a result of all
this, I began to take a keen interest in my lessons and I no longer wanted to waste my time
playing about.
Today, I am older and I am in a secondary school, learning more and more about the world
around us. The knowledge that I have gained has enriched my mind and I have a better

understanding of human problems. I am also able to speak the English language with some
ease, and I know that my knowledge of English will prove of great value in all my future
activities. I also know that if I can pass all my examinations, I will some day occupy an
important position in some profession. I might even become a minister in the government of
my country or a wellknown person in some way.
Therefore, when I now think of the day when my parents arrived at the decision to send me to
school, I am filled with love for them. That was indeed the most important day in my life, a
day which has changed the whole course of my life.
35. The subject I consider most important
Of all the subjects that I study in school, I think that English is the most important subject. It
is mainly through the English language that we gain access to the various sources of
English is a language which is spoken and understood by many people in most countries of
the world. It is, in fact, the most important means of communication among the vanous
countries of the wodd. Knowledge of new discoveries and inventions in one country is
transmitted to other countries through English for the benefit of the world. In this way English
helps to spread knowledge and progress.
It is true, however, that in the modern age, the study of Science and Mathematics too should
be considered very important. Science has conferred many benefits in man. But it requires
little thought to realise that scientific principles cannot be understood well without a good
knowledge of a language. And, though other languages such as German and Russian are
important in the world of Science, it is English that plays the most important role in spreading
scientific knowledge. There is in fact no branch of study that has not been communicated in
English. The original writings of great scientists, economists, philosophers, psychologists and
others who did not speak and write the English language have all been translated into English.
Therefore, one who has a good knowledge of English has access to all the sources of
Further, as the English language is used by people of different lands and cultures, it has
become very rich. It contains so many words, ideas and thoughts that a good knowledge of
English enriches the mind and enables one to express oneself well. It also helps one to think
better and to understand the people of other lands. It is for all these reasons that I consider
English the most important subject in school.

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