Học kế toán tai chinh căn bản bằng tiếng anh

,

1

FINAL ACCOUNTS
• Final Accounts is the last step in the accounting process.
Trial Balance(bảng cân đối tài khoản) is prepared at the
end of all the accounting year to know the balances of
all the accounts & to test the arithmetic accuracy(tính
chính xác) of accounts. But the basic objective of
accounting is to know about the profit or loss during the
previous year & present financial position(tình hình tài
chính hiện tại). This can be known only if Trading
account (tài khoản thương mại)and Profit & Loss
account and Balance Sheet are prepared at the end pf
year. These are also known as FINANCIAL
STSTEMENTS(bản tường trình) which are prepared.

From Trial Balance. Final Accounts include the

preparation of :
1) Trading and Profit & Loss account (tài khoản
thương mai và tài khoản lợi nhuận)and
2) Balance Sheet (báo cáo kết quả kinh doanh)
as these two statements(bản tường trình) are
prepared to give the final results of the business,
both of these are collectively called as final
accounts. Accounting cycle finally ends with
these statements as shown in next slide:

ACCOUNTING CYCLE
TRANSACTIONS

Preparation of final accounts
(summary)

Preparation of
Trial Balance
(CHECKING THE
ACCURACY)

Entry in the books of
Original Entry
(ORIGINAL RECORD)

Posting in the concerned
Ledger account
(CLASSIFICATION)

Balancing of Real &
Personal accounts

Types of Financial
Statement(các loaị cuả ban
̉
tường trình tài chính)

Final accounts or financial statements can

be divided in two parts:-

1) Trading and Profit & Loss Account(tài
khoản lợi nhuận)
2) Balance Sheet (bảng cân đối)

khoan
̉ trao đôi)
̉

concerns which purchase and sell finished goods, to
know the gross profit or gross loss incurred(nợ phai
gánh chịu) by them from buying and selling of goods
during a particular period (khoảng nào đó)of time. Gross
profit or gross loss is the difference between the cost of
goods sold and the proceeds(tiền) of their sale. If the
sale proceeds exceed (vượt quá)the cost of goods sold ,
gross profit is made. Otherwise,(nếu không thì)gross

Ascertainment (sự chứng minh)of
Cost of Goods Sold
Opening Stock
Less: Purchase Return

……….
…….
……. ………

Goods Available for Sales
……….

……….

Less: Closing Stock
……….
Cost of Goods Sold

……….

Dr
Trading Account of …….. For the year ending……... Cr
Particulars
Amt.
Particulars
Amt.
To Opening
Stock(tá i đầ u
t ừ )
To Purchases
Less: Returns
To Direct
Expenses:
Carriage Inward
Wages
Wages & salaries
Fuel & power

By Sales
Less: Returns
By Closing
Stock(hà ng tồ n kho)
By Gross Loss c/d*

Import Duty(thuế xuấ t nhâp
̣ khâu)
̉
Custom Duty(thuế haỉ quan)
Excise Duty(thuế tiêu thu)̣
Consumable Store
Factory Rent, Rates,
and Taxes
Foreman/ Works Manager’s
Salary
Royalty on manufactured
goods
To Gross Profit c/d*

Profit & Loss Account
For non-corporate business organisation Profit &
Loss account is second part of income
statement(báo cáo thu nhập). It is prepared to
know the net loss of business during a particular
period. Every businessman has to spend on
expenses other than on manufacture or
purchase of goods which are called indirect
expenses(chi phí gián tiếp). There can be other
incomes except sales. So gross profit or loss is
adjusted keeping in view these indirect
expenses(chi phí gián tiếp) and other incomes to
find out net profit or net loss.

Proforma of Profit & Loss Account
Particulars
To Gross Loss b/d
To Establishment Charges(PHÍ
THÀNH LẬP)
hành chính)
To Selling & Distribution
expenses(chi phí bàn và chi phí
phân phối)
To Financial Charges(chi phí tài
chính)

Amt

Particulars
By Gross Profit b/d(tổng lợi
nhuận)
By other expenses(chi phí khác)
By Net Loss (lợi nhuận ròng)
(transferred to capital account)
Chuyển vào tài khoản vốn

Amt

To Depreciation
& Provisions
To Abnormal
Losses
To Net Profit
(transferred to
Capital Account)

Balance Sheet
Balance Sheet is a component of financial
statements which shows balances of capital,
liabilities & assets. All nominal accounts are
closed by transferring these to Trading & Profit
& Loss Account. Only personal & real accounts
are left.
Balance Sheet is the final phase in accounting
cycle. It is a ‘mirror’ which reflects the true
position of the assets & liabities of the business
on a particular date.
“A statement of financial position of economic
unit disclosing as at a given moment of time its
assets, liabilities & ownership equities. Eric
L.kohler

Balance Sheet as on ……………………

Liabilities
Capital
Less: Drawings
Fixed Liabilities:
Long term loan
Public deposits
Current Liabilities:
Unexpired Income
Short Term Loans
Bank Overdraft

Amt

Assets
Fixed Assets:
Goodwill
Land and Buildings
Plant & Machinery
Motor Vehicles
Furniture
Live Stock
Loose Tools
Investments

Amt

Bill Payable
Outstanding
Expenses

Current Assets:
Closing Stock
Prepaid
Expenses
Accrued
Income
Debtors
Bill Receivable
Cash at Bank
Cash in hand

CLOSING STOCK
The unsold goods lying in store at the
end of accounting year. Treatment:
Stock a/c Dr.
Two fold effect of adjustment will be :-

1) Show on Credit side of the Trading
account
2) On asset side of Balance Sheet

OUTSTANDING EXPENSES
Those expenses which have been incurred & not yet paid.

Treatment:
Expenses a/c Dr(tà i khoan
̉ chi phí bên Nợ) Nợ Tk chi phí
To outstanding expenses() Có TK chi phí

Two fold effect:
1.Will be shown on debit side of trading &
profit & loss a/c by way of addition to particular expense.(thê ̉
hiên
̣ bên có cuả tà i khoan
̉ thương mai,
̣ lợi nhuân
̣ và lô ̃ lã i bằ ng ca ́ ch
thêm và o chi phí đăc̣ biêt)
̣
2. Will be shown on liabities side of Balance Sheet.(là nguồ n vô ́ n)

PREPAID EXPENSES(chi phí trả trướ c)
Those expenses which have been paid in advance i.e., whose
benefit will be available in future is called prepaid expenses.
Treatment:
Prepaid Expenses a/c Dr(Nợ tà i khoan
̉ chi phí trả
trướ c)
To Expenses a/c(có tà i khoan
̉ chi phí )
Two fold effect:
1.Will be shown in profit & loss a/c by way deduction from
particular expense.(nó sẽ được thể hiên trong
̣ kế t chuyên
̉ lô ̃
lã i bằ ng cá ch giam
̉ trừ khoỉ cá c chi phí đăc̣ biêt)
̣
2. Will be shown on asset side of Balance Sheet. (là tà i san)
̉

ACCRUED INCOME(cá c khoan
̉ phaỉ thu)
That income which has been earned but not received during the
accounting year is called accrued income. Treatment:
Accrued Income a/c Dr(Nọ Tk Doanh thu nhân
̣
trướ c)
To Income a/c(có TK thu nhâp)
̣
Two fold effect:
1.Will be shown on credit side of P & L a/c (bên nợ cuả tà i khoan
̉
lỗ , lã i)
2. Will be shown on asset side of Balance Sheet (là tà i san)
̉

̣ nhân
̣ trướ c)
Income received but not earned during accounting year is called
Income a/c Dr (ben nợ tà i khoan
̉ thu nhâp)
̣
nhân
̣ trướ c)
Two fold effect:
1.Will be shown on credit side of P & L a/c by the way of deduction
from particular income.(ở bên nợ cuả tà i khoan
̉ tà i san
̉ và
nguồ n vố n bằ ng cá ch khấ u trừ khoỉ doanh thu đăcij biêt)
̣
2. Will be shown on liabilities side of Balance Sheet.(bên nguô ̀ n
vố n)

DEPRECIATION(khấ u hao)
Depreciation is the reduction in the value of fixed asset due to its
use, wear & tear. Treatment:
Depreciation a/c Dr(Nợ Tk khấ u hao)
To Asset a/c (Có TK tà i san)
̉
Two fold effect:
1.Is shown on debit side of P & L a/c(thể hiên
̣ bên n ợ cuả tà i khoan
̉
tà i san
̉ và nguồ n vố n)
2.Is shown on the Asset side of the Balance Sheet by way of
deduction from value of concerned asset (thể hiên
̣ bên
tà i san
̉ bằ ng cá ch khấ u trừ giá trị cuả nhữ ng tà i san
̉ liên
quan)

Debts which are definitely irrecoverable(khả năng thu hồ i) are
Treatment:
Bad Debts A/c Dr(Nợ TK Nợ xấ u)
To Sundry Debtors a/c(Có TK )
Two fold effect:
1. Is shown on debit side of P & L a/c. (thể hiên
̣ bên Nợ )
2. 2. Is shown on assets side of Balance Sheet by way of deduction
from Sundry Debtors.(taỉ san)
̉

INTEREST ON CAPITAL (vốn đầu tư)
To see whether the business is really earning profit or not ,interest on capital
at a certain rate is provided. Treatment :
Interest on capital A/c
To capital A/c
TWO FOLD EFFECT :
1.It will be shown on debit side of Profit and Loss A/c(thể hiện bên nợ tài
khoản Lợi nhuận và thua lỗ)
2.Shown on liabilities side of Balance Sheet by way of addition to the capital.
(bên nguồn vốn, làm tăng lên nguồn vốn)

INTEREST ON DRAWINGS (lãi suất ngân hàng)

Interest on drawings is charged from proprietor ,as drawings
reduce capital.
Treatment:
Drawings A/c(Nợ Tài khoản rút vốn)
To Interest on Drawings A/c(Có Tk Lãi suất ngân
hàng)
Two fold effect will be:
1.It will be shown on credit side of Profit and Loss Account.(bên
nợ của tài khoản lợi nhuận và thua lỗ)
2.On liabilities side of Balance Sheet by way of addition to the
drawings which are ultimately deducted from the capital.
(nguồn vốn - )

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