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Effect of leader’s traits on leadership performance in enterprises in vietnam




53,900 in 2011; 54,200 in 2012; 60,700 in 2013 and more than 67,800 to
the end of December 2014. This figure tends to growing up becauses of the

The necessity of the research

capacity and the quality of entrepreneurs, business leaders.

Leaders are people having power, influence, charismatic and

Therefore, the study of of personality, leader’s trait and the influence

inspirational abilities… to form the mighty empire, gather huge armies,

of these factors on leadership performance is a significant issue of theory

construct and transmit their affects from one generation to the next in

and practice in conditions Vietnam.

centuries-lasting organizations or companies. In general, discussion in

Objectives of the study and research questions

leadership have been involved not only scholars but also practicers. In

This study will help to clarify the influence of leader’s traits on

particular, leader and leader’s trait approach are important ones.
In Vietnam, the study of personality, leader’s trait and the influence of
these factors on leadership performance, particularly in enterprises is very

leadership performance in enterprises in Vietnam. Specifically, the thesis
will respond to the following three research questions:

performance in the conditions of Vietnam?

limited. Business leaders have been considered in terms of capacity and
education level through qualification. In this context, multidimensional,

Due to the historical context, businessman and business leaders in
Vietnam formed lately, were not highly appreciated and created conditions

What leader’s traits are popular and their influence on leadership
performance in enterprises in Vietnam?

comprehensive, modern approached studies to leadership must be
continued to complement the theories and basis for practical activities.

How do documented leader’s traits have influence on leadership

What characteristics of enterprise (Industry, ownership, size ...) and
characteristics of leaders (age, sex ...) moderate the influence of
leader’s traits on leadership performance in Vietnam?

for development in a very long period. Along with economical innovation

Research’s object, scope and method

and management thinking, businessman class has been growing and taking

Method research: combination of qualitative method (in-depth

increasing important roles to the country's global integration. However,

interviews) and quantitative method (survey questionnaires).

overall assessment, after nearly 30 years of innovation, businessman class

The object of the study is the leader’s traits and their influence on

is fundamentally weak in terms of knowledge, ability and managerial

leadership performance in enterprises in Vietnam. The research unit is the

experience (Tran Thi Van Hoa, 2011). Specifically, results from the survey

employee and middle-lever leader in different enterprises. They were asked

in more than 63.760 enterprises in 30 northern provinces show that only

to evaluate their leader’s traits and their leadership performance.

54.5% of enterprise owners have college and higher degrees (30% have

Scope of the study: The different state-owner, private and foreign

been trained in economics and business administration, 70% have not);

enterprises which are different in term of industry, size, form... from seven

45.5% of enterprise owners have secondary school qualifications and

economic regions (North East, the Red River Delta, Northwest, North

untrained (MPI and JICA, 2005). According to publication from the

Central, West Central, Southeast, and West Southern). 1,000 questionaires

General Department of Statistics, in the last 5 years the number of business

were sent, 806 ones is valid among 830 ones responded. Survey was carried

bankruptcies continued to increase from 43,000 in 2010 to more than

out in 5 months from April to August 2014.




Structure of the thesis


Apart from the introduction and conclusion, the thesis includes 5 chapters:
Chapter 1

Literature review

Chapter 2

Theoritical framework and research model

Chapter 3

Qualitative research: Leader’s traits in enterprise in Vietnam

Research on leader’s traits

and adjusted research model

According to the different research perspectives, one or a certain

Chapter 4
Chapter 5

1.1. Literature review on international researches

Quantitative research: Impact of leader’s traits on leadership

group traits would have a positive impact to the leadership performance,

performance in Vietnam

help leaders succeed while others have the completely opposite effect.

Discussions and recommendations

Research on leaders' qualities, Sankar (2003) said that "vision,
goals, self-concept, strategies, work ethic, perception, code of ethics,
behavior and the search for excellence" help leaders succeed in their work.
Similarly, some studies have shown the link between effective work with a
number of personal traits such as courage, integrity, passion, compassion,
optimism, kindness , humanity, purpose, sympathy (Bright, Cameron and
Caza, 2006).
Rooted in psychology, desides The Big Five Traits Theory
suggested by Judge, Bono, Illies and Gerhardt (2002), Peterson and
Seligman (2004) presented 6 virtues with 24 traits that help individuals,
leaders success, satisfy with work: Winsdom, Courage, Humanity,
Transcedence, Temperance and Justice. Based on this category, Noel
Balliett Thun (2009) developed the scale and measured their impact to
leadership performance. This category is more consistent with business and
Some studies focus on the qualities with negative impact (dark
traits). Among this, study on Dark Triad including Narccisism,
Machiavellianism and Psychopathy is dominant. Schaubroeck, Walumbwa,
Ganster and Kepes (2007), examined the relationship between these three
qualities to the staff’s physical and mental stress, their work attitude and the
commitment to organizations. Jonason, Slomski and Partyka (2012)



considers these three qualities as a measure to assess the negative staff and

Organizational citizenship behavior-individual (Josatisfaction, Trust,

a sign to identify the strategies that they will use in the workplace.

Conciousness), Affective organizational commitment and General health.

One other interesting aspect that the researchers have also shown

In operation area, Cavazotte, Moreno, Hickmann (2012) and

that these dark traits are also positive and vice versa. In it, Furnham,

Strohhecker, Grobler (2013) and studies in materials and energy

Trickey and Hyde (2012) has pointed out the negative characteristics have

management. Following Transformational Leadership approach, the

tight ties to both the success and failure in specific work. Judge, Piccolo


and Kosalka (2009) argues that traits have two sides and affect leadership


performance and effectiveness.






360 degrees model is mentioned as another interesting study on

Research on leadership performance

measuring the influence of leader’s qualities on leadership performance

Leadership performance is examined in different aspects and for

(Strang and Kuhnert, 2009), through his senior, junior and colleague.

different purposes. Based on the research findings of Thunn (2009); Piero,

1.2. Literature review on researches in Vietnam

Cicero, Bonaiuto, Knippenberg and Kruglanski (2005); Reave (2005);

In Vietnam, the researches not only on the leader’s traits but also

Knippenberg and Hogg (2003); Koene, Vogelaar and Soeters (2002);

on effect of leader’s traits on leadership performance is very limited,

Mumford, Zaccaro, Johnson, Diana, Gilbert and Threlfall (2000)... the

according to some following approaches:

author differentiate criteria measuring leadership performance into 2
groups: staff-leading performance and general-leading performance.

The first is Marxist - Leninism perspective and Ho Chi Minh
though. Accordingly, the leaders - managers must constantly cultivate, train

In particular, staff-leading performance includes: Perceived

yourself to minimize defects, enhance strengths concentrated in humanity,

leadership effectiveness; Job satisfaction and Motivation to work;

righteousness, knowledge, courage and integrity (Tran Nguyen Tuyen,

Commitment to the organization; Professional ethics.

2015 ); righteousness and ability (Tran Sy said, 2004); virtuousness and

General-leading performance includes: Organizational performance
(net profit and controllable cost); Organization efficiency; Readiness to
innovate and General communication.
Research on effect of leader’s traits on leadership performance:
there are some notable research.

talent (Do Minh Cuong, 2006; Tuong lai, 2006 ...) and reputable to be
worth at the helm (Lanh Thi Bich Hoa, 2006) ...
The second is psychology perspective of leader’s personality
(Nguyen Ba Duong, 2004; Le Huu Green, 2006; Vu Anh Tuan, 2009),
dignitary’s personality (Luong Xuan Ha, 2007)... With this perspective,

Mumford, Zaccaro, Johnson, Diana, Gilbert and Threlfall (2000)

personality is the unity of virtue and talent, of which virtue is the original

studied the effect of 7 leader's traits to the quality of the decisions, critical

and talent is important; unity of a politician, the organizer, the professor

analysis, personal leadership performance; Reave (2005) have examined

and an educator" (Vu Anh Tuan, 2009)...

the relationship between spiritual values and specific behaviors to

The third is modern and qualitative approach. The authors point out

leadership effectiveness. Balliett Thun Noel (2009) studied the effect of 6

these following virtue: desire, thinking, stature (Vu Minh Khuong, 2009);

group virtues to leadership performance through three groups of criteria:

trend, persionality, stuff and capacity (Tran Thi Bich Tra, 2006); 23


psychological qualities necessary for leaders (Tran Thi Bich Tra, 2006); the


personal qualities and leadership gender stereotyping (Nguyen Thi Thu Ha,
2008) ...


1.3. Research gap
Based on the assessment of the context and the need for research

2.1. Trait theory

on leadership and leader’s traits in enterprises in Vietnam, the author

Talented leaders always expressed his personal imprint on the

proposes some research directions are as follows: Firstly, the leaders need

organization they lead. The imprint is reflected not only the personality,

to be considered at different levels and leading role instead of attaching to

personal traits, but also leader’s talent, ability and contributions for its

official position that they hold in the enterprise. Secondly, specific

development. In the broad sense, leader’s traits are understood as the

characteristics of the enterprises (intdustry, size, form…) and the leaders

personal qualities of leader to distinguish with a different leader. The

(age, gender, education, experience...) should be considered as moderator

personal traits can be positive or negative effect. In business and

factors on leadership performance. Thirdly, leadership theory in the context

management, the leader’s traits are proved the effect on leadership

of Eastern culture is a puzzle piece to completed leadership theory.

performance and effectiveness.

Fourthly, documented theories need to be verified in the context of a

There are many approaches and classification of personal traits.

growing economy with a variety of economic sectors, forms of ownership,

Within the scope of the thesis, the author uses approach and classification

forms of business organization... Finally, leader’s performance need to be

of Peterson and Seligman (2004) and Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka (2009) as

considered in terms of economic development and social responsibility to

the basis to analyse and measure the effect of leader’s traits (both bright

ensure business efficiency also contributing to the socio-economic

and dark traits) leadership performance in enterprises.


Regarding the affecting factors: Personality and personal traits are

However, within the scope of the thesis, the author intends to take

formed and adjusted through the interaction between the individual with the

Trait approach as the fundamental theory with the essential adjustments and

natural and social environment. Triandis (1989) has pointed out that

applications as follow: selecting suitable trait classification, adding some

differences in cultural context can also influence the personality and

independent variables, adding some scale for dependent variables and

behavior of each individual. As McCrae, leader is influenced by many

examining the new moderator variables. This objective is based on previous

factors including biological factors, natural environment and other external

studies on culture and the influence of cultural context on leadership and

factors (McCrae and Costa, 1999; McCrae, 2004). Accordingly, the author

leadership performance.

has made a qualitative study to show the leader’s trait in enterprises in
Vietnam's cultural context.
2.2. Leader’s traits classification


Peterson and Seligman’s classification (2004): Using 10 defining

In the thesis, the author developed 14 questions to measure these

criteria (See Appendix 2), the authors have identified the bright traits

four traits. The questions are based on the definition of the Judge, Piccolo

(positive effect) 6 virtues with 24 traits as follows.

and Kosalka (2009) with reference to the studies by Rosenthal and Pittinski


Table 2.2: Theoretical categorization of 6 virtues and 24 straits
IV Transcendence
13 Beauty
14 Gratitude
15 Hope
Love of learning
16 Humor
17 Spirituality
18 Forgiveness/Mercy
19 Humility/Modesty
20 Prudence
21 Self-regulation
VI Justice
22 Citizenship
23 Fairness
Social Intelligence
24 Leadership
(Source: Peterson và Seligman, 2004)

According to Peterson and Seligman (2004), 6 virtues with 24 were
assessed positively in almost all cultures, been proven over time. They have
not only positive impact on leadership performance but also make people
feel happy and optimistic. The content and expression of 6 virtues with 24
traits are presented in Table 2.3 to Table 2.8. In the thesis, the author uses
24 questions developed by Thun (2009) to measure these 24 traits.
Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka’s classification (2009): Based on the

(2006); Morf and Rhodewait (2001); Baumeister, Campbell, Kruger and
Vohs (2003); Sidanius and Pratto (2001); Altemeyer (2004); Goldberg
2.3. Leadership performance
"Leadership performance is understood as the leader’s impact on
junior (including job satisfaction, commitment to the organization, general
health) and on general environment in the department or organization
(organization efficiency and readiness to innovate)".
Based on statistics, group and selection from previous research
results; the author used the following five groups of indicators to measure
leadership performance: (1) Job satisfaction, (2) Commitment to
organization, (3) General health, (4) Organization efficiency, (5) Readiness
to innovate. Due to its compatibility with certain classifications of
Cavazotte, Moreno and Hickmann (2012), in the final model, two
dependent variable are expected and named staff-leading performance
(including criteria 1, 2 and 3) and General-leading performance (including
criteria 4 and 5). To measure these two groups, in thesis author selected 15
sub-criteria developed by Noel Balliett Thun (2009); Koene, Vogelaar and
Soeters (2002); Piero, Cicero, Bonaiuto, Knippenberg and Kruglanski
(2005); Reave (2005); Knippenberg and Hogg (2003).
2.4. Research model

inheritance the previous research, these authors has considered the
multidimensional aspects of traits, proposed and measured the effectiveness
of some new ones. In particular, Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka (2009) pointed
out four dark traits including: Narcissism, Hubris, Social Dominance and

The author used the model composed by Cavazotte, Moreno,
Hickmann (2012) as the fundamental research model. However some
adjustments were carried out to obtain research objectives and suit for the
study context. In particular, the author:

Used trait approach and classification of Peterson and Seligman
(2004); Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka (2009).



Added new and specific indicators to evaluate the leadership

study focused on the research of business leader and leader’s traits in

performance, however, still based on initial model of Cavazotte,

different forms of business organization, cultures and countries.
Qualitative methods: In-depth interviews were carried out to

Moreno, Hickmann;

Supplemented some leader’s traits affected by the external

affirm the suitability of fundamental theory, characteristics of Vietnam

environment in the context of Vietnam to and assessed the

culture affecting individual’s traits and dominant traits of Vietnamese in

moderation of some new factors on the effect of leader’s traits on

general and leader in enterprises in particular. Content of the in-depth

leadership performance;

interviews is presented in Table 2.9. Information of experts interviewed,

Based on the above acknowledgement, the author proposed the

time, location and duration of the interview is presented in Appendix 3.
Quantitative Research Methods - Survey questionnaire: used to

research model to study the effects of leader’s traits on leadership
performance as in Figure 2.2 below.

measure the effect of leader’s traits on leadership performance. Details of
the scale selection and development are presented in Table 2.10, 2.11 and


Staff-leading performance
- Job satisfaction
- Commitment to organization
- General health


was developed and adjusted over the preliminary quantitative survey with a
sample size of 55 in Hanoi. Besides the introduction, final questionnaire
consists of 3 main sections with 84 questions presented in detail in


General-leading performance


- Organization efficiency
- Readiness to innovate

Social Dominace

Appendix 4.
Sampling survey: About 1000 staffs and mid-level managers in
different enterprises were asked to get their assessment of their senior’s
traits and leadership performance. Due to resource limitation, the author

Leader’s traits in
conext of VN

Questionnaire development and adjustment: The questionnaire

used convenience sampling method but to ensure representativeness, the
Moderating variables
Age, Gender, Ownership

author tried to investigate in seven main economic regions from seven

(Source: Author)

North Central, West Central, Southeast, and West Southern), in different

Figure 2.2: Research model (In plan)
2.5. Research method
Secondary information for literature review: In 6 months (from
Dec 2013 to May 2014), using website ScienceDirect.com, the author
studied on the first 1,000 closest results to the term "Leadership and Trait
theory" and then continuously update newer and relevant researches. The

economic regions (including North East, the Red River Delta, Northwest,
enterprises in term of industry, business forms, ownership.
Survey time: Survey was carried out in 5 months from April to
August 2014. About 1,000 questionaires were sent, 806 ones is valid
among 830 ones responded.




organizing monarchy government, intuitive thinking also lead to emotional


thinking. After the 19th century, the influence of Western culture became


clearer and stronger, but narrow and quite faint in Vietnam cultural
The impact of political factors: political psychology with an

3.1. Vietnamese’s dominant traits affected by external factors
Based on finding of Triandis (1989) and McCrae (2004), the author
studied the effect of environment on the Vietnamese’s characteristics.

absolute ideology of the king and the monarchy government guided to
passive thinking or passivity. On the other hand, community and village

The impact of natural environment: The natural condition in

culture also appeared privatization trend of political relations (Lai Phi Hung

Vietnam is diverse in topography, climate and land; different between

et al, 2013). Leaders often dominated by family and other relationship

regions. Vietnam social is diverse in the unity of an agricultural

when making decisions. This expression is also very close to emotional

civilization, relying on nature and in harmony with nature. Adapted with

Based on the documented traits, the author categorized and

those natural conditions, Vietnamese also have some characteristics as

high adaptability, community, small-scale production, lack of

planning, seasonality, passivity...

affirmed through in-depth interview. The experts’ opinions highly
concentrated on "emotional thinking", considered it as an important

The impact of economic - social – religious environment and

characteristic of the Vietnamese and needed to be implemented into the

exotic elements: Vietnam has agricultural culture. People desire to live in

model. Second trait is the "Initiative - The ability to turn things around".

peace, natural harmony, emotion appreciation, tolerance, have philosophy

Contrasting to passivity, many people think Vietnamese has very actively

of balance and harmony... It is this philosophy leading to high adaptability

impacted on natural conditions to serve life and production activities (dikes

under all circumstances (Tran Ngoc Them, 1999). Throughout history, the

system, water resource...) and has flexible responds to changes and

long-term commitment between the individual and the community make

challenges. Finally, "Harmonious thinking" also needs to be added in the

people appreciate emotion or “emotional thinking”. Oriental monarchy

research model because it is considered differently in the way that people

existing for thousands of years in the history Vietnam makes people live in

think between the West and the East in general and in Vietnam in

habits, trails. Great majority of the cultural values are created once and


forever, without modification, creativity and innovation.

3.2. Dominant traits needed to be implemented into research model

The impact of religious and exotic elements: At the “crossroads of

"Emotional thinking": In leadership, emotional thinking is

civilizations” (Tran Quoc Vuong et al, 2006). Introduced into Vietnam with

known as "Being dominated by relationships, emotion; decision without

human spiritual values and encourage goodness, Buddhism also contribute

significant reasons"(Dictionary Vietnamese, Publisher Encyclopedia,

to the Vietnamese’s emotion appreciation. Vietnamese culture is also


ascending affected Chinese culture, especially the Confucian with

"Initiative - The ability to turn things around": According to

humanity. Passively receiving and passive thinking in studying and

referenced dictionary, initiative is "be master of his actions, not easily to be



the governed by situation or others”. Turning things around has both


meaning as making the changes and countering threats to opportunities. So


"The ability to turn things around is adaptability, impact, change the


unfavorable factors into business advantage."
"Harmonious thinking": Harmony means adaptation of part to

4.1. Reliability of the scales

each other, in any system or combination of things or in things intended to

The scales are tested the reliability by Cronbach’s Alpha and

form a connected whole. On one side, leaders (in general) and leaders in

Corrected Item – Total Correlation. Next, the retained variables are

enterprises (in particular) with "Harmonious thinking" do not solve the

continuously analyzed using factor analysis method (EFA).

issues deeply and thoroughly. On the other side, when choosing the plan or

Reliability Statistics

solving problems, the most importance is seeking for compromise,

Cronbach’s Alpha in the range 0.7 - 0.8 is good but accepted at least

conformity and stability in the organization / enterprises rather than judging

0.6. Besides, the variables with the Corrected Item – Total Correlation lower

which is right or wrong.

than 0.4 will also be excluded (Nunnally, 1978; Peterson, 1994; Slater, 1995

The author also developed and affirmed 12 scales to measure 3

cited in Hoang Trong - Chu Nguyen Mong Ngoc, 2005).

traits include "Emotional thinking", "Initiative - The ability to turn things

Scales for leader’s traits: all the variables have Cronbach’s Alpha

around" and "Harmonious thinking" as discussed above. Expression and

from 0.686 to 0.927. The author retain 47 observed variables having

scale for "Emotional thinking" are shown in Table 3.2; "Initiative - The

Corrected Item – Total Correlation higher than 0.4 and excluded 3 other

ability to turn things around" in Table 3.3 and "Harmonious thinking" in

variables. Detailed statistics is in Table 4:11 and Appendix 6.

Table 3.4.
3.3. Adjusted research model and research hypotheses
Based on the results of qualitative research, the author adjusted the
research model as in Figure 3.1 and developed 4 groups of hypotheses:

Scale for leadership performance: all the variables have Cronbach’s
Alpha from 0.736 to 0.874. All of 15 observed variables are included because
of having Corrected Item – Total Correlation higher than 0.4. Statistics in
details is provided in Table 4.12 and Appendix 7.

Hypotheses about the effect of leader’s traits on staff-leading

Check validity of scales


Next, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used to assess the validity

Hypotheses about the effect of leader’s traits on organization-leading

of the scales. In this test, variables with the extraction less than 0.5 continue


disqualified. The author chose Principle Components Analysis for Extraction

Hypotheses about the difference in staff-leading performance.

Method, Varimax with Kaiser Normalization and Initial Eigen values is over

Hypotheses about the difference in organization-leading performance.

1. Scales are accepted when Rotation Sum of Squared Loading is greater than

50% and the extractions are 0.5 or more (Hair & CTG, 1998).
Scales for leader’s traits: After removing 9 scales, 3rd EFA result
analysis was accepted in all criteria, presented in Table 4:13 (see Appendix 8


and 9 for details). First, KMO and Bartlett's test (KMO at 0.934 in accepted
range 0.5 variables are correlated with each other on overall. Based on the analyzing

FX1 – Narcissism – Hubris
– Social Dominance
Humanity - Justice

results in Appendix 9, 6 factors were extracted out. Rotation Cumulative
Sum of Squared Loading Value showed that 6 factors explained 61.96% of

FX3 – Initiative – Ability
to turn things around

data variation. Therefore, the author has identified six groups of factors that
will be used in the research model:
• FX1: Narcissism – Hubris – Social Dominance
• FX2: Humanity – Justice with Forgiveness and Humor
• FX3: Initiative – The ability to turn things around
• FX4: Emotional – Harmonious thinking

Staff-leading performance
- Job satisfaction
- Commitment to organization
- General health

FX4 – Emotional –
Harmonious Thinking

General-leading performance

Self-Regulation – Beauty
FX6 – Curiosity – Love of

• FX6: Curiosity – Love of Learning

(Source: Author)
4.2. Impact of leader’s traits on leadership performance: Regression

With the principle as above, after removing one observed variable, the


analysis 2nd showed the correlation between observed variables. Based on

4.2.1. The first assumed model

the analyzing results in Appendix 9, 2 factors were extracted out. Rotation
Cumulative Sum of Squared Loading Value showed that 6 factors explained
61.02% of data variation. So we have two groups of factors measuring
leadership performance including:
• FY1: Staff-leading performance
• FY2: General-leading performance

Moderating variables
Age, Gender, Ownership

• FX5: Self-Regulation – Beauty with Prudence and Gratitude
Scale for leadership performance: including 15 observed variables.

- Organization efficiency
- Readiness to innovate

The regression results assessing the impact of 6 leader’s traits on
Staff-leading Performance (FY1) as follows:
FY1 = - 0.068(FX1) + 0.305(FX2) + 0.073(FX3) + 0.076(FX4)+ 0.1(FX5) + 0.07(FX6)

Linear regression results of the first model are presented in Table
4.18 and in Appendix 14 for more details.
With significance of 5%, all of 6 traits have effects on Staff-leading
performance. Particularly, the influence of (FX2) Humanity – Justice,

Based on these findings, the research model is adjusted as follows:

(FX3) Initiative – The ability to turn things around, (FX4) Emotional –
Harmonious thinking, (FX5) Self-Regulation – Beauty, (FX6) Curiosity –

Figure 4.5: The adjusted model to study the effects of leader’s
traits on leadership performance

Love of Learning are positive, (FX1) Narcissism – Hubris – Social
Dominance is negative.
About the effecting degree, (FX2) Humanity – Justice is the most
powerful influence on staff-leading performance (0.305) and the next is


(FX5) Self-Regulation – Beauty at 0.1. The remaining trait groups have

4.3.2. Regression analysis
To test the impact of leader’s traits on leadership performance with

similar degree effects with the absolute value of approximately 0.07.
4.2.2. The second assumed model

the moderation of enterprise and leader’s biographical characteristics, the

The regression results assessing the impact of 6 leader’s traits on

author create and test a regression model dummy variables (gender, age and
ownership groups). There are 6 dummy variables including Sex, Age1,

Organization-leading Performance (FY1) as follows:
FY2 = 0.338 (FX2) + 0.091 (FX5) + 0.216 (FX6)

Age2, Age3, Own1, and Own2). The variables’ original status is women

Linear regression results of the first model are presented in Table

(0), age group 24-35 (0,0,0) and State-owner (0,0). The dummies are
presented in detail in Appendix 16.

4.19 and in Appendix 15 for more details.

Linear regression results are presented in Table 4.19 and in

This means that, with the significance of 5%, only (FX2) Humanity
– Justice; (FX5) Self-Regulation – Beauty and (FX6) Curiosity – Love of

Appendix 15 for more details.

Learning are affected (FY2) General-leading performance. All these

We have some major conclusions as follows:

influences are positive.

The difference between groups of gender
In case of other factors being stable, the male leaders would have

About effecting degree, (FX2) Humanity – Justice is the most
powerful influence to General-leading Performance (0.338) and then to

better result on Organization-leading performance than female leaders

(FX6) Curiosity – Love of Learning (0.216), (FX5) Discipline -

Male leaders have impact of (FX4) Emotional – Harmonious

Perfectionism at least (0.091).
4.3. Impact of leader’s traits on leadership performance: Moderation

thinking on (FY1) Staff-leading performance higher than female leader

of enterprise and leader’s biographical characteristics

(0.125); while the impact of (FX6) Curiosity – Love of Learning on (FY2)

4.3.1. One-way ANOVA analysis

General-leading performance is lower (0.15).

The difference between groups of gender: There are differences

The difference between groups of age

about General-leading performance (FY2) between male and female

There is no difference in leadership performance between leaders

leaders (Sig. =0.044); but it is insufficient to assert such differences about

in groups of age. Few differences in the influence of some traits on

Staff-leading performance (FY1). See Tables 4.20 for details.

leadership performance are not significant.

The difference between groups of age: It’s insufficient to conclude
the differences in leadership performance between the leaders in various
age groups (Sig. = 0.378 and Sig. = 0.54). See Tables 4.21 for details.
The difference between groups of ownership: There are differences






The difference between groups of ownership
The results of linear regression analysis completely coincide with
the results of descriptive statistics (in Table 4.8, Figure 4.2) and ANOVA
analysis (in Table 4.22).


Overall differences: In comparison with private and foreign

performance between State-owner, private and foreign enterprises (Sig. =

enterprises, leaders in State-owner enterprises have higher staff-leading

0.001 and Sig. = 0.038). See Table 4.22 for details.



performance in turn 0.109 and 0.105; lower General-leading performance


in turn 0.064 and 0.106.
The differences in private enterprises in comparison with Stateowner enterprises: In case of other factors being stable, effects of (FX3)

5.1. Distributions and limitations
Distribution in theory

Initiative – The ability to turn things around and (FX4) Emotional –
Harmonious thinking on staff-leading performance are lower in turn 0.107

and 0.141; (FX1) Narcissism – Hubris – Social Dominance and (FX2)
Humanity – Justice on General-leading performance are higher at 0.103.

leader’s traits and leadership performance.

owner enterprises: In case of other factors being stable, effect of (FX4)


0.118; (FX5) Self-Regulation – Beauty on staff-leading is lower at 0.82 and
on general-leading performance is higher at 0.078. Effect of (FX6)

Selected suitable traits approaches and classifications; transformed
compatibly and successfully applied scales in the context of

The differences in foreign enterprises in comparison with StateEmotional – Harmonious thinking on staff-leading performance is lower at

Clarified the definition and standardize some terms related to

Proposed and tested some new leader’s traits in enterprise in
Vietnam today.

Curiosity – Love of Learning is opposite to effect of (FX5).

Detected the homogeneity of the two leadership performance








Point out the differences in leadership performance and effects of







differentiated by ownership.
Distributions in practice

Point out the positive and negative effects, strengths and
weaknesses of each trait to train, adjust, foster positive traits and
restrict negative ones.

Establish a basis for some recommendations for training and
development of entrepreneurs and leaders in enterprises.
Limitations of the research
Firstly, convenience sampling method may not ensure the best

requirements of representativeness and generalization.
Secondly, many terms related to psychology are difficult to convert
into Vietnamese so that some original terms are kept to easily track and


Finally, some research findings have not explained satisfactorily

goals: "By 2015, about 1.5 - 2.0 million entrepreneurs, business leaders

some conclusions noted in previous studies (such as the influence of age,

(accounting for about 78.0%) will have bachelor, master and doctor’s

gender… on leadership performance); some research results are not

degree. By 2020, approximately 2.5 - 3.0 million entrepreneurs, business

statistically in term of statistics...

leaders (accounting for about 80.0%) will have bachelors, master and

5.2. Directions and policies to develop entrepreneurs and
leaders in enterprise in Vietnam by 2020
Within the scope of this thesis, the leaders in enterprise are

doctor’s degree ".
We need to make changes in training and fostering entrepreneurs,
business leaders in Vietnam along with raising awareness of the role of

considered as entrepreneurs, in a broad sense. They are individuals taking


certain positions, doing corporate management and governance.

implementing supporting policies for improving productivity and

The development of entrepreneurs, leaders in enterprise








Due to the historical context, under the governance of feudalism

Therefore, within the scope and objectives of the thesis, the author

and colonialism up to 6th National Congress of the Community Party of

proposes some recommendations to develop the force, improve the

Vietnam (6th Congress), businessman class had not been respected and not

efficiency of entrepreneurs, leaders in enterprises in Vietnam.

created conditions for development. Since the 6th Congress, Vietnam has

5.3. Recommendations to develop entrepreneurs and leaders in

advocated creating a market-driven economy with different sectors and free

enterprises in Vietnam

competition between private and state sectors. These shifts in governance
policies paved the way for the development of entrepreneurs and business

Regarding education, training and development policies for
entrepreneurs, leaders in enterprises
Increasingly train specialist knowledge, knowledge and skills of

However, in general, after nearly 30 years of innovation, leaders in

leadership and management; encourage the love of learning, curiosity...

enterprise are still identified fundamentally weak in terms of knowledge,

Encourage the learner’s creativity, innovation...

ability and management experience (Tran Thi Van Hoa, 2011).

Enhance the ability to analyze, assess and predict changes in the

Entrepreneurs also revealed many weaknesses as: low quantity and quality;

business environment with the trend of international cooperation and

untrained in general… Most entrepreneurs are generally lack of foresight,


business strategies, professionalism, adaptability, entrepreneurial culture,
cooperation… (Hoang Van Hoa, 2010).
The policies to develop entrepreneurs and business leaders in
Vietnam by 2020
Specifying the Resolution 09 / NQ-TW of the Politburo, "Vietnam
Human Resource Development Strategy for period 2011-2020" by
approved Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung (2011) also pointed out the

Train discipline and persistence, scientific thinking and working
methods, professionalism...
In State-owner enterprises: change recruitment, evaluation and
treatment policies; creating a stimulating, challenging and more
competitive work environment to avoid laziness, working perfunctorily...
Recommendations of leadership style in enterprises




Heighten humanity and sympathy in management; encourage
staff’s efforts and vitality to increase their commitment and loyalty.

Within the scope of the thesis, the thesis focused on the leader’s

opportunities and treated without prejudice; accept juniors’ shortcomings

traits and the effect of leader’s traits on leadership performance in

and willing to give them another chance...

enterprises. The thesis has achieved some positive results.







Have deference for employees and criticism; listening to the
feedback on managing decisions...
Avoid using pulling and campaigning tricks causing employee’s
depression and inhibition; having bad effect on working environment…

The thesis systematized leadership theories and knowledge about
leader and leader’s traits from which selected the bright traits classification
of Peterson and Seligman (2004) including Wisdom, Courage, Humanity,
Transcendence, Temperance and Justice; dark traits classification of Judge,

Combine emotional and reasonable decision-making; consider

Piccolo and Kosalka (2009) consisting Narcissism, Hubris, Social

humanity in management decisions; develop a system of regulations, rules,

Dominance and Machiavellianism as a basis to assess the influence of

principles and processes to make decisions and solve problems...

leader’s on leadership performance in enterprise in Vietnam. In the

Keep balance and harmony but apply appropriate policies to
promote subordinates’ innovation and creativity...

research, the authors also studied the influence of the environmental
context (natural, economic, social, religious, political...) to Vietnamese’s

About evaluation and appointment of business leaders

traits and added to the model 4 traits considered typical for Vietnamese

Avoid prejudice, fairly evaluate employees’ working performance

people in general, and for business leaders

and take it as a basis for treatment, appointment...
Highly appreciate personal’s traits and work performance than age
and seniority in assessment and appointment although age (too high or too
low) could be a necessary factor to consider.

in particular including:

"Emotional thinking", "Initiative - The ability to turn things around" and
"Harmonious thinking".
The thesis systematized approaches and criteria measuring
leadership performance including financial and non-financial criteria, from

Both male and female leaders could perform well for work directly

which 5 groups of indicators were selected to used including: Job

related to human issues such as internal affairs, personnel management,

satisfaction, Commitment to organization, General health, Organization

internal training, administration...

efficiency and Readiness to innovate.

However, in case of other factors being equal, should give priority

Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the original research

to male leaders for work related to the operation, production, research and

model was adjusted (14 independent variables and 6 dependent variables to

development (R&D), innovation, creativity...

6 groups of independent variables and 2 groups of independent variables).
806 mid-level leaders and employees were asked to assess about
their superior’s traits and leadership performance. The author has
successfully tested the influence of leader’s traits on leadership



performance and pointed out the differences in groups gender and

knowledge, knowledge and skills of leadership; (2) Encourage the learner’s

ownership. In particular, the author has pointed out:

love of learning, creativity and innovation; (3) Train discipline and

• 3 groups of (FX2) Humanity – Justice, (FX5) Self-Regulation –

persistence, scientific thinking and working methods, professionalism...

Beauty, and (FX6) Curiosity – Love of Learning have effect on leadership

Recommendations of leadership style in enterprises: (1) Heighten

performance (both staff-leading and general-leading). Besides, 3 groups of

humanity and sympathy in management; (2) Establish a fair treatment

(FX1) Narcissism – Hubris – Social Dominance, (FX3) Initiative – The

mechanism; (3) Have deference for employees and criticism; listening to

ability to turn things around, and (FX4) Emotional – Harmonious thinking

the feedback on managing decisions; (4) Combine emotional and

have effect on (FY1) staff-leading performance.

reasonable decision-making to keep balance and harmony.

• About the degree, ((FX2) Humanity – Justice has a positive and

About evaluation and appointment of business leaders: (1) fairly

most powerful influence to staff-leading performance (0.305) and general-

evaluate employees’ working performance; (2) Highly appreciate

leading performance (0.338). Next is the influence of (FX6) Curiosity – Love

personal’s traits and work performance than age and seniority; (3) No sex

of Learning on general-leading performance (0.216) and (FX5) Self-

difference in selecting leaders for work directly related to human issues but

Regulation – Beauty on staff-leading performance (0.1). The other affects are

priority is given to select male leaders for work related to the operation,

nearly equal (from 0.068 to 0.076), of which, only the impact of the (FX1)

production, research and development (R&D), innovation, creativity...

Narcissism – Hubris – Social Dominance on staff-leading performance is
• Two typical groups of traits for Vietnamese business leaders
complemented in the research model including (FX3) Initiative – The ability
to turn things around and (FX4) Emotional – Harmonious thinking have
affect on staff-leading performance only. Of which, influence of ((FX4)
Emotional – Harmonious thinking is opposite to the initial hypothesis.
• The thesis also points out the significant difference in leadership
performance and effect of leader’s traits on leadership performance in Stateowner, private and foreign enterprises. In particular, private and foreigner
enterprises are recognized at higher staff-leading performance but lower
general-leading performance in comparison with State-owner enterprises.
These conclusions are important bases for giving recommendations
to demonstrate the significant necessity of the research.
Regarding education, training and development policies for
entrepreneurs, leaders in enterprises: (1) Increasingly train specialist

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