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Bài giảng khoa học đất (ngành quản lý đất đai) chương 2 (2) phần rắn khoáng

Si-oxide
• thạch anh (SiO2): màu sắc đa dạng: tím,
hồng, vàng,…


Fe-oxide/hydroxide
• Goethite (FeO(OH))

Yellowish to reddish to dark brown


Fe-oxide/hydroxide
• Hematite (Fe2O3)


Fe-oxide/hydroxide
• Limonite FeO(OH)·nH2O


Al-oxide/hydroxide
• Gibbsite Al(OH)3



Al-oxide/hydroxide
• Boehmite (γ-AlO(OH))
White, pale greyish brown; yellowish or reddish when impure;
colorless in thin section


Al-oxide/hydroxide
• Diaspore

White, pale gray, colorless, greenish gray, brown, pale yellow, pink, lilac; may
exhibit color change


Nesosilicate
• olivine (lãm thạch) (Mg,Fe)2SiO4

Yellow to yellow-green


Nesosilicate
• Garnet X3Y2(SiO4)3. The X site is usually
occupied by divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+,
Fe2+) and the Y site by trivalent cations
(Al3+, Fe3+, Cr3+) in an
octahedral/tetrahedral framework with
[SiO4]4− occupying the tetrahedra
virtually all colors


Nesosilicate
• tourmaline is a crystal boron silicate
mineral compounded with elements such
as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium,
lithium, or potassium

Most commonly black, but can range from brown, violet,
green, pink, or in a dual-colored pink and green



Nesosilicate
• Zircon Tên hóa học là zirconi silicat, công thức
hóa học ZrSiO4. Công thức thực nghiệm chỉ ra
một vài sự thay thế của zircon là (Zr1-y, Nguyên
tố hiếmy)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x-y.
Reddish brown,
C
yellow, green,
o blue, gray,
l colorless; in
o thin section,
r colorless to
pale brown


Inosilicate
• Augite is a single chain inosilicate
mineral, (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)2O6.

Dark green to black


Inosilicate
• Hornblende
(Ca,Na)2–3(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH,F)2

black/dark
green

Ca2(Mg, Fe, Al)5 (Al, Si)8O22(OH)2


Phyllocilicate
• Talc H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or
Mg3Si4O10(OH)2

Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Color white, grey, green, blue, or silver


Phyllocilicate
• Biotite (mica đen)
K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(F,OH)2

Dark brown, greenish brown, blackish brown, yellow, white


Phyllocilicate
• Muscovite (mica trắng)
KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2, or
(KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O)

White, grey, silvery


Phyllocilicate
• Illite
(K,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2(Si,Al)4O10[(OH)2,(H2O)]

CEC khoảng 20 – 30 meq/100 g
Grey-white to silvery-white, greenish-gray


Phyllocilicate
• Kaolinite Al2Si2O5(OH)4

White, sometimes red, blue or brown tints from impurities


Phyllocilicate
• Montmorillonite
(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O

White, pale pink, blue, yellow, red, green


Phyllocilicate
• Vermiculite
(MgFe,Al)3(Al,Si)4O10(OH)2·4H2O

CEC = 100-150 meq/100 g

Colorless, white, yellow, green, brown


Tectosilicate
• Albite NaAlSi3O8

White to gray, bluish, greenish, reddish; may be chatoyant


Tectosilicate
• Anorthite CaAl2Si2O8

White, grayish, reddish


Tectosilicate
• Orthoclase KAlSi3O8

Colorless, Greenish, Grayish yellow, White, Pink


Sulfate
• Gypsum CaSO4·2H2O

Colorless to white; with impurities may be yellow, tan,
blue, pink, brown, reddish brown or gray


halide
The halide anions are fluoride (F−), chloride
(Cl−), bromide (Br−), iodide (I−) and
astatide (At−)
• Halite (NaCl)
• sylvite (KCl) Colorless, Grey, White...
• Carnallite KMgCl3·6(H2O) (Blue, colorless, yellow,
white, red)


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