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L f C H S i r mt

GI6I CANDAI

ChUdng I
C A C CUQC C A C H MANG T U SAN
(GIOA T H E

Ki X V I - CUOl T

H E KI

XVIII)

Bdi 1
C A C H M A N G H A L A N

I.

GI0A


T H E K I XVI

cAu H 6 I , B A I T A P c d BAN

CSu 1: Nhitog s\i ki$n nao chufng to k i n h te Ha L a n phat trien?
* HUdng ddn trd Idi :
- San xuat trong cdc c6ng triJ&ng thu cong phdt trien (cdc ng&nh nau
dUcmg, xa phong, ng^nh det,...).
- Nhieu th^nh t h i xuat hien
trd th^nh trung t&m san xuat, thucfng mai
Idn nhuf Ly-den, U-trech, Am-xtec-dam... .
- Nhieu ngan h^ng dUdc thanh lap va dong vai tro quan trong trong qud
trinh phdt trien kinh tg' Mt n\Xdc.
C a u 2 : Nh€fng nguyen nhan nao dan tdri cupc dau tranh cua nhan
dan Ne-dec-lan chong chinh quyen Tay B a n Nha?
* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- Nhan dan Ne-dec-lan bi boc lot n&ng ne, miJc thue ra't cao chiem den 2/5
ng&n sdch chung.
- Vua Tay Ban Nha dan ap khoc liet nhiJng ai chong lai dao Thien Chiia.
- Hang hoa nude ngo^i nhap v^o Ne-dec-lan bi d6ng thue cao.
- Thuong nhan Ha Lan bi han che bu6n b ^ vol cdc thuoc dia cua Tay Ban Nha.
C a u 3 : NhGng s\i k i ^ n the hi^n thai dp ciia nhan dan lao dpng, quy
tpc, ti^ san Ha L a n trong cupc dS'u tranh chong chlnh quyen Tay Ban
Nha de giai phong dat nxidc.
* Ha&ng ddn trd lai :
• Thai dd cua qudn chung :
+ Th^ng 8 - 1566, cupC da'u tranh cua nhan dSn Ne-dec-lan chong Tay
Ban Nha t r d th^nh mot \ka. song manh me. Ho phd nha thd Thien Chua,
lung b^t gi^m muc.
+ Thang 10 - 1566, phong tr^o lan rpng ra 12 tinh, buoc chinh quyen
Tfiy Ban Nha phai nhuang bp.
- Thai dd cua quy tgc vd tu sdn :
+ Ung ho phong tr^o da'u tranh cua qu^n chung de chong lai chinh quyen
Tay Ban Nha.
3


+ G i a n h a p viio h a n g ngu q u a n k h d i n g h i a ciia q u a n c h u n g c h o n g l a i T a y
Ban Nha


g i k n h q u y e n l a n h dao p h o n g tr^o d a u t r a n h n h i f n g l a i d l thod
h i e p vdi k e t h u .

C a u 4 : T r i n h bay nhu'ng net chinh ve d i l n bien ciia C a c h mang Ha
L a n qua cac giai doan.
* Hudng ddn trd lai :
Giai doan

Nien dai

Sijf k i ^ n chu yeu
Giai doan I Thang 8 - 1 5 6 6 - Nhan dan tan cong, dap pha nha thcf
Thien Chua Giao.
1566-1572
Thang 10 -1566 - Phong trao lan rong ra 12 tinh, chinh
quyen Tay Ban Nha phai nhircrng bo.
Thdng 6 - 1567 - Chinh quyen Tay Ban Nha phai 18000
quan sang chiem dong toan bo lanh thd
Ne-dec-lan.
Thdng 4 - 1572 - Quan khdi nghia giai phong nhieu vung
rpng Idfn.
4 - 11 - 1576
- Quan dpi Tay Ban Nha tan cong giet chet
8000 ngirdi, pha huy mot trung tam thi/cfng
mai.
Giai doan I I 4 - 11 - 1576
- Hoi nghi U-trech gom dai bieu cac tinh
m i l n B^c hop tuyen bo' thanh lap "Cac tinh
1572-1648
Lien Hiep"
Nam 1648
- Tay Ban Nha chinh thiifc cong nhan nen
doc lap cua "cac tinh Lien Hiep".
C a u 5: Neu ket qua va han che cua C a c h mang H a L a n .
* Huang ddn trd Wi :
- Kit qua :
+ Che do thong t r i cua Tay Ban Nha bi lat dS, md diTcfng cho chu nghia
t\X ban phat trien.
+ Chi thay the sir thong t r i ciia Tay Ban Nha b^ng sif ap bufc boc lot ciia
tu san, quy toe trong nirdc.
- Han che :
+ ChUa giai phong nhan dan lao dong khoi ap bufc boc lot.
+ Chua giai quyet ducrc vSn de ruong da't chosnong dan.
C a u 6: V i sao C U Q C d a u t r a n h giai phong d a n t Q C c u a n h a n dan
Ne-dec-lan di^cfc xem la C U Q C each maing ti^ san ?
* Huang ddn trd Wi :
- Sau k h i cdch mang th^ng lai, chu nghia tu Mn da duac thiet lap va phat
trien d Ha Lan; cdc ng^nh san xua't d f t len, nhuom, thiiy tinh va che tao
kinh quang hoc duoc diy manh; thucfng nghiep phdt trien; th^nh t h i sam uS't
4

trd thanh trung tam kinh te, chinh t r i , van h6a cua dat nUdc (ti^u bieu la
Thanh phd Am-xtec-dam) ; cac cong t i thuang mai cua Ha Lan (Cong t i
phucfng Dong, Cong ti Dong An,...) khong chi md rpng vi^c buon bdn vdi
nhieu nUdc tren the gidi mk cbn tien hanh xam chiem thupc dia.
- Day la cupc cdch rnang t u san no ra sdrm nha't, thiic day sU bung no
nhieu cupc each mang tU santiep theo. CAc cupc cdch mang tU san sau nay
diln ra dudi anh sang tU tudng ciia cdch mang Ha Lan.
- Sau thdng Ipi cua each mang, Nha nUdc tU san dau tien tren the gidi
dupe thig't lap, md ra thdi dai mdi trong lich siif nhan loai - thdi lich suf can
dai, thdi dai th^ng Ipi va xac lap phucfng thuTc san xua't tU ban chu nghia tren
pham vi the gidi.
I I . C A U H O I , B A I T A P B O SUNG
C a u 1 : Hay neu dac diem tinh hinh k i n h te, xa hpi Ne-dec-lan triidc
each mang.
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Dau the k i X V I , Ne-d6e-lan l a mot trong nhufng vting kinh te phdt trien
nha't chau Au :
Nhieu thanh pho, h.4i cdng xua't hi$n va t r d thanh trung tam thUdng mai
noi tieng nhu U-tr§'ch, Am-xtec-dam.
Nhieu ngan hang dupe thanh lap va ddng Vai tr6 quan trong trong qud
trinh phat trien kinh tg'.
- Cung vdi sU phdt t r i l n cong thuofng nghiep, giai ca'p tU san Nd-dec-lan
sdm hinh thanh, ngay cang cd the lue ve kinh te.
- Tu tudng Ton gido ciia Can-vanh phat trien.
- VUdng quoc Tay Ban Nha tang cUdng kiem soat va vP v^t cua cai cua
nhan dan Ne-d6e-lan, dong thdi dan dp nhijtng ngUdi theo Thien Chua giao.
C a u 2 : T a i sao noi : T i n h hinh k i n h te, chinh tri, xa hpi cua Ha L a n
trifdc each mang chuan bi dieu ki$n cho each mang bung n6' ?
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Su phat trien kinh tg'd Ha Lan da tao dieu kien cho luc lUdng sdn xua't
tu ban chu nghia (TBCN) hinh thanh, phat t r i l n : dan den mau thuan gay
gAi giCra luc lupng san xua't tien tien TBCN va quan he san xua't phong kien.
- Trong xa hoi xua't hien giai ca'p mdi g^n lien vdi luc lUpng sdn xuat
TBCN la giai ca'p t u san, dSy la giai ca'p triic tiep lanh dao each mang.
- Chinh sach thong t r i ha khde, sU boc lot vat cha't va tinh than tan bao
ciia de quoc Tay Ban Nha dSn den mau thuSn gay g^t khong the dieu hda noi
gifla toan the dan toe Ne-dec-lan vdi de quoc Tay Ban Nha.
- Ta't ca tinh hinh neu tren da dSn den cupc cdeh mang giai phdng dan toe
mang tinh chat t u sdn d Ne-d6c-lan chong laiaeh thong t r i cua de quS'c Tay
Ban Nha.
5


C a u 3 : Thai dO cua quSn c h i i n g nhkn dSn va tvt skn, quy t^c Ne-dec-lan
t r o n g cuQC e a c h m a n g da noi len dieu gi ?
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Quan chung n h a n ddn la life lucfng k i e n quyet da'u t r a n h , ho d6ng v a i t r 6
quan t r o n g t r o n g t i e n t r i n h p h d t t r i e n cua cdch m a n g , qu^n chiing nhfin dfin
\k d6ng lire quan t r o n g gop phfin tao nen t h ^ n g l o i cua cdch mang.
- G i a i ca'p tiT sdn, qujr tOc Ne-d6e-lan 1^ ngudi to ehuTc l a n h dao n h a n dan
dau t r a n h song l a i lo s o phong t r ^ o cdch m a n g cua qudn ehiing, ho dao dong,
de thoa hiep v d i ke t h u .

C a u 4 : Neu tinh chat va y nghia c u a each mang ttf s a n H a L a n ,
* Huang ddn trd lai :
- Tinh

chdt : Cdeh m a n g tiT sAn

L a n vCfa Ik m o t cuge chi§n t r a n h giai

phong dan toe, viTa 1^ eugc cdch m a n g tir s&n, bdi v i n6 ^'ira ehdng bon x a m
Ixxac Tay B a n N h a viTa m d dir&ng cho chu n g h l a tir ban p h d t t r i e n . Dong lire
cua ckch m a n g Ik dong dao qudn chung n h a n dan (nong d a n , t h o t h u cong,

- Kit qua : M a m m o n g quan. h e san xuA't tiT b i n chu n g h i a d a t h a m n h ^ p
vao nong t h o n d A n h , chuan h i cho C U Q C e a c h m a n g tir s a n b u n g no.

C a u 2 : T i n h h i n h xa hpi nrfdc A n h trtfdfc each mang c6 nhuTng n6t
noi b^it nao?
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- N o n g dan b i mfi't ruong dat p h a i hkn siJc lao dpng cho t u ban.
- M p t so' dia chu t r d t h ^ n h quy tpc m d i .

- M&u thuSn xa h p i gay git, d i n t d i cupc da'u t r a n h chong che' dp phong
ki§'n, tao dieu k i e n cho k i n h te tiT ban chu n g h i a phAt t r i e n .
C a u 3 : C U Q C each mang t\i san A n h the k i X V I I dien r a nhi^ the nao

trong nhiiTng nSm 1642 - 1648 ?
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- N a m 1640, Vua Sac-lcf I t r i p u t a p Quoe h p i , m a m mong cupc n p i chie'n
xuat h i e n .

dan nghfeo t h a n h t h i ) . L a n h dao cdeh mang la giai cap tir san. K e t qua cua

- T h d n g 1 - 1642, Sdc-lof I ehay len m i e n B i c chuan b i liTc lirpng.

cdch m a n g : d d n h do dch t h o n g t r i ciia Tay Ban N h a , gi&nh doe lap dan toe,

- Ng^y 22 - 8 - 1642, Sdc-lcr I tuyen chie'n vdi quoe h p i - n p i chie'n b i t dau.

lap nen N h a nirdc cpng h o a .

- Ng^y 1 4 - 6 -• 1645, quan dpi nha vua tha't b a i , Sac-lcf I b i hkt.

- Y nghla ;

- Mua xukn

+ Day Ik cuoc cdch m a n g tir san dau ti§n t r e n t h e g i d i , m d diTdng cho chu
n g h i a tir ban p h a t t r i e n .
+ M d r a n i g t t h d i dai m d i - t h d i dai ciia cac cuoc cdch m a n g t i f san va
birdc dau suy vong cua che do phong k i e n .

1648, Sae-lof I tiep tuc chi§'n t r a n h chong Quoe hOi n h i t o g b i

t h a t bai - n p i chie'n k e t thiic.

C a u 4: T i m hieu v a i net ve 6-li-vot Crom-oen.
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- 6-li-vd Crom-oen (1599 - 1658) l a m p t t r o n g nhuTng l a n h t u xuat sAc cua
phdi doe l a p , t i e u bieu cho t a n g Idp quy tpc m d i loai vifa.

Bai2

- T r o n g g i a i doan thuf n h a t cua cdeh m a n g (1642 - 1 6 4 8 ) , ong dirpe n h a n

C A C H M A N G Tl/ S A N A N H GICTA T H E K I X V I I

dan ung hp d a t i e n h a n h eai cdch, to chile l a i quan ddi bao gom ehu yeu l a
nong dan c6 t i n h k y luat va t i n h t h a n chie'n da'u cao, dirpc gpi l a " D p i quan
sudn s i t " , gom 22.000 ngifdi.

I . C A U H 6 I , B A I T A P CCf B A N

C a u 1: Quan h ^ tuT ban chu nghia xam nh$p vao nong thon A n h nhxX
the nao ? V a ket qua r a sao ?
* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- Quan he k i n h te t i e n te da x a m nhap vao nong t h o n A n h , da l a m t h a y

- N a m 1653, quan dpi m d i va giai ca'p tiT san diTa O-li-vo Crom-oen len
l a m Bao hp cong. Che dp doe t a i quan sir diTpc t h i e t l a p .
- Ngay 3 - 9 - 1658, 6-li-vcf Crom-oen qua ddi.

doi CO cau k i n h te vk phirong thure k i n h doanh : L a n h chiia phong k i e n va

C a u 5 : T r i n h bay d i l n bien chlnh va ket qua cua cupc C a c h mang txi
san A n h tiif nam 1649 den nhfing nam 1688 - 1689.

mot bo p h a n n o n g dan chuyen sang nuoi ciTu, ban l o u g ciTu. M o t so dia chu

* Hudng ddn trd Idi :

duoi t a dien ehiem ruong dat bien t h a n h ' m o t v u i ^ i r o n g I d n , ap dung phiTOng
thufc canh tac m d i , hoSe t r o n g c6 nuoi ciTu.

'*

- N o n g d a n b i duoi k h d i dong ruong, d i l a m thue cho d i a chii quy toe, diroc
t r a t i e n cong. Ho s a n xuat nguyen lieu va thirc p h a m de cung cap cho t h i
trirdng A n h va c a c thupc dia ciia A n h .
- N h i e u cong trirdng chuyen san xuat l e n xuat h i e n , nhieu nganh cong
nghiep khac cung Idn m a n h .
6

- Ngay 30 - 1 - 1649, theo nguyen vpng cua n h a n d a n , Sac-ld I b i xuf tuf ;
nude A n h t r d t h a n h nude cong hoa. Cach m a n g dat den d i n h cao.
- N a m 1653, Crom-oen t r d t h a n h Bao hp cong; che dp dpc t a i quan sir dirpc
thiet lap.
- Ngay 03 - 9 -

1658, Crom-oen qua d d i , nirdc A n h rcfi vao t i n h t r a n g

kh6n(? on d i n h ve c h i n h t r i . Quy tpc m d i va tiT san t h o a hiep v d i lire lirpng
phong k i e n cu, lap f h e dp quan chu.
7


+ M o t so d i a chu t r d t h a n h quy toe mdi.
- N a m 1 6 6 0 , con Sdc-lcf I 1^ SAc-la I I l e n ngoi vua. T r i e u dai X t i u - d t dxigc
phuc h o i .
+ M a u t h u a n xa h o i gay g^t, dan tdfi cupc da'u t r a n h chong che dp phong
- T h d n g 12 - 1688, Quoc h o i dung dp liic phe trufi't ngoi Sdc-lo I I .
ki§n, tao dieu k i e n cho k i n h te' tu ban chu nghia phat t r i l n .
- Dau n a m 1689, t u san va quy toe m6i dUa V. O-ran-gio I I I l e n ng6i vua,
- NhUng t i e n de ve k i n h te va xa h p i da dfin den bung no cupc Cach m a n g
che do quan chu lap h i e n diTcfc xdc lap.
tu san A n h t h e k i X V I I .

C a u 6 : H a y n e u tfnh chS't va y nghia ciia c u ^ c each mang tu" san Cau 8 : L a p nien bieu cac SJX k i ^ n chinh cua C a c h mang tvt san A n h .
Anh. V i sao C U Q C each mang tvi san A n h l a C U Q C each mang tvl san * Hudng ddn trd lai :
khong triQt de ?
* Hudng

Giai (loan

ddn trd Idi :

- Tinh

Giai dogn 1

chdt

+ Quan chiing n h a n dan giOf vai t r o quyet d i n h t h d n g Igi cho each mang,
+ Quy t6c mdri v^ tU san n d m c h i n h quyen, k h o n g dap ufng yeu cau cua
*

+ Sif nhiTotng b6 cua quy tgc m d i v a tU sdn da dSn d§'n t h ^ n h l $ p che dp
quan chu lap h i e n .

Giai doan

- Y nghia :
+ Lat do che do phong kien, mcf ducmg cho chu nghia tvt ban d A n h phdt t r i ^ n
+ M d r a thori k i qua dp tii che dp phong k i e n sang che dp tU ban.

Sii ki6n chu yg'u

- Vua sac-la i trieu tgp Qu6'c tiOi, mam mpng cupc nOi
ctiien xua't hien.

-Thang 1-1642

- sac-lo 1 chay len mien Bic chua'n bi li/c lUdng,

- 22 - 8 - 1642
- 14 - 6 - 1645

- Sac-la 1 tuygn chien vdi Quoc hOi - nOi chien hk dau.
- Quan dpi nha vua that bai, Sac-lo 1 bi bat.

- Mua xuan 1648

- sac-lo 1 tiep tuc chien tranh chong Quoc hOi nhung
bi that bgi - noi chien k§'t thiic.
- sac-lo 1 bi xi!ni;r; nuSc Anh tr6 thanh nu8c cong hoa.

1642 - 1648

+ Cach m a n g do quy toe m d i v^ tir san l a n h dao.

n h a n dan.

Nien dai

- I\iam 1640

- 30 - 1 - 1649

1649 -1688
- Nam 1653

- O.Crom-oen tr5 thanh B^o hO c6ng ; chg' d6 dOc tai
quan sa di/oc thiet ISp.

- Vi soo .•
- 0:CrSm-oen qua dc)i, nu8c Anh khung hoang chinh tri.
- 03 - 9 - 1658
+ Cach m a n g t i f san A n h 1^ mot cupc each m a n g t\i san n h k m vao muc
- N5m 1660
- Con Sac-lo 1 la Sac-lo II lgn ng5i vua.
tieu dau t r a n h chdng che dp phong k i e n . Day l a muc tieu p h i i hop v(Ji yeu ca"
- Thang 12-1688 - QuC'c hpi dung ap IL/C phe truat ngoi Sac-lo II.
cua each mang.
- Tir san va quy t6c mcii dua V.O-ran-giO III l§n ng6i
- O^u nam 1689
+ D e n n a m 1949, each m a n g da xuf tuf vua Sac-lo I , t h i e t l a p che dp cpn,vua, che dp quS-n chu ISp hig'n di/pc xac lap.
hok. Cdeh m a n g dat den d i n h eao.
+ N h i f t i g sau doi quy toe m d i v a t u san l a i nhirang bp cho phong k i e n M I I . c A u H O I v A B A I T A P B O S U N G
r o i t h i e t l a p d A n h che dp quan chu l a p h i e n (vCra c6 vua, viTa c6 t\i san), C a u 1 : T r i n h bay nhuTng net chinh ve nguyen nhan, d i l n bien, ket
nghia 1^ cdeh m a n g chua ho^n t h a n h n h i e m vu cua m i n h , n e n no l a cupc qua v a y nghia c u a each mang ti:^ san Anh.
cdch m a n g t\i san k h o n g t r i p t d§.
* Hudng ddn trd lai :

Cau 7 : Neu nhihig tien de cua

CUQC

Cach mang ttf san Anh the ki XVII.

* Huang ddn trd lai :
- Tien de kinh te : Tii giOfa the k i X V I , quan he t i e n tp da t h a m nhap vao
nong t h o n A n h l ^ m t h a y doi ca cau k i n h te va phifong thiJe k i n h doanh :
+ L a n h chiia phong k i e n va mot bp-phan nong ddn ehuyen sang nuoi eifu,
bdn l o n g cim.
+ N h i e u cong trifcfng san xuat len da xuait h i e n .
+ N h i e u n g a n h cong nghiep Idn m a n h .
+ N h i e u ngan h a n g r a dcri.
+ Viee buon ban p h a t dat va do thucfng n h a n n ^ m giOr.
- Tien di xa hoi :
+ N o n g dan b i mS't rupng da't phdi bdn sue lao dpng cho tii ban.

8

- Nguyen

nhan :

+ Dau t h e k i X V I I , A n h 1^ nUdc c6 n e n k i n h te phat t r i e n m a n h nha;
chau A u n h d su phat t r i e n m a n h me ciia ngoai thuong, chii yeu 1^ ban l e n d
va buon no le da den.
+ D i a chii quy toe, ehuyen hudng k i n h doanh theo l o i tU bdn chii nghia ;
dan dan t u san hoa va t r d t h a n h t a n g Idtp quy toe m d i .
+ Su x a m nhap eua chii nghia tU ban vao t r o n g nong nghiep d i l n r a
m a n h me.
-^ M a u t h u a n giufa tU sdn va quy tpc m d i v d i cdc t h e lue phong k i e n phan
dpng trcf nen gay g^t.
-I- Sae-lcf I cai t r i doe doan, dat r a nhieu t h U thue m d i .
9


- Diin

bien :

+ T h d n g 8 - 1642, Sdc-lcf I tuyen chig'n vcJi Quoc h g i , n g i chien b u n g no.
+ Ng&y 30 - 1 - 1649, Sac-lcr I b i xuf tilf, nen, Cong hok A n h duac thig't
lap, each m a n g dat den d i n h cao.

Vai tro lanh dao
DOng lyc
Muc tigu
Kg't qui

+ N a m 1653, n e n doc thi diTctc t h i e t l a p do Crom-oen dufng dau.
+ T h d n g 12 n a m 1688, Quoc hpi t i e n h a n h c h i n h bien, s a u d6 che do
qudn c h u l a p h i e n duoc xac l a p .
- Ket qua, y nghia :
+ L a t do che do phong ki&n, md dudng cho chu nghia t u b i n d A n h phat trien.
+ M d ra thdi k i qua do tit che do phong k i e n sang che do t u Mn.
C a u 2 : S o s a n h e a c h m a n g ti^ s a n H a L a n v a e a c h m a n g tvC s a n A n h .
* Huang ddn trd lai :

each mgng tt/ sin
Gid'ng nhau

Lan

C^ch mang tu sin Anh

- Co myc 'tigu ta'n c6ng la Giao hpi Ki-t6.
- Chiu Snh ht/6ng cua t6n giao.
- Mfl duftng cho kinh tg' tii ban chu nghia phat trien.
- Deu la cuOc each mgng tU san chaa tri§t de,
- DOng li/c chu yeu la quan chiing nhSn d§n.
- Chua giai quyet dLitjc ruOng dat cho n6ng dan, khSng giai ph6ng hoan
toSn ngucii lao dong.

KMc nhau

- Da'u tranh giai phong d§n tOc.

- Npi chi§'n chS'ng phong kien.

- Thi§'t l§p nen cOng hoa.

- Thig't l§p nSn quSn chu i^p hi§'n.

- Tigu di^t ch§' dp phong kiS'n Tay Ban
Nha, m& dSu M\i tu ban chu nghTa.

- Choa ti6u digt t5n goc ch6' dO
phong ki§'n.

Tinh chat,
y nghTa

Quy tOc mfli
tu sSn.
ChiJ yg'u la nSng dan, tho thij c6ng, tu sin nh6.
Lat d6 ch6' dO phong kig'n, tao dilu ki§n cho chu nghTa tU bSn phat tri§'n.
Xac lap ch§' dO quan chu lap hi§'n, han ch§' vudng quy^n, quy tOc m6i va
tu san c6 nhi^u quygn Ipl vl kinh te va chinh tri. Nhan dan lao dOng
khSng dupe huSng quy^n Ipi gi.
La cuOc each mang tu san khOng trigt dfi' nhung c6 inh hu6ng Idn dg'i
SI/ phat trien cua Ijch sif loai ngudl trong giai dogn chuyen [is che dO
phong ki§'n sang ch§' dO tu ban chiJ nghTa.

c a u 4 : H a y nfiu v a i t r o c u a C r o m - o e n t r o n g t i e n t r i n h C a c h m a n g t\i
san Anh.
* HUcng ddn trd Idi :
- T r o n g g i a i doan 1642 - 1649: Crom-oen biet dua vao n h a n dan de thi/c
hi$n cac n h i e m vu each m a n g :
+ Lap quan doi c6 t i n h k i luat va t i n h t h a n chien dau cao, dugc goi l a
"DOi quan sirom sAt".
+ Quan doi ctla Crom-oen dong vai t r o quyet d i n h t r o n g viec chien dau va
chien t h i n g quan cua nha vua Sac-lo I , dSn den ket thuc cupc noi chien, diTa
nifdc A n h den d i n h cao cua cdch mang, do l a t h i e t lap nen Cong hoa tU s a n .
- T r o n g g i a i doan 1649 - 1658 : Crom-oen l a ng^di bao ve quyen l o i cho
giai cap
s a n , dia chu, dung che dp t h o n g t r i quan sif va quyen doc tai quSn
sir de p h u c vu chc t a n g Idp t r e n , giau c6 v a diing chien t r a n h d§ m d dudng
cho viec xay dung m p t dao quan thuoc dia hung hau cua nUdc A n h sau nay.

BaiS

C a u 3 : Latp b a n g t h o n g k e v e n g u y e n n h a n , v a i t r o l a n h d a o , d p n g

C H I E N T R A N H G I A N H D O C L A P 6 B A C Mi

Itfc, m u c t i e u , k e t q u a , t i n h c h a t v a y n g h i a c u a eupe e a c h m a n g ttf

NtfA S A U T H E K I X V I I I

s a n A n h the k i X V I I .

* Huang ddn trd M :
T\iu muc

Nguyen nhan

NOi dung
- Dau thg' ki XVII, Anh la ni/i5c c6 ngn kinh te ph^t tri^n mgnh nhat
chSu Au nhd su phat trig'n manh me cua ngoai thi/ong, chlj yeu la bSn
len dg va bu6n no 1? da den.
.
- Dia chij quy tOc, chuyg'n huSng kinh do^hh the© 151 ti/ ban chu nghTa ;
d5n dan tu san hoa va tr6 thanh tSng Idp qay tOc mdi.
- Sy xam nh§p cua chu nghTa tu ban vao trong nfing nghigp di§n ra
mgnh me.
- Mau thucin giOa tu san vS quy tOc mfii vdi cac th§' li/c phong kien phan
dOng trS nen gay gSt.
- Sac-lo 1 cai trj dpc doan, d3t ra nhi^u thiJ thu§' mcii.

10

I.

cAu H 6 I

VA BAI TAP

cd

BAN

C&u 1 : H a y n e u c h i n h s a c h c i i a A n h d o i vdti c a c thuQc d i a d B S c M l
va ket q u a c u a no.
* Huang ddn trd lai :
- Cac thuoc dia A n h d B&c M i deu dat dudi quyen cua vua A n h . Cac thupc
dia nay la nguon cung cap nguyen lieu va la t h i t r i f d n g tieu t h u h a n g hoa cua
chinh quoc ; dong t h d i p h a i tuan t h i i cac dao luat k h a t khe do A n h d l ra nhU:
LuEit H a n g h a i (1561), L u a t Dir&ng (1764), Luat T e m (1764), L u a t Che (1770).
- K i t qua ciia cupc k h a i thac thupc dia ciia A n h la mot can t r d Idn doi vdi
sir phat I n e n xa h p i Bdc M l , tuy n h i e n iien k i n h te d h a i m i e n B^c, N a m van
phiit t r i e n t n c o coa dudng tiT ban chii nghia (mien Bac xay-diTng cac cong
11


triT^rng

t h u cong, m i e n N a m p h a t t r i e n k i n h t e d o n dien). N h i e u t r u n g t a m

k i n h te' h i n h t h a n h .
- Su tha'ng t r i h a k h i c ciia thuc dan A n h , m&u thuan giOfa ch&' do thupc dia v a
suf phat t r i e n k i n h te t u ban chu nghia d BAc M l dSn tdi mau thuftn giufa nhan
dan thuoc dia B i c M i v d i thuc dan A n h , l a m bung no nhieu cuoc dau t r a n h .
C a u 2 : Tit s a u s\i k i ^ n " c h e B6-xtofn", c u p c c h i e n t r a n h g i a n h d p c l a p
d a d i l n r a nhxi t h e n a o ?
* Huang ddn trd lai :
- Cuoi n a m 1773, n h a n d a n cang B6-xtcfn t a n cong ba t a u chot chfe ciia
Anh

- N h i t a g ngtfcfi c6 t a i san, c6 hoc va'n m d i dudc bau cur, p h u n i l k h 6 n g c6
quyen bau cuf, no l e va ngufdi I n - d i - a n k h o n g c6 quyen cong dan.
- Che do no l e vSn dugc duy t r i .
CSu

ngutig t r 0 cac hoat ddng thirong m a i , n a n t h a t nghiep I a n t r a n . T h a n g 4 1774, A n h b a n bo 5 dao luat d a n ap, gay n e n phong t r ^ o dau t r a n h chong
m a n h me.

,

5 : H a y n e u k e t q u a v a y nghia CUQC C h i e n tranh gianh dpc l^p

c u a c a c t h u p c d i a A n h of B&c M i .
* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- Ket qua :

va n e m cac t h u n g che xuong bien de p h a n do'i che do thue ciia A n h d6'i

vdri cac thuoc d i a Bac M i . Thuc d a n A n h r a l e n h dong cang Bo-xtcfn, l a m

Anh

- T o n g t h o n g c6 n h i e m k i 4 n a m , c h i dupc t a i cijf 1 n h i e m k i : Tong thS'ng
l a Tong T u l e n h quan doi.

+ T h a n g 9 - 1783, hoa Udc dufoc k i k e t t a i Vec-xai (Phap). A n h cong
n h a n n e n dpc l a p cua 13 tljupc d i a d B^c M i .
+ N a m 1787, H i e n phap nudc M i duprc t h o n g qua, ciing co' v i t r i ciia N h a
niTdc m d i .
+ N a m 1789, Oa-sinh-tcfn difgc b^u l a m Tong thong dau t i e n ciia nUdc M i .

- Tir 5 - 9 d e n 26 - 10 - 1774, t a i Phi-la-den-phi-a da d i l n r a D a i h o i luc

- Y nghia :

dia I a n thuf n h a t , cdc d a i bieu n h a t t r i yeu cau vua A n h b a i bo c h i n h sdch
h a n che cong t h u o n g nghiep cf B^c M l . Vua A n h k h o n g chap n h a n m a con

+ G i a i phong B^c M l k h d i sif tho'ng t r i ciia thiic d a n A n h .

c h u i n b i t r i f t i g phat.

+ M d durdng cho k i n h te i\i ban chii nghia d M i p h a t t r i e n
+ Gdp p h a n thiic day phong trao each m a n g cho'ng phong kie'n d chau

- T h a n g 4 - 1775, chien t r a n h giita thupc d i a v a c h i n h quoc da no r a , luc

quan k h d i n g h i a chiu nhieu t h a t b a i v i luTc lufomg n o n yeu, t h i e u sir t 6 Au v a phong t r a o dau t r a n h g i a n h doc l a p d M i L a - t i n h cuoi t h e k i X V I I I dau
th§'kiXIX.
chufc chat che.

diu

- T h a n g 5 - 1775, D a i h o i luc d i a I a n thuf h a i hop tuyen bo c^t diJt quan

Cau

6 : Nhffng n g u y e n n h a n n a o d S n d e n t h S n g Igfi C U Q C C h i e n t r a n h

he v d i A n h , cung co lire lucfng vu u ang, t h a n h lap "Quan d o i thuoc dia", d a t

g i a n h dQC l ^ p c i i a n h a n d a n c a c nu!drc thuQC d i a A n h of B S c M i ?

difdi s U c h i huy cua Oa-sinh-ton. D e n dau n a m 1776, quan k h d i n g h i a chiem

* Huang ddn trd lai :

dugc B6-xton.

• Nhcf c6 sU chi h u y t a i t i n h ciia Oa-sinh-tcfn.

Cau

- N h d CO s i i l i n g hO ciia n h a n d d n

3 : T r i n h b a y y n g h i a l i c h sijf v a h a n c h e c u a T u y e n n g o n D Q C

l^p n S m 1 7 7 6 c u a MI.

- N h d biet difa vao d i a t h e h i e m t r d d B^c M i d§' phat huy l o i ddnh du k i c h .

* Hudng ddn trd led :

- Nhcf cupc chien da'u c h i n h n g h i a dupfc cac t a n g Idp n h a n d a n t i e n bp
Phdp v a n h a n d a n cac nUdc chau A u iing hp.

- Y nghia :
+ Quyen con ngUori v a quyen cong dan diTOc c h i n h thuTc cong bo' tru"(Jc
+ Nguyen t^c ve chii quyen cua n h a n dan duoc de cao.

+ K h 6 n g xoa bo che dp no le.

* Huang ddn trd lai :
Nign dai


t

,,

+ Cong n h a n v a n h a n d a n lao dpng v i n b i boc l o t .
C a u 4 : N e u n p i d u n g cof b a n c i i a H i e n p h a p 1 7 8 7 .
Huang ddn trd lai :
- H i e n phap neu ro niidc M i l a nUdtc Cong hoa l i e n bang.
- Thuc h i e n nguyen tAc p h a n quyen : Tong t h o n g n a m quyen h a n h phap,
Quo'c h p i n ^ m quyen lap p h a p , Toa an to'i c a o n ^ m quyen t u p h d p .
12

7 : L ^ p n i e n b i e u v e C h i e n t r a n h g i a n h dQC Isip c i i a c a c thuQC

dia A n h d B S c M i .

toan t h e n h a n loai.
- Han che :

Cau

Sir ki$n chu y6'u

-Thang 1 0 - 1 7 7 3

- NhSn dSn Cang B6-xWn tan cong ba tau ch5 che cua Anh.

- Ti/ 5 - 9 den

- Dai hOi luc dia Ian 1 tai Phi-la-den-phi-a.

16 - 1 0 - 1774
- Th^ng 4 - 1 7 7 5

- Chien tranh giOa cac thuOc dia va chinh qufi'c n6 ra.

-10-5-1775

- Dgi hOi Igc dia lln thtf 2, tuy§n b6' dt dirt quan h$ v6i Anh.

- Diu nam 1776

- QuSn khcfi nghTa chiem B6-xtcin

-4-7-

- HOi nghi lyc dia tgi Phi-la-den-phi-a da th6ng qua bhn Tuygn ngOn

1776

Dpc Igp.
1.3


- 17-10-1777

- Quan khdi nghTa thSng Idn 6 Xa-ra-t6-ga.

C&u 3 • V a i t r o c u a G.Oa-sinh-tofn t r o n g C h i e n t r a n h g i a n h d p c Igp d

- Nam 1781

- Chien Mng l-o6c-tao, chS'm dirt chig'n tranh gi^nh dOc l$p.

B S C

- Nam 1783

- Anh ky hi^p uOc Vec-xai (Phap) cong nh$n nen dpc l$p cua 13

* Hudng

thupc dja B k MT.
- Nam 1787

- Hig'n phap MT th6ng qua, xac Igp the che dSn chu cua giai cS'p tu

d B S c M i thifc c h a t l a m p t c u p c e a c h m a n g tvT s a n " ?
dan trd lai :

- Muc t i e u cua cupc each m a n g d xa h o i B^c M i l a giai quyet mau thuSn
giCa quan he san xuS't phong k i e n v d i liTc liTpng san xuat mdi T B C N , m o
ducfng cho n e n k i n h te T B C N p h d t t r i e n .
t h a n h muc t i e u t r e n t h i viec dau t i e n Ih dau t r a n h

x6a bo n ^ n t h o n g t r i phi l i ciia A n h , g i ^ n h dpc lap d a n tpc d Bic M i .
- Life liJcfng l a n h dao l a giai cS'p tiX san.
- Dong luc cua cAch. mang : Nhan dan lao dong (no le, cong nhan, n6ng dan,...).
- Cupc dau t r a n h giai phong dkn tpc d Bic M i md dudng cho chii nghia tu
ban p h d t t r i e n t a i day.
II. c A u H 6 I V A B A I T A P B O S U N G

C a u 1 : Ni^dfc M i dvC^c t h a n h l ^ p t r o n g h o a n c a n h n a o ?
* Huang

ddn trd Idi :

• T h d n g 5 - 1775, D a i h p i luc dia l ^ n thiJ h a i duoc t r i $ u tap, quyet d i n h
t h ^ n h l a p "Quan d p i thupc d i a " v a bd n h i e m Oa-Sinh-tPn l a T d n g c h i huy,
dong t h d i keu goi n h a n d a n t u nguyen dong g6p xfiy diftig quan dpi. Cupc dau
t r a n h g i a n h dpc lap k h o n g ngitog phdt t r i e n . Cdc thupc d i a I a n lu-gt tuyen b d

dan bieu Viec-gi-ni-a, l a ngudi t i c h cUc chdng c h i n h sach cua thuc d a n A n h .
- Ngay 16 - 5 - 1777, D a i h p i luc dia l i n t h U h a i , G. Oa-sinh-ton dupe
bau l a m t d n g c h i h u y cac lUc lupng vu t r a n g cua nghia quan.
- Ong l a ngudi true tiep c h i h u y nhUng t r a n d a n h I d n (dae biet giai doan
thU 2 cua chien t r a n h ) d a n h bai quan dpi thuc d a n A n h .
- N a m 1789, G. Oa-sinh-ton dupe hAu lam T d n g t h d n g dau t i e n cua H o p
chung qud^c H o a K i .
C a u 4 : T r i n h b a y n p i d u n g T u y e n n g o n D p c I g p n a m 1776 c u a M i .
* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- To cao che dp ap bUc thupc d i a ciia thuc d a n A n h , tuyen b d cac thupc dia
lien hipp v d i nhau, tach k h d i nude A n h de t h a n h l a p m p t qudc gia dpc lap.
- K h 4 n g d i n h m p i ngudi cd quyen sdng, quyen b i n h d^ng, quyen tU do va
quyen muu cau h a n h phuc.
- x a c d i n h quyen cong d a n t r o n g viec t h i e t l a p bp may n h a nude.
- K h ^ n g d i n h quyen luc ciia giai cap tU san va ciia ngudi da t r ^ n g , k h o n g
xoa bd che dp no le, duy t r i vipe bdc l o t cong n h a n l a m thue.
C a u 5 : H a y p h S n t i c h n h i i n g d i e m g i o n g v a k h a c n h a u giffa e a c h
m a n g tiT s a n A n h v a C h i e n t r a n h g i a n h d p c l $ p d B d c M i .
- Giong

nhau :

+ Deu l a cuOe each m a n g t u san chua t r i p t de.

tdch k h o i nude A n h .
- Ngay 4 - 7 - 1776, D a i h o i t h o n g qua b a n Tuyen ngon Dpc lap c h i n h
thufc tuyen b d 13 thupc dia t h o d t l y k h o i c h i n h quoc, t h ^ n h lap m p t qudc gia
dpc lap - H o p chung qudc H o a K i .
C a u 2 : H ^ u q u a ciia c h i n h s a c h thong t r i c u a A n h d B d c M i ?
* Hudng

bieu cua giai cap t U san v a dia chu c6 quyen I p i mau thuSn v d i thuc dSn A n h .
- TrUdc chien t r a n h , ong tUng l a s i quan qufin dpi, t h a n h vien H 6 i dong

C a u 8 : V i sao noi: " C h i e n t r a n h gianh dpc l$p c u a c a c thupc d i a A n h

- N h i f t i g muon hokn

ddn trd Idi :

- G. Oa-sinh-ton (1722. - 1799) l a chu ddn dien 6 Viec-gi-ni-a; ong l a dai

sin va chu n6.

* Huang

Mi ?

ddn trd lai :

+ Dong luc chu yeu ciia each m a n g l a quan chiing.
+ T h a n g I p i cua each m a n g da m d dudng cho chu nghia tU ban p h a t
triln dAu - M i .
+ Cd a n h h u d n g sau r p n g va cd y nghia qudc te I d n lao.
+ Chua giai quyet dude v a n de rupng da't cho nong dan.

- Sir t h d n g t r i ve c h i n h t r i cua A n h d B^c M l (To chiic cai t r i , phdp luat

- Khdc nhau :

hk kh^c) da can t r d sU p h d t t r i e n san xuat t i i ban chu n,ghla.
. - Sir m a t can ddi t r o n g qud t r i n h phat t r i e n k i i i k te giufa m i e n B^c va mien
N a m . B^c M i (mien Bdc ho^n t h k n h v^ phdt t r i e n n e n k i n h te tir ban chu
nghia ; m i e n N a m lap k i n h te ddn d i l n v^

siJt

dung lao dpng no le l ^ m thue).

- M a u t h u a n giCTa lire lirpng san xufi't tir b a n chii nghia v d i quan he san
xuat phong k i e n lac hau.
- M a u thuan giOfa che dp thupc dia vk sir phdt t r i ^ n k i n h te t u ban chu nghia,
mau thuSn giufa n h a n dan thupc dia B^c M i vdi chu nghia thuc dan A n h .
14

CMTS Anh
Giai ca'p lanh dgo
Ji!nh_thLfc

CTGOL d Qh MT

Tir san v& quy tOc m6i.

Ti/ san va chu n6.

NO! chig'n.

Chjg'n tranh g i i i ph6ng dan tOc.

MhiOm vy

L§t dd che dO phong kig'n.

L§t dd n6n thdng tri cua chinh

K6t quS

Thi§'t l§p ngn quan chu ISp hig'n.

Thanh l^p nuflc Hoa Ki vdi n l n

quygn thi;c dSn Anh.
cOng hoa ta s^n.

15


Bai4
C A C H M A N G TlT S A N P H A P C U O I T H E K I X V I I I
I . C A U H O I CO

S A N

T R O N G

S A C H

G I A O

K H O A

Cau 1 : Nong nghi^p, cong - thi^ofng nghi^p Phap triidc each mang
C O nhCfng net noi bat gi ?
* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- Nong nghiep :
+ TrUdc each mang, Phap vkn Ik mot mrdrc nong nghiep kem phat trien
Cong cu va phuromg phap canh tAc tho scf, lac hau, nang suat thu hoach rat thap.
+ D6i song nong dan ngay cang khon quSn bcri sir hoc lot den cung cue
cua lanh chiia phong kien va Giao hoi. Nan doi thir6ng xuyer. xay ra.
- Cong - thiiang nghiep :
+ Cong nghiep Ph^p th6i k i nay da phat trien. Nhieu thanh t h i nhu
Bo6c-d6, Nang-td, Ha-vrc(... Idn inanh nhanh ch6ng do san xufi't va xuat khau
ta lua, vai, hang theu, len... Cong nghiep phat trien manh nha't l a ode nghe
det vai, tcf lua, luyen k i m , khai mo, che tao vu khi.
+ Ngoai thifcfng cung c6 nhOCng hu6c tien mdi, cac cong t i thuang mai Phap
buon ban vdi nhieu nUdc d chau Au va phuong Dong. Song viec giao \iiu hang
hoa trong nifcJc cung nh\i vdi n\i6c ngoai bi can trd bdi che dp phong kien.
Cau 2 : L a p srf do trinh bay ve che dp ba dang cap trong xa hoi
phong k i e n P h a p . Qua sof do giai thich ttfng ddng cap trong xa h^i
Phap tritoTc each mang.
Tang IQ

Quy toe
- Qkng cap c6 nnoi dSc q u y ^ n
- Khong phai dong thue
Dang cap tha 3

- D a n g cap khong c 6 quyen loi gi
- Phai dong thue

Nong dan

Dan ngheo thanh thj

Ta s^n

* Gidi thlch qua sa do :
- Xa hoi- Phap chia thanh ba d ^ g cap : T a n g iCr, Quy toe v a D ^ g cap thuT ba
16

- D i n g ctfp tang IC va d i n g cap quy toe phong kien la nhufng d i n g cap c6
nhieu dac quyen, dac lai. Ho khSng phai dong thue', duoc hudng nhieu dac
quyen, n i m giOf cac chufc vu trong bp mdy Nha nude, Quan dpi va Giao hpi.
- Dang cap t h d ba bao gom nhieu giai cap, tang Idp trong xa hpi (tu san,
n6ng dan, dan ngheo thanh t h i , cong nhan,...) c6 nhuTng quyen lai va nguyen
vong khong giong nhau :
+ Tu san : Co the life ve kinh te, nhitog khong eo quyin Igi chinh t r i , bi
n h a vua va lanh chiia dia phirang ngan can hoat dong kinh doanh. Trong giai
cap t\i san lai chia nhieu tang Idp: dai tif san (chu ngan hang, nha buon Idn),
t a san Idn viTa (ta san cong thuang nghiep), tU san nho. Xuat phat tiT dia vi,
quyen Ipri cua minh, moi tang Idp t u san c6 sir khdc nhau v l thai dp chinh t r i
va tinh than dau tranh chong lai che dp phong kien. Nong dan : chiem tren
90% dan so Phap, phan Idn l a t a d i l n , nop 50% hoa Ipi thu hoach, ddng
nhieu loai thue va nhieu nghia vu phong kien.
+ Dan nghfeo t h a n h t h i (thg t h u cong, buon bdn nho, dan ngh^o,...) song
ngh^o kho tam bg, chen chiic nhau d ngoai 6.
+ Cong nhan : Song trong cac thanh t h i Idn, dieu kien song va lao dong
ra't kho k h a n (lirang tha'p, cirdng dp lao dong cao, ngay lam vi$c keo dai,...).
Cau 3 : T r i n h bay nhfing quan diem ccf ban ciia cac nha tvL ttfdng
tien bp Phap cuo'i the ki X V I I I . Vi sao nhCng quan diem nay da tich
crfc chuan bi cho C U Q C each mang sSp t* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- S. M6ng-te-xki-a (1689 - 1755): Chu trirang han che quyen ciia vua, dam
hko quyen tir do cua cong nhan, de ra nguyen t^c phan chia quyen lire ciia
vua, quoc hoi va quan toa trong- bp may Nha mrdc theo ba quyen : hanh phap,
lap phap va tir phap.
- Ph. V6n-te (1764 - 1778) : Chii triTcfng xay diTng chinh quyen dan chu, do
mot ong vua sdng suot diing dau; bao ve quyen tir do t i n ngirdng, nhOng ong
lai len a n n h a this Co Doc. Ong kh^ng dinh dieu kien tir huTu la d i l u kien can
thie't cho xa hoi.
- G . Rut-x6 (1712 - 1778) : Chu trirang xoa bo che do quan chu, phan doi
che dp tir hiJu Idtn, ong chu trirang duy t r i che dp ta hCfu nho.
- J.Me-li-e (1664 - 1729) : Len an che dp ba't cong phong kien, sir doi tra
cua G i a o h p i , kien quyet dau tranh xoa bo sir ba't cong, thii ti§u che dp ta hCu,
coi rupng da't l a tai san chung cua nong dan.
- Nhom Bach khoa toan tha : Chii traang bien soan v a phd bien rpng rai
ki§'n thijfc khoa hoc cho quan chung de giac ngp ho da'u tranh chong che dp
phong kien.
- Nhufng quan d i l m cua nhOng nha ta tadng Phap the k i X V I I I neu tren c6
S nghia tien bo, dap ufng trong mufc dp nha't dinh v a dage quan chiing t i n
theo, la mpt bp phan ciia cupc da'u tranh chong che dp quan chii chuyen che,
c6 tdc dung chuan bi don doctug cho cage c4ch mang xa hoi^ Bdi vi :
T H U V I E N T I W H B I N H T H U / ' ; ^

17


+ N6 chi ra sif t h o i n&t vk be t^c cue xa hoi phong k i e n diTcfng thcri d Ph^p.
+ Cung v(Si nhOrng t i e n de ve k i n h te

xa h p i , no c6 tac dung thiic day

cuoc each m a n g tu san sdm bung no d Phap.
t h u ^ t ve

CUQC

tan

cong c u a n h a n dan Pa-ri danh chiem phao dai - n h a tu Ba-xti.
din

6 : N h f i n g stf ki§n n a o c h i f n g to t a n g Idtp d a i ti^ s a n cAm q u y e n d

p h a p d a l a m ngiifng t r ^ s\i p h a t t r i e n c i i a e a c h m a n g ?
* Hudng

C a u 4 : S i f u tarn t a i l i $ u de v i e t m p t b a i txidng
* Huang

CSLU

ddn trd Idi :

. Th^ng loi ngay 1 4 - 7

dua p h a i L4p h i e n ciia d a i tU s d n Ign c a m quyen,

nhutig L u - i V I vSn diWc giiJ ngoi v u a m a c dii k h o n g c6 q u y e n h a n h gi.

trd Idi :

- Ngay 4 - 8 - 1789, Quoc hoi Lap h i e n t u y e n bo' xoa bo m o t so n g h l a vu

Rang sdng ng^y 13 t h d n g 7 n a m 1789, nhOtag t i e n g chuong cap bao danh

cua n o n g d a n , s o n g cac dac quyen cot b^n ciia p h o n g k i e n v i n duoc duy t r i .

thiifc ca Pa-ri day. Quan chiing ngSn chan cac nga diTcrng, ngirori dan Pa-ri

- Ngay 28 - 8 - 1789, Qu5'c h 6 i t h o n g qua Tuyen ngon N h a n q u y e n va D a n

xong v^o cdc k h o vu k h i ciia Nha nUdc chiem gan 30.000 k h a u siing, nhieu

q u y l n . T u y e n n g o n k h 4 n g d i n h q u y e n b i n h d^ng giufa cac cong d a n . T u y e n bo

guom, k i e m va m o t v a i k h i u dai bac, k h d p n o i t r o n g t h a n h p h d n h a n dan

nhitog q u y e n t u do d d n c h u , nha'n m a n h quyen tU hijfu t a i s i n l a t h i e n g l i e n g

xay vat chudng n g a i , pha dudng sa.

ba't k h a x a m p h a m .

Ngay 14 -

7, t i e n g chuong bao dong k h i n cap l a i v a n g l e n m a n h

me,

- T h a n g 9 - 1791, Quoc hoi Lap h i e n t h o n g qua Hi^n

phap xac lap ch§' do

ducrng pho dong n g h i t ngu&i. Mac dau gan n h u toan bo t h a n h pho da n ^ m

quan c h u lap h i e n . H i e n phap 1791 da tir bo mpt so n g u y g n t i c t i e n bp cua

t r o n g tay cac luc lifcfng k h d i nghia, nhUng cuoc dau t r a n h vSn chua k e t thuc.

TuySn n g o n N h a n q u y e n va D a n quyen 1789. M p i q u y e n luc thupc ve

Nguc B a - x t i chua b i n h a n dan chiem.

hpi. Quo'c h o i con b a n h a n h n h i e u dao luat, n h u Dao l u a t ca'm b a i cong,

Quoc
Dao

Gan trUa, 300.000 ngudi, bao gom chu yeu l a t h o t h i j cong, c6ng n h S n , dan

luat duy t r i c h e dp no le d thupc d i a . TiT do, mpt so' n h i e m vu co b a n cQa Cach

ngheo Pa-ri t a n cong vao cufa Idn nguc, n h u n g cau treo da b i rtit va hau n h u

m a n g tif s a n Phap 1789 k h o n g dupc giai quyet, trUdc h e t l a v a n de rupng dat

k h o n g t h e vao difoc. M o t so ngiTcri dung cdm t i m each vuot sang hao de b ^ t

ciia n o n g d a n , q u y e n t u do d a n c h u ciia n h a n dan lao dpng.

l a i cau song n h i e u p h a t sung tir turdng phao b ^ n chan, lam n h i e u ngudi chet
va b i thufOng. Cuoi

ciinT

cau treo vSn ducfc ha xuo'ng, n h a n dan xong vao phao

dai, doi quan don t r i i d B a - x t i dau hang, vien chi huy Do L6-nay b i chat dau

Vua da l i e n k e t vdi lUc lupng p h a n dpng t r o n g niTdc va cAu cuXi phong
k i e n c h a u A u de cho'ng pha each m a n g .

Qua nhitng

sU kien do chiing

lam ngiCng tre sU phdt

v i da ra l e n h b ^ n vao n h a n dan.
Vua Phap chua hieu het t i n h the xay ra, con h y vpng de bep cuoc k h d i
n g h l a ; k h i dUcfc bao t i n B a - x t i da bi chiem, nha vua k i n h ngac h o i : "Day l a
cuoc k h d i loan a" ? NgUcfi t a t r a Idi : "Khong, each m a n g a !".
N h a n dan pha san bang nguc B a - x t i va xay dUng mot quang trUdng c6
h a n g chOf " d day ngirdi ta nhay miia". Ngay 1 4 - 7

t r d t h a n h ngay Quoc

khanh ciia n h a n dan Phap.

triin

td tang Idp dai tu san cdm quyen d Phap

ciia cdch

dd

mang.

C a u 7 : T h a i dp c u a n h a n d a n P h a p trxjfdrc t i n h h i n h " T o q u o c l a m n g u y "
nhxi t h e n a o ? V i $ c xijf tuf v u a L u - i X V I c 6 y n g h i a gi ?
* Hudng

ddn trd lai :

- Trudc t i n h h i n h "To quoc l a m nguy", do sir y e u k e m c u a s i quan, sir p h a n
bpi ciia t r i e u d i n h , n h a n d a n Phap l a i diJng l e n c h i e n da'u, x6a bo hoan t o a n
ch§' dp q u a n chii, cha'm duft giai doan c a m q u y e n c u a d a i tU s a n .
- K h i ke thii ducng trirdc eda ngo t h u do, nhiJng ngiTcfi G i - r o n g - d a n h do dir,

C a u 5 : Q u a npi dung T u y e n ngon N h a n quyen v a D a n q u y ' n , em c6

muon bd c h a y k h d i t h u do ; t h i n h a n d a n Phap l a i nha't te dufng d a y bao v$

n h a n xet gi?

T6 quoc. Cac t i e u doan t i n h n g u y e n dirpc t h a n h lap, t i e n r a m a t t r a n c h i e n

Hudng
- Tick

da'u v d i ke thii. T i n h t h d n c h i e n da'u c u a q u a n c h u n g each m a n g t h e h i p n d

ddn trd lai :
cUc : Tuyen ngon thifa n h a n q u y i n tU do b i n h ding, quyen dugc an

toan, quyen cho'ng ap bufc,... ciaa n h a n dan t h e - f t j e n su ti§n bo t r o n g viec
cho'ng l a i ap buTc cua phong k i e n da tudc bo m o i q u y i n l o i cua quan chiing.
-Han

die

: T u y e n ngon neu ro "quyen sd hufu t a i s a n " l a x6a b6 quyen sd

hihi cua phong k i e n , song l a i t h a y the b k n g quyen sd hufu tu san. Day l a h a n
che v i n h a n dan k h o n g thoat k h d i ap buTc b6c Ipt, nen quyen tiT do, b i n h d^ng
cua ho k h o n g dxigc d a m bao.
18

- T i n h t h a n c d c h m a n g , y c h i k i e n cirdng b i o ve to quoc ciia n h a n dan da
duoc t h e h i p n t r o n g c h i e n t h i n g V a n - m i (20 - " 9 - 1792)

l a m cho cue d i e n

chi§'n t r a n h t h a y doi. C h i e n t h i n g nay k h o n g c h i edu nUdc Phap, ma c6n tao

tinh

t h d n c h i e n da'u a n h d u n g cho'ng giac ngoai x a m .
- Dudi ap lire c u a q u a n c h u n g , ngay 21 - 1 - 1793, v u a L u - i X V I b i x d t d v i

tOi p h i n quoc. Viec x d t d v u a L u - i X V I cd y n g h i a :
'

t

b&i ca Mac-xay-e ve s a u t r d t h a n h Quoc ca c u a nirdc Phap.

19


+ Tao dufcfc n i e m t i n cua quan chiing doi vdi cdch mang de t r e n cO sd do tiep
tuc loi k6o quan chiing t h a m gia each mang nhat Ik k h i To quoc l a m nguy.
+ Xod bo che do quan chu chuyen che, t h i e t lap n e n cong hoa tuf s^n theo
diing t i e n t r i n h p h d t t r i e n cua each mang.
C a u 8 : P h a n tich y nghia cua cac bi^n phap ciia C h i n h phu each
m a n g do p h a i G i a - c 6 - b a n h c a m q u y e n .

Gia-c6-banh. L e n i n da chi r a r^ng : "NhOng ngtfdi Gia-c6-banh hoi nam 1793
(Ja di vao lich suf nhu mot tarn gUcfng vi dai dau tranh each mang chan chinh
ch6'ng giai cap b6c Igt, do giai cap nhOmg ngUdi lao dong va nhihig ngiTdi bi
biic l a m chu toan bo chinh quyen Nha nirdc tien h a n h " .
c a u 9 : L ^ P b a n g so s a n h n p i d u n g H i e n p h a p n a m 1791 v a 1793.
* HiCdng ddn trd Idi :
H i e n p h a p 1793

H i e n p h a p 1791

* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Ng^y 2 - 6 - 1793, Quoc dan q u i n wk h k n g van quan chiing lao dong bao

- Xac lap che do quan chu lap h i e n .

- x a c lap che do cong hoa.

vay Quoc h o i , b i t g i a m nhOfng ngu6i cam quyen Gi-rong-danh, chuyen giao

. Ch i a cong dan la m h a i loai "cong

•- Xoa bo hoan toan che do ba't

dan t i c h ciTc", "c6ng dan t i e u circ".

b i n h d i n g ve d i n g cap.

- N h a n dan lao dong k h o n g c6 quyen

- M g i cong dan tir 21 tudi t r d l e n

Icfi c h i n h t r i .

dirge quyen b i u ciif.

c h i n h quyen vao tay nhffng ngif&i Gia-c6-banh. Cach m a n g Phap chuyen sang
giai doan cao n h a t - giai doan chuydn c h i n h cua Gia-c6-banh.
- C h i n h p h u Gia-c6-banh da thiic h i e n nhieu bien phap k i e n quyet

de

chong l a i thii t r o n g , gia^ ngo^i, on d i n h ddi song cua n h i n ddn :

C a u 10 : Nh€fng n g u y e n n h a n n a o d S n tdri sif s u p do c u a n e n c h u y e n

+ Dao luat 6 - 1793, irk l a i ruong dat oljp n o n g dan.
+ Lay ruong dat t i c h t h u ciia quy toe, chia t h a n h 16 nho, ban cho

dan

ngheo t r a d d n t r o n g 10 nSm.

* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Do m i u t h u a n giiTa c h i n h q u y i n each m a n g Gia-c6-banh v d i c i c p h i i ddi

+ Cac dac quyen ciia che do phong k i e n b i xoa bo.

lap ngay c i n g gay g i t .

+ T h d n g 6 - 1793, H i e n f f i d p m d i cong bo t h i e t lap che do cong hoa, x6a
bo bat b i n h d i n g ve ding^caif

chinh dan chu each mang Gia-c6-banh ?

j o n g dan tCr 21 tudi tror l e n diToc quyen bau

cijr.

+ Thifc h i e n n hie u b i e n p^Jap k i e n quyet de t r a n ap life lifc/ng p h a n dpng
t r o n g nifdc.
- Vi$c C h i n h phu Gia-c6-banh thifc h i e n cac bien phap neu t r e n c6 y nghia
dac biet quan t r g n g ddi v d i t i e n t r i n h p h i t t r i e n cua c i c h m a n g Phdp :
+ TrUdc het, cac dao luSt rupng dat c6 y n g h i a to I d n . C h i t r o n g h a i
t h i n g , nhiJng ngu&i Gia-c6-banh da lam dirge nhCng dieu ma trirdc day chua

- T r o n g ngi bg p h i i Gia-c6-banh cung nay Sinh nhie u mau t h u i n giOa
"phai hGu" v i " p h i i t i " vdi chinh quyen do R6-pe-spie dufng dau.
- Dieu quan t r g n g l i quan chung mat dan n i e m t i n va k h o n g iing hg chinh
quyen Gia-c6-banh nOa, v i nhieu bien phap ciia c h i n h phu k h o n g thiTc h i g n
t r i e t de.
C a u 11 : V e S r i do m i n h h o a t i e n t r i n h C a c h m a n g tvT s a n P h a p " p h a t
t r i e n t h e o dtfcfng d i l e n " .
Chuyen chinh dan chu
each mang Gia-c6-banh

* Hudng ddn trd Idi :

c h i n h phu nao l a m dugc. No p h i bo t a n gdc che do phong k i e n , bien nhiJng
ngugi nong dan t h a n h nhiJng ngifdi tieu t\i hQu tiT do, t h i e t lap che do k i n h te

1793-1974

t i ^ u n o n g ; tao nhufng di^u k i e n t h u a n I g i cho su p h d t t r i e n k i n h te tif b i n
chii nghia, t a n g Idp t i e u n o n g dong dao do c h i n h s i c h nay tao n§n da t r d

Nen cong hoa
Gi-rong-danh

t h a n h t h a n h t r i vumg c h i c cho cich. m a n g P h i p p h i t t r i e n .
+ Hig'n p h i p 1793 p h i n i n h v i d i n h da'u mot g i a i doan m d i , mot giai

' 9 - 1792-6

doan p h i t t r i e n cao han. N6 tuyen bo trirdc toan t i l e gidi n h t t n g nguyen t i c

-1799

tir do, dan chu, mo t nen dfin chu tir s i n t i e n bg h a n H i e n phap 1791. No dugc
n h i n dan chao ddn nhir mot t h i n g Igi cua c i c h mang.
- N h i h i g c h i n h s i c h cua C h i n h phu Gia-c6-banh da tap hgp dirge suTc m a n h
cua q u i n chiing lao dong de d d n h bai t h u t r o n g , giae ngoai dem l a i d i n h cao
cho c i c h m a n g Phap, n h a t l i g i a i doan chuyen c h i n h dan chii c i c h m a n g
20

Che do quan chu
l i p hien
7-1789-8-

1792
21


C a u 12 : H a y n e u y n g h i a l i c h suf c i i a C a c h m a n g txi s a n P h a p cud'i

2 : H a y n e u nhu:ng v i # c l a m c u a p h a i L|ip h i e n s a u k h i l e n c a m

thekiXVlII.

quy^n.

* Huong

* Hii6ng ddn trd lai :
- NgSi vua v i n dugc duy t r i .
- T h o n g qua hkn Tuyen ngon N h a n quyen v ^ D i n quyen vdri k h a u h i # u noi
t i e n g : "Tif do - B i n h d i n g - Bac Ai'.
- B a n h a n h n h i e u c h i n h sach n h k m k h u y e n k h i c h cong thifong nghiep
phdt t r i e n n h i r : bai bo quy che' phifdng h o i , cho p h e p tiT do buon ban, to chiJc
h a n h c h i n h theo quy che mdfi (ca nifdc difgc chia t h a n h 83 quan vdi ccf cau t6'
chiJc thfl'ng nhait, xoa bo thue quan noi dia...).

ddn trd lai :

- Cdch m a n g t i f san Phdp cuoi the k i X V I I I da l a t do ch6' dp phong k i e n
chuyen che tCmg t h o n g t r i nifdc Phdp t r o n g n h i e u the k i , ho^n t h a n h

cac

n h i ^ m vu cua m^t CUQC cdch m a n g tuf skn : l&t do c h i n h quyen qudn chu
chuyen ch§', t h u t i e u m o i t a n dur phong k i e n , g i a i quyet v a n de ruong dat cho
nong d a n , n h O n g c a n t r d doi v d i cong thiicmg n g h i e p b i x6a bo, t h i trUdng
dan tpc t h o n g n h a t dufoc h i n h t h a n h .

- C&ch m a n g tiT san Ph^p da rnd r a t h 6 i dai m 6 i - t h d i dai t h d n g l a i va
cung c6' ciia chu nghia t u ban d cdc nUdc ti§n t i e n t h d i bay giii.

cau

C a u 13 : V a i t r o c i i a q u a n c h i i n g n h a n d a n t h e h i ? n n h i t the

c h i i n g e a c h m a n g P h a p v i n t i e p t u c n o i dgy ?

nao

t r o n g C a c h m a n g t\i s a n P h a p c u o i the k i X V T I I ?
* Huang

ddn trd Idi :

3 : V i s a o k h i p h a i G i - r o n g - d a n h to t h a i dp p h a n d p n g , q u a n

* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Mac dau p h a i Lap h i e n ban h ^ n h n h i e u c h i n h sach t i e n bp n h i t o g cupc

*

- Ngay 14 - 7 - 1789, g i n 300.000 ngiicfi chu yeu 1^ cong n h a n , thor t h u
c6ng, t i f vu t r a n g d a n h c h i e m nha t u B a - x t i - tiTOng triftig cho uy quyen ciia
che do p h o n g k i e n chuyen che.
- N g a y 10 - 8 - 1792, cung v d i qudn t i n h nguy^n, n h i n dan d t h i i d6 da
k h d i nghia. Ho t a n cong cung dien Tuy-lcf-ri, ncJi d c u a \ u a L u 4 X V I , b^t nha

song cua n h a n dan lao dong vSn chua difoc cai t h i $ n : v i ^ c chia rupng da't
theo titog 16 Idfn dem ban cho nong dan v d i gia cao nen nong dan k h o n g c6
k h a n a n g mua ; cong n h a n v i n dau t r a n h doi t a n g lifOng, g i a m gid l a m .

- T h e m vao d6, vi$c ban h a n h dao luat cam cong n h a n h p i h o p , bai cong...
cang l a m t a n g s U bat m a n t r o n g quan chiing n h a n d a n , n h i e u cupc da'u t r a n h
l i e n t i e p d i i n ra.

vua va hoang hau. Che do' quan chu b i lait do. G i a i doan thiif n h a t cua cuoc

C a u 4 : C h i n h q u y e n G i a - c 6 - b a n h d a thtfc h i $ n n h C n g b i ^ n p h a p gi

cdch m a n g Phdp - g i a i doan cam quyen cua dai tir san cha'm dut. C h i n h

trong

quy^n chuyen sang tay tir san cong, t h u o n g nghiep. Che do cong h5a di/oc

* Hudng

t h i e t lap.

-De

CUQC

d a u t r a n h chong t h u trong, gi^c ngoai ?

ddn trd led :
dua da't nifdc t h o d t k h o i con h i e m ngheo, viec d i u t i e n m a nhufng

- N g k y 31 - 5 - 1793, quin chung cdch m a n g P a - r i xuong dudng d6i b ^ t va

ngufdi Gia-c6-banh quan tarn l a p h a i g i a i quyet va'n de rupng da't - doi hoi c a

xet x ^ n h i i n g ngiidi cam quyen Gi-rong-danh, cdch m a n g Phdp chuyen sanj

ban cua quan chung n o n g dan ; qua do, dong v i e n ho t h a m gia each m a n g

giai doan cao n h a t - g i a i doan chuyen c h i n h dan chu each m a n g Gia-c6-banh.

chong t h u t r o n g , giac ngoai.

- N g ^ y 23 - 8 - 1793, hifdng ufng SSc l ^ n h t o n g dgng v i e n ciia U y ban cufu

- T h a n g 6 - 1793, H i e n phdp m d i dugc t h o n g qua, tuyen bo P h a p l a nudc

qudc do R5-pe-spie diJng dau, 42 van quan chung t i n h n g u y ? n t h a m gia quan

cOng hoa, ban bo quyen d a n chu rpng r a i v a m o i sir ba't b i n h d i n g ve d i n g

dpi cdch m a n g de chong t h i i t r o n g giSc ngoai.

ca'p b i xoa bo.

II. cAu

- N g a y 23 - 8 - 1793, Quoc hpi t h o n g qua S i c l e n h "Tong dpng v i e n toan

H6I VA BAI TAP BO SUNG

C a u 1 : C a c h m a n g tif s a n P h a p 1789 b u n g n o t r o n g b o i c a n h n a o ?
* HiCdng ddn trd Idi :

_

:

- Sif k h u n g hoang t r i m t r o n g ciia nen t ^ l . ^ h i n h Quoc gia buoc L u - i X V
phSi t r i ? u t a p H o i n g h i ba d i n g cap ngay 5 - 5 - 1789 t a i cung dien Vec-xa
de de xuat vfin de vay t i e n v^ ban h a n h t h e m thue m d i .
- B a t b i n h triTdc h a n h dong ciia nha vua, ngay 14 - 7 - 1789, quan chunj;
n h a n dan da t i f vu t r a n g , t a n cong c^c t r u sd, c^c ccf quan quan t r o n g ciiii
t h k n h pho v a c h i e m nguc B a - x t i - bieu tupng ciia c h e do phong k i e n chuyei
che. Cach m a n g da bung no d Phap.
22

quoc" de huy dpng siJc m a n h ciia n h a n dan c i nifdc chong " t h u t r o n g , giac
ngoai" ban h a n h L u a t gia t o i da d6'i v d i lifang thyc, thifc p h a m de cho'ng n a n
C a u 5 : H a y c h o bifi't t i n h h i n h n i i d c P h d p s a u
27-7-

CUQC

dao c h i n h ngay

1794.

* Hudtng ddn trd Idi :
- Sau cupc d i o c h i n h ngay 27 - 7 - 1794, c h i n h quyen thu6c ve p h a i tif s a n
ni(Ji g i a u l e n t r o n g thfifi gian chig'n t r a n h nha buon ban gian I a n , dau c a t i c h
trCf va t h a m 6 cong quy. U y ban Doc c h i n h difpc t h a n h l a p , t a p t r u n g quyen
life vao 5 liy v i e n . N h i e u t h a n h qua each m a n g b i t h u t i e u : L u a t gia t o i d a bi
23


bai bo, quyen t u do d a n chii b i h a n che, nhufng ngucfi each m a n g b i k h i i n g bo,
cdc cSu lac bo e h i n h t r i b i dong cila...

* Thcrt k i c h u y e n c h i n h G i a - c 6 - b a n h l a d i n h cao c u a e a c h m a n g , bofi v i :

- Dirdri che do Doc c h i n h , nUde Phdp luon t r o n g t i n h t r a n g xao dong vh
ngky ckng k h o k h a n . Cdc t h e life phong k i e n vSn a m m\iu n o i loan. Mgt l i e n
m i n h m d i cua c&c nifdc Chau A u n h ^ m chong Phdp duoe h i n h t h a n h .
C a u 6 : V i s a o g i a i d o a n e a c h m a n g do p h a i G i a - c 6 - b a n h c a m q u y e n
dvtdc g o i l a n e n c h u y e n c h i n h d a n c h u e a c h m a n g G i a - c 6 - b a n h ?
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :

cua qu^n chiing nong d a n ; qua do, dong vien hp t h a m gia each m a n g chong

- Phai Gia-c6-banh quan t a m giai quyet van de rupng da't - d6i h o i co ban
thu trong, giac ngoai.
- T h a n g 6 - 1793, H i e i i phap mdi diTpe thong qua, tuyen bo Phap l a nude
cOng hoa, ban b6' quyen dan ehu rpng rai va mpi sir ba't binh d i n g ve d i n g
cap bi x6a bo.

G i a i doan each m a n g do p h d i Gia-c6-banh cdm quyen duoc goi l a " n i n - Ngay 23 - 8 - 1793, Quoc hoi thong qua Sdc l^nh "Tong dpng vien toan
chuyen c h i n h d a n chu each m a n g Gia-c6-banh" l a v i day l a m ^ t t h 6 i k i d i n h quo'c" d l buy dpng siJe manh cua nhan dan ca nirdc chong "thu trong, giac
cao ciia each m a n g t u san Phdp, C h i n h phu Gia-c6-banh da thuc h i e n nhieu ngoai" ban hanh L u a t gia toi da doi vdi liTOng thuc, thife pham de eho'ng nan
e h i n h saeh, bi§n phap de o n d i n h d d i song cua n h a n d a n , de t a p hop lue dau cP tich truf, dong thcJi ban h a n h luat ve miJc lircfng toi da ciia eong nhan.
iMng chong l a i t h u t r o n g , giac ngoai, nhOmg e h i n h sach v a b i e n phap n a y
Nh& v$y, phai Gia-c6-banh da dap t i t dufpc cac cupc noi loan, duoi quan
k h o n g diroc thifc h i e n t r o n g giai doan trirdtc 1793.
xam li/pc r a k h 6 i bien gidi. Cach mang Phap dat den dinh cao.
- S^c l $ n h x6a bo hoan toan k h o n g boi thiTcfng m p i n g h i a v u phong k i e n
C a u 8 : H a y chutng m i n h r S n g : C a c h m a n g tnf s a n P h a p c u o i t h e k i
do'i v d i n o n g dan.
X V I I I l a mpt c u p c e a c h m a n g tri$t de n h a t d c h a u A u .
- Dao luat t r a cho n o n g d a n rupng da't b i phong k i e n chiem.
- T i c h t h u ruong d a t cua tang IC, quy toe d i c\i, chia t i t o g 16 n h 6 ban cho
n6ng dan nghfeo, t r a d a n t r o n g 10 nam.
- T h u t i e u che dp no le d thuoc dia (chua thuc h i e n )

* Hi/dng ddn trd Idi :
- each mang tuT san Phap cuoi the k i X V I I I da xoa bo hoan toan chg' dp
phong kien chuyen che da tiftig thong tri qua nhieu the k i d Phap, dong thdi

- Ban h a n h Dao l u a t "trCmg p h a t ke t h u n h a n dan"

t h u tieu mpi tan dir cua ch§' dp phong kien. Dieu do diiac the hipn: Ngay

- Sic l e n h v l " L u a t d a t d a i "

21 - 1 - 1793, each mang da xuf tuf vua va hoang hau, l a p nen nen cpng hoa

- Xoa bo su b a t b i n h d i n g ve ddng cap

va dat den dinh cao l a thdi ki chuyen chinh Gia-c6-banh.

- N a m eong d a n tCr 2 1 tuoi difpc quyen bau cuf.
C a u 7 : L ^ p n i e n b i e u d i l n b i e n e a c h m a n g q u a c a e g i a i dosin. T a i

- e a c h mang da giai quyet diing mufc nhiem vu ciia mot cupc each mang tu

sao n o i : T h d i k i c h u y e n c h i n h G i a - c 6 - b a n h l a d i n h c a o c u a C a c h

sdn, do l a tao dieu kien cho kinh te tu b i n phat trien ; mang lai quyen tu do,

m a n g tvC s a n P h a p ?

dan chii cho nhan dan ; giai quyet dupe van de rupng da't cho nong dan nhu

* Hudng ddn trd Idi:

ban dat cho nong dan vdi gia re va cho tra dan trong mudi nam. Cach mang

etc Giai doan
11/14 - 7 - 1789 den 10-8-1792
C^ch mgng bung nd va phat tri§'n

Tt/ 10 - 8 - 1792 d§'n 2 - 6 - 1 7 9 3
C^ch mgng ti§'p tyc phat trien
Tif2-6 - 1793 d§'n 27 - 7 - 1794
Dinh cao cua c^ch mgng
27 - 7 - 1794 den 9-11 -1799
Thoai tr^o cich mgng
24

Nhilng

i

ki^n quan trona
1~-—-I

i

c6n thuc hi$n viec bau cuf theo phd thong ddu phieu.

S

Khcii nghTa cua nhan dan Pa-ri pha ngyc Ba-xti, l$t dd
che dO quSn chu chuyen ch§'. Thang 8 - 1789 thSng
qua Tuyen ng6n Nhan quyen va DSn quyen. Cach
mang Ian rong khjp nuflc.
Kh6i nghla cua nhan dan Pa-ri; nen quSn chu ISp hien
bj m 66, thiet l§p nga cOng..hoa. Vua Lu-i XVI bi ttr
hlnh. Chig'n tranh bab\ l6 qu6'c, b^o v$ c^ch mgng.

C a u 9 ; L ^ p b a n g t h o n g k e c a c c u p c e a c h m a n g tvC s a n thofi c ^ n d a i
*heo y e u c a u s a u d a y :
NOi dung

Cacti m^ng tif sin

Chie'n tranh gianh

C^ch m^ng ivi sSn

Anil (the; 1(1 XVII)

dQc l^p B^c MT

Phap (cu6'ltnr <] XVIII)

(the' kl XVill)

Nhan dan Pa-ri kh6i nghTa lat 66 phai Gi-r6ng-danh.
Xoa b6 moi d^c quyen cua phong kig'n. Day lui di/oc
ngn ngogi xam.

Hinh thQc da'u tranh

D^o chinh phan each mgng, phai Gia-c6-banh bi iSt 66
Bko chfnh cua Na-p6-le-6ng, che dO dOc tai qu?;?; sy
thig't lap.

Giai ca'p lanh dgo

NhiOm vy each mgng

m qua



25


* Hudng ddn trd lai. :
NQi

dung

Cach mang tu sdn

Anh (the'kj XVII)

Cach mang tU s i n

Chi6'n tranh glanh
dOc Idp B i c

Phap (cutfi thS' kl

Ml

Hinh thifc dS'u tranh

Nhi$m vy c^ch mgng

Giai c§'p lanh dgo

Ket qu^

- D e n t h d i k i thu" ba cua cdch m a n g ( t h d i k i chuyen c h i n h Gia-c6-banh

XVIil)

(the' ki XVIII)

Chien tranh giai
phong d§n tOc.

Chong phong 't:.:m,
chong thu trong. giac
ngoai.

Lat d6 chg' dO quSn
chu chuyen che, mfl
ducJng cho chu nghTa
ti/ bcin phat trien,
giai quyet ruOng dat
cho nOng dSn.

Giai phong Iach thong tri cija
thyc d§n Anh, nn6
difdng
cho chlj
nghTa ta ban phat
tri§'n.

Lat do chg' dO quan
chu chuyen che, mfl
duOng cho chu nghTa
tu ban phat trier!, giai
quyet ruOng dat cho
nong dan.

Tu san v& quy tpc
mfii.

Tu san va chu nS.

Tu san.

Ti/ Scin va

Danh dudi thi;c dan
Anh, thanh lap Hdp
Chung qu6'c Hoa Kl.

NOi chien.

quy

tpc

mdi
n^m
chinh
quyen, l§p chg' d6
quSn chu I3p hig'n.

- T r o n g t h W k i thiJ h a i cua cdch m a n g (thdi k i t u sSn cong thUdng 1792 1793) : N o n g d a n ducfc quyen t u do bau cOr nhutig ve quyen l o i k i n h te vSn
chufa duac g i d i quyet g i t h e m . Do do, nong dan l a i tiep tuc da'u t r a n h .
1793 - 1794): Nhk nUdc t i e n h a n h chia dat t h a r h t i m g 16 nho r o i ban cho nong
dan va t r a g6p t r o n g 10 nSm ; nong dkn l a i dugc t r a l a i ruong dat do b i lanh
chtia chiem trUdc day ; nong dan

dLforc

xok bo hoan toan m o i nghia vu phong

kig'n. Dac bi#t H i e n phap nkm 1793 cong n h a n quyen b i n h d^ng cho nong dan.
NhiS vay, den thbi chuyen chinh Gia-c6-banh quyen Igi cua nong dan dugc
giai quyet thoa d ^ g , n h a t l a van de ruong dat, nong dan hSng h a i t h a m gia
ckch mang. Day 1^ yeu to quan trong de nirdc Phap danh bai t h u trong giac
ngoM.


TU san thi§'t l^p chg'
dO COng hoa, la cupc
each mgng trigt dg'

nha't.

C a u 10 : H a y chuTng minh rSng : cung vofi sijf di l e n ciia C a c h mang tx

san Phap, quyen Idi ciia nong dan diitfc giai quyet thoa dang hofn.
* Hiiang

ddn trd lai :

- T r o n g cAc cuoc cdch m a n g n o i chung, each m a n g t i f sdn t h d i can d a i noi
r i e n g , dac biet l a cuoc Cach m a n g t\i san Phap cuoi t h e k i X V I I I , dong luc
l ^ m n e n each m a n g chu yeu Ik nong dfin. Cdc cuoc Cach m a n g t u san H a
L a n , Cdch m a n g ttf san A n h , Chien t r a n h giknh doc l a p d BAc M i giai quy§'t
va'n d l ruong d a t cho nong d a n chUa thoa dang. Rieng Cdch m a n g tif san
Phap, quyen Icfi cua nong dan duoc giai quyet song h ^ n h v d i t i e n t r i n h phdt
t r i e n cua cdch mang. Do cung l a rngt t r o n g nhOfng l i do d a nh gia Cach mang
tif san Phap l a cuoc each m a n g t u san t r i $ t de n h a t .

.

- T r o n g thW k i dau ciia each mang (th&i k i quan^|hu M p h i e n 1789 - 1792):
N o n g d a n dirac xoa bo m p t so nghia v u phong k i e n ; n o n g d a n diTcfc mua
ruong d a t ciia Gido h o i do N h ^ nude tieh t h u v d i g i d cao ; N h ^ nUde ban h a n h
Tuyen ngon kh&ng d i n h quyen b i n h d^ng giiita cac c6ng d a n, t r o n g do c6 nong
dan. T u y n h i e n , t r o n g thbi k i n^y nong dan c5n p h a i Ikm n h i e u ng hi a vu
phong k i e n , nong dkn chua duge quyen bau cii. V i vay, nong d a n chira thoa
m a n v a t i e p tuc dau t r a n h .
26

27


Chi/arng 11

Q§iix 3 ' T a i s a o c a c ni^dtc c h a u A u l i e n m i n h c h o n g l a i N a - p 6 - l e - 6 n g ?
* Hiidng ddn trd Idi ;
. Cuoc chien t r a n h x a m lupc cua Na-p6-le-6ng doi v d i cac nufdc chau A u da
dung c h a m den chii quyen doc lap ciia m 6 i nUdc.

C A C NLTdC A U - M l
( T C / d a u t h e ki XIX d e n d a u t h e ki X X )
Bai

5

. V d i sir t a n cong n h a n h chong cua quan doi Na-p6-le-6ng chiem h a n g loat
cdc nUdc d chau A u da gay n e n sir p h d n uat do'i v d i tiTng nirdc. H o n t h e nOa,
liTc iMng cua m d i nUdc chua du m a n h de n g d n can birdc t i e n cua quan d o i
Na-p6-le-6ng.

CHAU AU Tl/ CHIEN TRANH NA-PO-LE-ONG
DEN HOI NGHI VIEN
I. C A U H 6 I , B A I T A P C O B A N

- Cdc nirdc chau A u du da b i x a m lirpc hay chiTa b i x a m lirpc deu nkm t r o n g
kg" hoach t a n cong cua Na-p6-le-6ng.

C a u 1: N g u y e n n h a n t h a t b a i c u a q u a n d p i N a - p 6 - l e - 6 n g .
* Hudng

ddn trd Ibi :

- Cupc chien t r a n h xfim Itfcfc cAc nUdc chau A u cua Na-p6-le-6ng

1^

V i nhOtng l i dp t r e n ma cdc niTdc chau A u l i e n m i n h chong l a i Na-p6-le-6ng.
CUQC

chien t r a n h p h i nghla. Cuoc chien t r a n h ay da vap p h a i sU k h a n g cir manh
l i e t cua l i e n quan cac n^ifdc chau A u , n h a t l a cdc nifdc A n h , Ao, N g a

Tay

C a u 4 : Suf d u n g Ivtdc d6 t r i n h b a y C U Q C c h i e n t r a n h c i i a N a - p 6 - l e - 6 n g
d c h a u Au.

Ban Nha.
- Quan doi cua Na-p6-le-6ng k h o n g dii m a n h de d a n t r a i t r e n k h d p chiS'ii
tracfng chau Au u h u Na-p6-le-6ng

da tifng t h a m vong. Day l a cuoc chidn

t r a n h t r e n m o t quy mo r o n g Idn, d a i ng^y, xa hau phi/cfng n e n quan doi m$t
moi chan chudng ve t i n h t h a n ; t h i e u t h o n ve luong thuc, thifc p h a m , chifa ke
ton t h a t ve life lifong.
- C^c nirdc chau A u , n h a t l a Tay B a n N h a

N g a difofc n h a n d a n ung ho,

l-ta-li-a
(1795)

Ac
(1797)

Anh
(1805)

Pho
(1806)

Nga
(1812)

Bf
(1815)

k i e n quyet chien dau h y s i n h de bao ve To quoc.
- Dac bi$t, do t i f tifdng chu quan n e n k h i Na-p6-16-6ng m d cuoc t a n cong

I I . C A u H O I VA B A I T A P B O S U N G

v^o l a n h t h o niTdc N g a b i quan doi chong t r a quyet l i e t l a m cho Na-p6-le-6ng

C a u 1 : H a y t r i n h b a y nhii^ng C U Q C c h i e n t r a n h k h i N a - p 6 - l e - 6 n g l e n

khong t r d tay kip.

l a m H o a n g de d nvCdc P h a p .

C a u 2 : T i n h h i n h c h a u Au s a u Hpi nghi V i e n c6 nhCng d i l n

bien

* Huang

quan trong nao?
* Hudng

ddn trd lai :

- Sau H o i n g h i V i e n t i n h h i n h chfiu A u c6 nhOfng d i l n bien quan t r o n g :

- K h i Na-p6-le-6ng l e n 1dm Hodng de nufdc Phdp, r a sure thifc h i ^ n t h a m
vpng l a m b d chii ciia m i n h , day m a n h x a m lirpc cac nirdc chdu A u m d doi t h u
chinh I d A n h , Ao, Nga.

+ Theo de n g h i cua N g a ho^ng A-lech-xan-drd I , vua cac nirdc chau An

+ N d m 1805, Na-p6-le-6ng tap t r u n g luc lirpng do bp l e n mrdc A n h .

t h a n h l a p L i e n m i n h T h a n t h d n h . L i e n m i n h quy d i n h cac vua p h a i giiip do

+ N d m 1806, Na-p6-le-6ng d d n h chiem mrdc Ao, r o i t i e n vd B6c-lin.

nhau v ^ dung "life liTcfng chung" de d a n dp each m a n g n§'u no r a 6 b a t cuf noi
nko. L i e n m i n h da l o i keo nhieu niTdc chau A u gia nhap L i e n m i n h .
+ Thifc chat L i e n m i n h T h a n t h a n h Ik l i e n m i n h p h a n dpng ciia cdc VU.T
chiia phong k i e n chau A u chong l a i xu hi/cJng cach'l,mang t\i san.
- D u b i L i e n m i n h T h a n t h d n h d ^ n dp, phong t r a o each m a n g v i n no ra

+ N d m 1807, sau m p t v d i t r d n giao chien d d m mdu v d i Nga, Na-p6-le-6ng
k i Hiep irdc T i n - d i t v d i N g a v d Pho.
- T h d n g 6 - 1812, k h o n g tuygn chien, Na-p6-le-6ng

sif xuat h i e n cua L i e n m i n h T h a n t h a n h 1dm a n h hifdng den budc difofng phdt
t r i e n ciia chu n g h i a t u ban v o n h i n h t h d n h sdm d chau A u .

28

dich t h a n c h i huy

640000 quan t i e n vao mrdc Nga.
+ Ngdy 7 - 8 - 1812, t a i t r a n B6-r6-di-n6 quan dpi Na-p6-le-6ng b i bai t r a n .

nhieu nUdc d chau A u , m a n h n h a t l a d Tay B a n N h a .
- N h i / vay, sau H o i n g h i V i e n , t i n h h i n h chau A u t r d n e n phufc tap, n h a t la

ddn trd lai :

+ Sau t h a t b a i d Nga, quan dpi Na-p6-le-6ng tiep tuc tha't b a i k h ^ p cac
" i ^ t t r a n d chau A u . T r o n g t r a n d d n h cuoi ciing d Oa-t6c-16, gan Bruy-xen
(Bi), ngdy 18 - 6 - 1815, quan Na-p6-le-6ng b i tieu diet. C h i e n t r a n h d chau
Au kg't thiic.

Mm...

29


C&u 2 : H a y d i e n siuf l i ^ u v a o c p t B c h o p h u hgfp vdri nQi d u n g d c p t A
ve H p i nghi V i e n s a u d a y :
B

A
1. Thdi gian tien hanh Hpi nghj.

A

2. Muc dich Hoi nglij.

B

3. Thi/c chat cija Hpi nghi.
L

.

1

«—'•

4. Ket qui cija HOi nghi.



C
D

HiCdng ddn trd Idi:
B

A

. T r o n g cuoc chien t r a n h xam luac phieu liAi ciia m i n h , N a - p 6 - l e o n g d£
gap p h a i sir k h a n g cir quyet l i $ t cua n h a n dan chau A u va cuoi cung Na-p6-le6ng p h a i n h a n l ay su" tha't bai t h a m h a i vao nSm 1821.
cau 4 '• H a y n e u k e t q u a v a n h ^ n x e t v e H p i n g h i V i e n 1815.
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Kit qud :
+ B a n d6 chau Au duoc ve l a i theo yeu cdu cac nufdc th^ng t r a n .
+ Nude N ? a diroc m o t p h a n l a n h tho cua B a L a n va P h ^ n L a n .
+ A n h difoc chiem giCf dao Man-ta - m o t cur d i e m quan t r o n g ve m a t
chien luoc cf D i a T r u n g H a i va mot so thupc dia cua H a L a n , N a m P h i .
+ Da't d a i cua P h d va Ao dirge m d rong. Pho trd thanh mrdc c6 vai t r r
chiJ y§u t r o n g " L i e n m i n h ciia che do Ro-ma".
+ I-ta-li-a van bi phan chia thanh nhieu l a n h tho khac nhau.

1. Thcii gian ti§'n
hanh Hpi nghi.

A. Til nam 1814 dg'n nam 1815.

2. Myc dich HOi nghi.

B. Thfc iuSn nhUng dieu lchau Au CP Ipi cho cac nuOc thSng tran trong chien tranh chO'ng
I\la-p6-le-0ng.

+ Phap quay ve bien gidi eu trurde each mang, boi thiTdng 700 trieu phcf-rang
chien p h i .
- Nhan xet

3. Thi/c chat cua Hpi
nghi.

C. Day la "Lien minh ThSn thanh", la li§n minh phSn dOng ci!ia cac
vua chua phong kien chau Au, mgnh nhat la Tay Ban l\lha.

+ H o i n g h i k h o n g t i n h dgn quyen Icfi, nguyen vong ciia n h a n dan.
+ NhuTng va'n de duge quyet d i n h t r o n g h p i n g h i bi c h i p h o i bdi cae mrdc
Anh, Ao, Nga.

4. Kg't qua cua HOi nghi. D. - KhOng tinh dg'n quyen Ipi cua nhan dan, cac nuflc th^ng tran tij
y lap Igi ban dO chau Au.
- NuOc Nga dupe mOt phSn lanh thd ciJa Ba Lan.
- Anh dypc chiem giuf dap Man-ta - mOt cCf dig'm chien laoc quan

+ Thirc cha't, day la h o i n g h i chia phan t h d n g I g i giOra cac nude th^ng
tran t r o n g cuoc chien t r a n h ehong Na-p6-le-6ng.
+ H o i n g h i da cha dap len quyen Igi cae mrdc nho yeu va nhan dan lao dong.

trpng 6 Dja Trung Hal va mOt so thuOc dia cua Ha Lan.
- Da't dai cua Phd va Ao cung duoc m8 rOng ra nhilu.
- l-ta-li-a vin bj phan chia thanh nhi§u lanh thd khac nhau.
Cau

3 : H a y t r i n h b a y n h C n g n e t c h i n h ve Na-p6-le-6ng.

* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Na-p6-le-6ng B6-na-pdc s i n h n a m 1769 t a i dao Cooc, cha ong la luSt s\i,
von la m o t quy toe b i p h a san. N a m 15 tudi, Na-p6-le-6ng difcfc Quoc h o i
phong quan h a m tirdng. N a m 1795, Na-p6-le-6ng da dep t a n bon bao hoang
noi loan 6 P a - r i . Sau d6 ong la ngu6i triTc tiep xay ditog ke hoach d a n h chiem
toan bo chau Au v a phifong Dong. I-ta-li-a duoc chon l a m nifdc k h d i ddu cua
ke hoach nay.

Bdi 6

C A C H MANG CONG N G H I E P
(Nijfa s a u t h e k i X V I I I • g i i l a t h e k i X I X )
I. C A U H O I , B A I T A P C d B A N

C S u 1 : N e u nhCfng t i e n d e l a m c h o e a c h m a n g c o n g n g h i ^ p k h d i d a u
d A n h sdrm horn c a c ni^dfc k h a c .
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :,
- Th&ig Igi cua each mang tuf san, k i n h te A n h phat t r i e n ngay cang manh
"le, la mrdc dau t i e n t i e n hanh each mang cong nghiep, diTa tren nhutng tien de :

+ X a m chiem thuoe dia, tich luy dugc lugng tir ban khong 16.
- T h a n g 11 - 1799, Na-p6-le-6ng l e n . n ^ m c h i n h quyen d Phap, d e n nftm
+ Tirde doat rugng dat cua nong dan, tao dirge dpi ngu cong nhan I k m thue.
1804 l e n ngoi hoang de, t h i e t l a p nen de che t h i ^ ' ^ a i f 1804 - 1815). Sau k h i
len cam quyen, o n g t a p t r u n g life lifdng or t r u n g ufcrng de cai to' nen h a n h
+ NhuCng tien bp ve k i thuat va to ehuTc san xua't trong cong tnrdng t h u cong.
c h i n h v a i\i phap, m d m a n g t r u d n g hoc, k h u y e n k h i c h phat t r i e n cong
- Nirde A n h sau cuoc each m a n g tir san c6 dii nhOfng t i e n de de t i e n hanh
n g h i ^ p , t h o n g nha't do lii6ng, che dg thue khpa... C h i n h quyen cua Na-p6-le- c^ch m a n g cong nghiep : tir ban, n h a n cong va sir phat t r i e n k i t h u a t , n ^ n
ong da tao dieu k i e n cho chu nghia tiT bdn phat t r i l n .
nude A n h k h d i dau cuoc each m a n g cong nghiep sdm nha't.
- Sau k h i t r d t h k n h hoang de, Na-p6-le-6ng r a sure thifc hi$n t h a m vpng ba
- e a c h m a n g . edng nghiep d A n h b ^ t dau t i r nhiJng n a m 60 eua t h e k i
chu eua m i n h , day m a n h xam lucre chau A u ma doi t h u chinh l a Nga, Ao, A n h .
^ 1 1 va k e t thue vao nhCng n a m 40 cua t h e k i X I X .
30

31


C a u 2 : T r i n h b a y nh€tag t h a n h

W u noi b a t c u a each mang cong

nghi^p A n h .
* Hudng

ddn trd Idi :

+ T r o n g cong n h i g p , cong nghiep luyen k i m , cong nghiep hoa cha't t a n g
n h a n h va c6 v a i t r 6 chii dao t r o n g nen k i n h te' Dufc.
+ T r o n g n o n g nghiep, m a y moc cung t h a m n h a p va diTa vao s i l dung
nhieu : m a y cay, b t o , m d y gat, suf dung p h a n bon.

- N g a n h cong nghiep n h e :
+ N a m 1764, G i e m Ha-gri-vcf sang che r a may keo sgi G i e n - n i
+ N a m 1769, Ac-crai-tcf che tao ra mdy keo s o i chay b k n g hcfi nircJc.

+ Dac d i e m each m a n g cong nghiep d Diic : d i i n r a v d i tdc do phat t r i i n
n h a n h d a t k i luc.

+ N a m 1779, Crom- t o n cai tien may keo sgri tao r a s a n p h a m dep, ben hern.

C S u 5 : C a c h m a n g c o n g n g h i e p d a dhn tdi h $ q u a gi ?

+ N a m 1785, Cae-rai che tao m a y det chay b k n g sufc nUdre, n a n g suat

* Hudng

t a n g 40 I a n .
+ N a m 1784, G i e m Oat phat m i n h r a m&y hai mrde va dira vao suT dung.
- Luyen k i m : N a m 1735 phat m i n h r a phuong phap nau t h a n coc luyen
gang t h e p , n a m 1784 16 luyen gang dau t i e n dufc(c xay dun j .
- Giao t h o n g v a n t a i : N a m 1814, Xta-phen-xon che tao t h a n h cong dau
may xe lOra.

*

^

te :

+ T h a y ddi bo m a t cac mrdc tir ban : nhieu t r u n g t a m cong nghiep m d i va
t h a n h t h i dong d a n r a d d i .
+ L a m chuyen bien n e n san xua't n h o t h u cong sang san xuat Idn hkng
may moc, n a n g cao n a n g sua't lao dong, l a m r a k h d i l u o n g san pha'm I d n cho
xa h o i .

- GiCa t h e k i X I X A n h tror t h a n h "cong xiTomg t h e gidi"..
C a u 3 : C a c p h a t m i n h k i t h u a t d a d a p ufng y e u c a u s&n x u a t , Ivtu
thong h a n g h o a nhif the nao ?
* Hudng

ddn trd Idi :

- Vi kinh

+ Dua cac nirde c6 n i n k i n h te nong nghiep sang n e n k i n h te cong
nghiep p h a t t r i e n .
- Ve xd hdi :

ddn trd Idi :

- Viec p h a t m i n h k i t h u a t diTtfc coi la m d dau qua t r i n h cor gidri hoa t r o n g
san xua't. K h i m a y moc r a dcfi da tao r a nguon lire m6i l a m g i a m n h e lao done
CO b^p cua con ngirfJi. May moc r a ddi da chuyen tCr lao dong t h u cong t h o s<.
sang lao dong cO k h i , chuyen ttr n e n san xua't n o n g nghiep sang san xua!

+ H i n h t h a n h h a i giai ca'p m d i la tir san cong nghiep va v6 san cong nghiep.
+ Tii san cong nghiep n d m tuf lieu san xua't va quyen t h d n g t r i .
+ V d san cong nghiep l a m thue, ddi sdng co ciTc d i n den da'u t r a n h giOa
vd san va v d i tir san.

cong nghiep. Ta't ca nhijfng dieu do n6 dap ufng yeu cau san xuat ngay c a n r

c a u 6 : L g p b a n g t h o n g k e v e m o c thdri g i a n v a t h a n h titu c h u y e u

t a n g cua con ngiTdi, tao r a nguon cua cai v a t chat ngay cang n h i e u cho xa h o i

c i i a e a c h m a n g c o n g n g h i e p d A n h , P h a p v a DuTc.

- K h i san p h a m do cac p h a t m i n h k i t h u a t mang l a i ngay cang n h i e u lal

* Hudng

nay s i n h yeu cau p h a i l u u t h o n g p h a n phoi. C h i n h yeu cau nay l a m che
n g a n h giao t h o n g p h a t t r i e n . Do vay, cung vdfi sir phat m i n h k i t h u a t t r e i .
l i n h viTc san xua't, niTdc A n h con c6 nhCng phat m i n h k i t h u a t t r e n l i n h vif(.

ddn trd Idi :
Thfifi gian

Anh

NhOng nam 60 cua the
ki XVIII d§'n nhOng nam

giao t h o n g v a n t a i , do la viec che tao r a cac dau may xe lufa phuc vu giao

40 th§' ki XIX.

t h o n g v a n chuyen h a n g hoa.

• Phap

+ Nam 1785, phat minh may d§t chgy bing hcS nuSc.

.

+ D^u th§' kf XIX, chg' tgo tau thuy, xe iCfa chgy

+ e a c h m a n g cong nghiep b ^ t dau tiT n a m 1830, each m a n g cong nghi$i:

b^ng dk may hoi niiSc.

bat dau d i i n r a v a phat t r i e n m a n h t r o n g nhufng n a m 1830 - 1850.
+ T a c dong ve k i n h te, xa h o i : K i n h te Phap vuon l e n m a n h me thuf ha;
the gidi. Bo m a t P a - r i va cac t h a n h p h d khac t h a y ddi ro r $ t .
•DUc:
+ Cach m a n g cong nghiep d i i n r a vao nhiJng n a m 40 cua t h e k i X I X vd'
t6'c do n h a n h k i luc.
32

+ Nam 1769, che tao ra may quay sell chgy b§ng
+ Nam 1784, phat minh may hoi niiiSc,

ddn trd Idi :
:

+ Nam 1764, phat minh ra may keo sol Gien-ni.
SLfc niidc.

C f i u 4 : C a c h m a n g c o n g n g h i e p d P h a p v a BvCc d i l n r a nh\i t h e n a o
* Hudng

ThSnh ti/u chu yfi'u
- NhQng phat minh trong nganh c6ng nghiep:

Phap

NhOng nam 30 thg' ki

- NhOng phat minh trong nganh c6ng nghiep nh?.

XIX d§'n nhOng nam

- San luong gang thep tang gS'p 3 lln.

1850 - 1870.

- DO dai dLfdng s^t tang gap 100 lln.
- S6' luong may hoi nuOc tang tO 5000 chi§'c Ifin
27000 chig'c.
33


DifC

NhiJng nSm 40 thg' kl
XIX.

- IMhOng phdt minh trong ngSnh c6ng nghi$p n$ng,
chu yeu la luyen kim va hoa chS't.

4 : V e sof d o v e c u p c e a c h m a n g c o n g n g h i $ p g f i n v d i h $ q u a c u a n o .

- SSn iLfdng than, s3t, thep va dg dal dacing s^t tang
2 den 3 iSn.

Cach mgng
cong nghiep

- S6 may hoi na6c tang 6
- May moc va phan hoa hoc duqc sQ dgng trong san
xuat nfing nghiep.

Hinh thSnh hai giai ca'p co

I I . c A u H O I vA B A I T A P B 6 S U N G
1 : Y n g h i a c i i a v i c e p h a t m i n h r a m a y h d i n\i6c

Cau

* Huang

l a gi ?

Phat minh sang
chg' mSy m6c

ddn trd lai :

Tu sin

- M a y h o i niTdc d a t a o r a n g u o n d o n g l u c mdti, l a m g i a m siJc l a o d p n g ccr

Vesin

bSp cua con ngucfi.
- L a o d o n g b ^ n g t h i i c o n g d a n difOc t h a y t h e b k n g m a y m o c , k h d i dAu q u a
t r i n h c o n g n g h i e p h o d 6 ntfdrc A n h v a cdc nirdc c h a u A u .
- L a m cho n S n g s u a t l a o d o n g n g a y c a n g t a n g .

| ^

- L a m t h a y d o i b o m a t k i n h t e nirdtc A n h n o i r i e n g v a cac niidc iu b a n ^ ^ '
chau A u n o i chung.

etc trung tSm

Thanh thi

T5ng nSng

N6ng

cQng nghiep

dSng dSn

suat lao dOng

nghi$p phat

xuS't hign

xua't hi$n

- D a n d e n sir r a d & i cua cac n g a n h c o n g n g h i e p m d i .

tri^n

2 : C a c h m a n g cong nghiep d A n h da d^n d e n nhffng thay doi gi

Cau

v e k i n h t e v a x a h p i d n\idc
'''Huang

Anh?

Bdi 7

ddn trd lai :

- Cupc e a c h m a n g c o n g n g h i e p d A n h l a m c h o n e n k i n h t e nUdc A n h bu6c

HOAN THANH

v a o t h & i k i c o n g n g h i e p h o a , n a n g s u a t lao d p n g n g a y c a n g t a n g .
- C h i n h cupc e a c h m a n g n a y d a c i i n g co d i a v i c u « g i a i c a p tiT s a n

Anh,

c h o chii n g h i a t u b a n r a dcfi s d m d A n h v a co d i e u k i e n vUcfn l e n

canh

lam

- D e n giOra t h e k i X I X , niidc A n h difcfc m e n h d a n h l a " c o n g x i r o n g ciia t h e
gidi". Luan Don t r d t h a n h mot t r u n g tarn thuong m a i vdi 80 van dan v a l a

3 : Y n g h i a c i i a e a c h m a n g c o n g n g h i p p vdri k i n h t e P h a p , D v f c .

* Hudng

ddn trd lai :

- Cach m a n g cong nghiep

I. c A u H 6 I C 6 S A N T R O N G S A C H G I A O K H O A
1 : T a i s a o C U Q C d a u t r a n h t h o n g n h a t d BvCc v a l - t a - l i - a d i T ^ c c o i

l a C U Q C e a c h m a n g t\i s a n ?
* Huang

ddn trd Idi :

• S u n g h i e p t h o n g n h a ' t Du:c, t h o n g n h a t I - t a - l i - a n h k m x o a b o sir cAn t r d

t h u d o d a u t i e n ciia c h a u A u t i e n l e n con dufdng c o n g n g h i e p h o a .
Cau

Au

(giu-a the' k i XIX)

Cau

t r a n h v d i cac niidc tiS b a n k h a c .

C A C H M A N G Ttf S A N 6 C H A U

d a d i f a n e n k i n h t e P h a p vi/cfn l e n m a n h m e ,

cua che dp p h o n g k i e n , m d durdng cho c h u n g h i a tiT b a n p h a t t r i e n .
- L a n h d a o l a g i a i cap t u s a n v a t a n g Idp q u y tpc tir s a n h o a .
- D p n g lire l a q u a n c h i i n g n h a n d a n , n 6 n g c o t l a n o n g d a n .
- X u t h e p h a t t r i e n l a x a c l a p q u a n h e s a n xua't tiT b a n c h u n g h i a , m d

c 6 n g n g h i e p P h a p diirng thuT h a i cren t h e g i d i , sau n i f d c ' A n h . B p m a t P a - r i v a

^^isng cho c h u n g h i a tir b a n p h a t t r i e n .

cac t h a n h p h o t h a y d o i ro r e t . M o t h e t h o n g d a i 18, n h a ga, cufa h a n g . . .

CSju 2 : S o s a n h c o n d i f d n g t h o n g n h a t DuTc v a t h o n g n h a t I - t a - l i - a .

x a y d i f t i g t h a y t h e cac pho' cu c h a t

difpc

hep.

- d D i i c , e a c h m a n g c o n g n g h i e p d i e n r a vao nhCfng n a m 4 0 cua t h e k i X I X

Huang

ddn trd Idi :

• Giong

nhau :

m a c d u da't n u d e d a n g c o n b i c h i a se t h a n h n h i e u t i e u quoc v a g i a i cap tii s a n

+ L u c l u o n g l a n h dao : D e u l a q u y tpc h o a tU s a n v a g i a i c a p tU s a n .

chua c a m q u y e n . D e n giiJa t h e k i X I X , toe d p p h a t t r i § n c o n g n g h i e p ciia D i i c

+ D e u d i l n r a d u d i h i n h thurc c h i e n t r a n h .

d a t mure k i l u e .
34

+ Q u a t r i n h t h o n g n h a t Dure v a I - t a - l i - a d e u m a n g t i n h cha't m O t cupc
•^^ch m a n g t u s a n v i n o m d d u d n g cho c h u n g h i a tU b a n p h a t t r i e n .


. Nga ho^ng Ni-c6-lai t a n g cifdng quyin t h o n g t r i chuy§n ch6'.
- Khdc

nhau

- Nga lao v^o cu6c chien t r a n h \km cho quan chiing t h e m cam t h u . N h i e u

:

+ Qud t r i n h t h o n g n h a t nirdc Dure dufgc thuc hien bling con difdng "tir tren
xu6iig" t h o n g qua h i n h thuTc bao lire vdri chinh sach " s i t vk mAu " ciia Bi-xmdc.
+ Qud t r i n h t h o n g n h a t I - t a - l i - a duoc thirc h i e n b^ng con dirdng "tiT dirai
l§n" t h o n g qua cugc dau t r a n h cua quan chiing.

t r a n h ciia nong no bung n6.

. Yeu cau cai ckch dat r a cap t h i e t do n h u c^u p h d t t r i e n k i n h te v^ sif de
doa ndi day cua nong dan. Nga ho^ng bupe p h a i t i e n h ^ n h c^i

ckch.

- Ng^y 19 - 2 - 1861, N g a ho^ng k i sic l u i t g i i i phong nong dan 1§ thupe

C a u 3 : N g u y e n n h a n v a k e t q u a CUQC N p i chi§n d M i .
* Hadng d&n trd Idi :
a. Nguyen

cuOc

dia chii v i m p t hkn Tuy§n ngon ve viee xod bo che dp nong no.
- Tiep theo cai cdeh rupng dat \k mpt s6' cai cdch khdc mk C h i n h phu Nga
ho^ng bupe p h a i thifc h i p n . Luat cai edch ru6ng dfi't vk mpt s6' luat khdc

nhdn :

- Sau cuoc C h i e n t r a n h gianh doc lap cua ede thuoc dia A n h d B^c M i ,

mang t i n h chat mot cuoc cdch m a n g tif san, de nUdc Nga t i e n l e n con dudng

n h i $ m vu cua c^ch mang t i f san chua ho^n t h ^ n h .

t u ban chu nghia.

- Giufa the k i X I X , k i n h te M i phdt t r i e n n h a n h chong, dan dan nUdc M i
chia t h a n h ba m i e n c6 k i n h te - xa hoi khac nhau:

e a c h m a n g t\i s a n I d n thuT h a i ?

+ M i e n B^c Ik vung cong nghi|p p h d t t r i e n , h a i giai cap c h i n h 1^ t i f san
cong n h a n .
+ M i l n N a m Ik ncfi k i n h te don d i l n chiem UU the, chu no suf dung nhan
cong lao dpng da den ngay cang nhieu.
+ M i e n Tay 1^ vung nong nghiep cua chu t r a i .

C a u 5 : V i s a o c6 thd' x e m c u p c N p i c h i e n d M i (1861 - 1865) l a c u ^ c
* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- Sau k h i cupc chiS'n t r a n h g i ^ n h doc lap d Bic

M i g i i n h t h i n g I p i , Hpp

chiing quoc Hoa K i dupe t h a n h lap, song nhifng n h i e m vu cP bdn ciia edch
mang t i f s i n chifa h o i n t h i n h (vin di ru6ng di't cho n6ng din chifa difoc g i i i
quyet, che dp no le v i n duy t r i d m i e n Nam...).

Nhcf dieu k i ^ n t h u a n l o i k i n h te phdt t r i e n n h a n h ch6ng, dSc biet la

- K i n h te t i f b a n chii nghia p h i t t r i e n m a n h me, nhifng giufa cic m i e n

ng^nh cong nghi$p va c& nong nghi$p. Song che dp no 1§ can t r d neri k i n h te

t r i n h dp k h o n g deu nhau : m i e n B i c l i viing k i n h te' t i f ban chu nghia p h i t

tiT ban chu nghIa phat t r i d n .

t r i l n ; m i e n N a m l i v i i n g k i n h te don dien ; m i i n T i y l i vung k i n h te nong

+ M a u thuSn giufa t i f san, t r a i chu d m i ^ n Bdc v d i chu no d m i e n Nam

nghiep chu t r a i .
- Sif duy t r i che dp no 1§ d m i l n N a m d i cin t r d sif p h i t t r i e n k i n h te t i f

ng^y cang gay g^t.
+ Phong trao dau t r a n h d5i t h u tieu che do no le d m i e n N a m phat t r i e n
m a n h me.

bin chu nghia v i cic n h i tif ban d mien B i c cin t h i trifdng v i sure lao dOng. Do

+ Phai t h i i tieu che dp no le d mien N a m , giai phong no le, m d difimg cho

- Cupc N p i chie'n d M i (1681 - 1685), l a cupc chig'n t r a n h giufa cic life lifgfng

chu nghia t u ban phdt t r i ^ n . Do Ik nguyen nhan s^u xa cua cu^c n ^ i chi§'n.
+ Cuoc bau cuf tong t h o n g n a m 1860, Lin-con dai dien D a n g Cong hoa

vsiy, cupc xung dot giijfa tif bin mien B i c v i chu no mien N a m t r d n§n gay git.
tien bp do giai cap t i f san m i e n B i c l i n h dao chong l a i gidi chu no muo'n duy
t r i che dp no le d m i e n N a m .

t r i i n g cijr t o n g t h o n g , de doa quyen I p i cua chu no d m i e n N a m . Ckc chu n6 d

- Cupc n p i chie'n niy do dong dao quin chiing n h a n din t h a m gia, ho l i

m i l n N a m tuygn bo tdch k h o i L i g n bang, t h ^ n h lap H i e p bang rieng. D6 la

life lifpng CP bin quyet d i n h t h i n g I p i cua cupc n ^ i chie'n. D i y l i dpng life

nguyen n h a n trUe t i e p ciia cuoc noi chien.

chinh ciia c i c h m a n g t i f s i n .

b. Ket

- Cuoc n p i chie'n t h i n g I p i d M i n6 tiep tuc md difdng cho chu nghia t i f b i n

qua:

phit trien d M l .

- G i a i ph6ng cho h ^ n g v a n no le da den.
-• L a cuQC each m a n g tU san thiJ h a i sau cuoc C h i e n . t r a n h g i ^ n h doc lap o
B^cMi.

>

;r

- MOT dudng cho chu n g h i a t i f Mn phat t r i l n or M I .

N h u v i y , sau cupc Chie'n t r a n h g i i n h dpc lip d B i c M I , cu6c N p i chi§'n d
M l thife chat l i ti§'p tuc h o i n t h i n h n h i p m vu cua cich m a n g t i f s i n nen no
<3ifae x e m l i cupc cich m a n g tif s i n l i n thiJ h a i d M i .

C S u 4 : C u O c c a i c ^ c h n o n g no d N g a d i l n r a nhtf t h e n a o ?

Cfiu 6 : T ^ i s a o n o i : C a i e a c h n 6 n g no d N g a m a n g y n g h i a m ^ t CUQC

* Hudng d&n trd lai :

c 6 c h m ^ n g t«f s a n ?

- Nufa d i u th§' k i X I X , Nga 1^ mot niTdc phong k i e n lac hau so v d i c&c nUdc
tif hkn phifong Tay.
- Den giOfa the k i X X , Nga vSn 1^ mpt nifdc nong nghi|p, quan hg phong
kig'n - nong n6 c h i e m d i a v i t h o n g t r i .
36

* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Trifdc k h i cai c i c h nong n6, nifde Nga theo "che dp q u i n chu chuyen ch^,
moi quyen h i n h n i m t r o n g tay Nga h o i n g A-lech-xan-dro I I . Stf cai t r i h i
37


k h i c cua che' d6 p h o n g kig'n - n6ng no gfiy nen mau t h u a n gay g ^ t t r o n g xa
h o i , n h i e u cuoc dau t r a n h cua nong no bung n6. Trudrc t i n h h i n h d6 buoc Nga
h o ^ n g A-lech-xan-drcr I I p h a i t i e n h ^ n h cAi cdch.
- T r o n g c^i cdch, N g a h o ^ n g da t h o n g qua ban Tuy§n ngon v l vi§c x6a bo
che dp n o n g no.
- Viec g i a i p h o n g n o n g no l ^ m t a n g ngu6n c u n g cap n h d n corig, tao dieu
k i e n t h u a n l o i cho s U p h d t t r i e n siJc sdn xu^'t, tiJc l a tao r a duoc dpi ngu cong

n h a n l ^ m thue.
- K h i che dp n 6 n g no b i t h u ti§u, chii n g h i a tiX b i n d N g a p h d t t r i e n m a n h .

N h i r v i y , cai cdch n o n g no d N g a vira tao r a n g u o n n h a n cong phuc v u cho
nen

sAn x u a t t\i Mn chu n g h i a vira m d dudng cho chu n g h i a t a b a n phdt

t r i e n , n e n no c6 y n g h i a nhuf m o t cupc each m a n g tir s a n .

C a u 7 : V i s a o p h o n g t r a o e a c h m a n g of DuTc, I - t a - l i - a , N g a , M i d i l n r a
dvCdi n h f i n g h i n h thulc k h a c n h a u ?
* Hadng

ddn trd lai :

- Ngay 18 - 1 - 1871, 11 t h a n h lap De che Dufc dufpc tS chdc t a i Cung dien
Vec-xai (Phap). Vua Pho V i n - h e m I c h i n h thufc l e n ngoi H o a n g de. Bi-xmdc
t r d t h a n h T h i i t u d n g nirdc Dure. T h a n g 4 - 1871, H i e n p h a p m d i diTpc b a n
hanh, quy d i n h nude Dure l a m o t l i e n bang gom 22 quoc gia v a 3 t h a n h pho tir
do, ciing c6' v a i t r o cua quy tpc quan phiet Pho.
- Nhir vay, viec t h o n g nhat nirdc Dure mang t i n h chat mot cupc each mang t u
sAn, tao dieu k i e n cho k i n h te tU ban chu nghia phat t r i e n m a n h me d DUc.
C a u 2 : H a y t r i n h b a y diin b i e n c h i n h q u a t r i n h t h o n g n h a t I - t a - l i - a .
* Hudng

.

ddn trd lai :

- GiUa t h e k i X I X , I - t a - l i - a v i n b i c h i a t h a n h 7 vUcfng quoc nho. P h d n Idn

- H i n h thuTc cua cAc p h o n g tr^o cdch m a n g :
+ (5 Dure : \h cupc c h i e n t r a n h vurong t r i e u ; thue h i e n "tur t r e n

- Bp p h a n quy too qufin p h i § t Phd dai dien Ik Bi-xm6c, duac sir iing hp ciia
giai cap tuf s a n d a dung vu luc de t h o n g n h a t d a t nude b k n g ba bupc c h i e n
t r a n h v d i cdc nUdc I d n g gieng.
- V d i sir tha't bai cua Phdp t r o n g cupc chien t r a n h Phdp - Pho (1870 - 1871),
Bi-xmdc da g a t durpc a n h hirdng cua Phap, t h u phuc cdc bang m i e n N a m ,
hoan t h a n h vi^c t h o n g nha't dat nirdc.

xuong"

b ^ n g bao life, t h o n g qua c h i n h sdeh "sdt v a mau" cua Bix-mac.
+ 6 I - t a - l i - a : 1^. cu^c c h i e n t r a n h luc dau "tiT t r e n x u o n g " sau d6 l a "tir
dudi l e n " b k n g siJc m a n h cua qudn chiing.
+ 6 Nga : \k cupc cai each t u san k h o n g t f i e t de, v d i h i n h thure "cai edeh

nong no".
+ CJ M l : 1^ cupc npi c h i e n .
- Sd d l m 6 i niTcJc l a i d i l n r a theo nhuTng h i n h thiJc k h d e k h a c n h a u v i :
xua't p h d t tCr t i n h h i n h cu t h e eiia m 6 i (luoe g i a ; t r o n g do tirofng q u a n liTc
lufcfng d 6 n g v a i t r b quyet d i n h v ^ c h i phS'i h i n h thurc cua eac cupc dau t r a n h

de d y a edch m a n g dg'n t h ^ n g Ipri, thiTc h i $ n m u c t i e u cuoi c u n g 1^ tao dieu
k i e n cho chu n g h i a tiT ban p h a t t r i ^ n .

11. C A U H 6 I VA B A I T A P B O SUNG

cdc vUdng quoc theo che dp quan chu chuyen che va chiu sU k h o n g che cua de
quoc Ao; duy c h i cd VUPng quoc Pi-e-mon-te l a giOr dupc doe l a p vdi che dp
chinh t r i va k i n h t e t i e n bp h o n ca.
- G i a i cap t U san d cac vUOng quoc t r e n ban dao I - t a - l i - a deu mud'n dua vao
Pi-g-mon-te de l o a i bo t h e lUc cua Ao, thue h i e n viec t h o n g n h a t I - t a - l i - a . B d
tude Ca-vua, T h u t u d n g Pi-e-mon-te, chii trUotog diing chien t r a n h de t h a n h
lap nude I - t a - l i - a t h o n g n h a t dudi sU l a n h dao cua Vudng t r i e u Xa-voa.
- T h a n g 4 - 1859, Ca-vua l i e n m i n h v d i Phap t i e n h a n h chien t r a n h v d i
Ao. T r o n g k h i chien sU dang d i l n r a , quan ehung d cde vUPng quoc thupe
mien T r u n g I - t a - l i - a da n o i day k h d i nghia. B o n p h o n g k i e n t h o n g t r i d day
p h a i chay sang Ao. L i e n quan Pi-e-mon-te - Phap, duge sU h i t r o cua doan
quan t i n h nguyen G a - r i - b a n - d i , da day quan Ao vao t i n h t h e v6 cung k h d
k h a n . T h a n g 3 - 1860, cac vUPng quoc t r e n s a p n h a p vao Pi-e-m6n-t6.
- T h a n g 4 - 1860, p h o n g trao k h d i n g h i a cua n h a n d a n d dao X i - x i - l i - a

C a u 1 : H a y t r i n h b a y nhuTng n e t Idrn v e q u a t r i n h t h o n g n h a t DiJc

(mien N a m I - t a - l i - a ) bung no d5i l a t do c h i n h q u y i n t a y sai de quoc Ao vao

giCa t h e k i XIX.

thong nhat da't nUdc. Ga-ri-ban-di dem quan xuong giup n h a n dan N a m I-ta-li-a.-

* Hudng

ddn trd Idi :

- D e n giora t h e k i X I X , k i n h te tU b a n chu n g h i a d Dure p h d t t r i l n n h a n h
c h 6 n g , ; tir m o t nuTtJc n o n g n g h i e p , Dure t r d t h a n h ni/dc cong n g h i e p . Svt pMt
t r i e n m a n h me cua cong n g h i e p I ^ m cho d p i ngu con^ n h ^ n t a n g n h a n h .
- Cong n g h i p p v a eac t h a n h t h i p h a t trig'n nhanK^^hong da t h o i thue n h i e u
quy tpc d i a c h u c h u y e n s a n g k i n h d o a n h theo loi t u ban chu n g h i a .
- T r d n g a i I d n n h a t c h o sir p h a t t r i e n k i n h t e tiT b a n c h u n g h i a d Dufc la
da't nufdc v a n t r o n g t i n h t r a n g b i c h i a s e t h a n h n h i e u vucfng quoc I d n n h o ,
t r o n g do A o v a Pho v a h a i viTOng quoc I d n n h a t . V a n de t h o n g nha't da't ni/dc

ngay c a n g t r d t h a n h y e u cau cap t h i e t .
38

DOi quan "Ao do" h o n 1000 ngudi do Ga-ri-ban-di c h i h u y da r d i Gie-no-va,
yuot bien do bp l e n dao X i - x i - l i - a .
- Sau do, m i e n N a m I - t a - l i - a dUpc sdp n h a p vao Pi-e-mon-te (10 - 1860),
t h a n h l a p V u o n g quoc I-ta-li-a. Vua Pi-e-mon-te l a Em-ma-nu-en I I dUpc t o n
l^m Quoc vuong, Bdc tudc Ca-vua l a m T h i i tUdng.
- N a m 1866, I-ta-li-a l i e n m i n h vdi Pho chdng Ao, giai phong dUpc Ve-ne-xi-a.
Nam 1870, v d i sU tha't b a i cua Phdp t r o n g cupc c h i e n t r a n h Phdp - P h o ,
RS-ma da thupc ve I - t a - l i - a .
- Cupc dau t r a n h t h o n g nha't I-ta-li-a mang t i n h cha't m o t cupc each m a n g
s a n , l a t do sir t h o n g t r i eiia d§' quoc Ao va cac t h e lire p h o n g ki§'n hko t h u
I-ta-li-a, tao dieu k i e n cho chii n g h i a tU ban p h a t t r i e n .
39


- V e m a t k h a c h q u a n , d a o l u a t t h i i t i e u c h e d o n o n g n o v ^ nhOmg c a i c d c h

C a u 3 : H a y n e u d $ c d i e m t i n h h i n h ntfdc MT g i C a t h e k i X I X .

ti§p t h e o , c6 t a c d u n g t a o m o t so d i e u k i e n n h a ' t d i n h c h o sir p h a t t r i e n k i n h

* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- D e n giCfa t h e k i X I X , k i n h t e M i p h a t t r i e n t h e o h a i c o n dUcfng : m i e n B d c

jg' t i r b a n c h u n g h i a d N g a . N 6 Ikm t a n g n g u o n l a o d o n g c h o c o n g

nghiep,

p h a t t r i i n n i n c o n g n g h i e p t\i b a n c h i i n g h i a , r u o n g d a t n & m t r o n g t a y cdc

n f i n g cao m o t budrc d i a v i c h i n h t r i c h o g i a i c a p tuf s a n . D u n g n h i r n h a n x e t

t r a i c h u v a n 6 n g d a n tir do ; m i e n N a m p h d t t r i e n k i n h t e d o n d i e n difa t r e n

cua L e - n i n : " C u p c c a i c d c h n o n g n o l a m o t cupc c a i e a c h c6 t i n h c h a t t U s a n

s u h o c l o t sure l a o d o n g c u a n o l e .

do b p n p h o n g k i e n t h u c h i e n . D o l a m p t birdc c h u y e n b i e n ciia nirdc N g a s a n g

- O m i e n B^c v a m i e n T a y , k i n h t e t r a i c h u n h f i vk n o n g d a n t i f d o c h i e m
lOi t n e ' d i r a t r e n sir p h a t t r i e n c h a n n u o i v a s a n x u a t l i i a m i d ^ p h u c v u t h i
t r i r d n g c o n g n g h i e p . O m i e n N a m , k i n h t e d o n d i e n p h d t t r i e n v d i cac n g h e
t r o n g b o n g , m i a , thuo'c I d . . . T u y v a y , sir t o n t a i c u a c h e d o n o l e d a c a n t r d

n l n q u a n c h u tii s a n " .
C S u 6 : H a y g h i s i ^ k i ^ n l i c h svt v a o b a n g k e dufoTi d a y v e q u a t r i n h
t h o n g n h a t nvfdfc Diifc.

n e n k i n h t e tiT b a n c h i i n g h i a p h a t t r i e n d M i .
- M a u t h u a n g i i f a tiT s a n v a t r a i c h u m i e n B^c v d i cdc c h u n o m i e n N a m
ckng t h e m g a y g ^ t . P h o n g t r a o d a u t r a n h d o i t h u t i e u c h e dp n o l e , diTpc d o n g
dao nhOfng ngiTcfi t i e n bp d a t r ^ n g tiT s a n , t r a i c h u , c o n g n h a n , n o n g

dan...

u n g h p , d i l n r a n g a y c a n g m a n h m e . N g u y c o m o t cupc n p i c h i e n d a n g d e n
g a n d e t h a n h t o a n cac liTc liTpng b a o t h i i , g i a i p h 6 n g n o l e , m d diicfng c h o chii
n g h i a tiT b a n M i p h d t t r i e n t r o n g c a niTdc.

ra v§u c^u thS'ng nhS't.
_2) Qua trinh th6'ng nha't.
3) Kg't qua dat difOc.
* Hudng

C a u 4 : T r i n h bay d i i n bien v a y nghia cupc Npi chien & Mi.
* Hudng

1) Tinh hlnh ni/6c Ddc dSt

ddn trd lai :

- N g k y 12 - 4 - 1 8 6 1 , npi c h i e n b i m g n o . GiOfa n S m 1862, T 6 n g t h o n g L i n - c o n

ddn trd Idi :

1. Tinh hinh ni/6c Difc d^t

- GiOa thg' kl XIX kinh t§' \U ban chu nghTa DiJc phat trie'n

ra ygu c§u thS'ng nh§t.

nhanh ch6ng, [is mOt nude nong nghiep, niiSc Difc trft thanh
nude c6ng nghiep.

k i s^c l e n h cap d a t of m i e n T a y c h o d a n d i ciT, t a o d i e u k i e n c h o hp on d i n h cupc

- DOi ngu cong nh§n t3ng nhanh.

s o n g , p h a t tri&'n k i n h t e t r a n g t r a i . N g k y 0 1 - 1 - 1863, s^c l e n h b a i bo che do

- Quy tpc va dia chij chuyen sang kinh doanh theo loi ti/ ban

no l e diTpc b a n h a n h . Nhc( v a y , h a n g v a n no l e dirpc g i a i p h 6 n g c i m g v d i d o n g dao

chu nghTa.

d a n tyf do \h nhOCng ngucfi m 6 i diTpc cap d a t , d a g i a n h a p dpi q u a n cua C h i n h phsj

- IMi/dc Difc bi chia x§ th^nh nhieu viiong quo'c nh5, can trd sa

L i e n b a n g . Sufc m a n h cua q u a n dpi L i e n b a n g diTcfc t a n g ciTcmg.
- Ngay 9 - 4 - 1865, t r o n g t r a n danh quyet d i n h t a n cong t h u phii

phat trien kinh te tif ban chu nghTa. Van de thong nha't nude

Hiep

Difc ngay cang trd thanh ygu clu ca'p bach.

b a n g , q u a n d p i L i e n b a n g da c h i e n t h a n g v e v a n g , c h a m d u t cupc n p i c h i e n .
- Cupc n p i c h i e n 1 8 6 1 - 1 8 6 5 \k cupc e a c h m a n g tiT s a n I a n thuf h a i d M i , ki
tiT s a u C h i e n t r a n h g i a n h dpc l ^ p . DiTa v a o lire l i i p n g e a c h m a n g c u a q u a n

2. Qu5 trinh thfi'ng nha't.

qua cac euOc chig'n tranh vdi cac nade khae.

c h u n g g i a i c a p t u s a n m i e n B^c da x c a bo c h e dp no 1$ qr m i e n N a m , t a o d i ^ u

- Qua trinh thd'ng nha't DiJe : Thong nha't tir trgn xuS'ng, bSng

k i $ n c h o c h u n g h i a tiT b a n p h a t t r i e n d k h u v u c nky. N e n k i n h t e M l da viTdn

ba cuOc ehi§'n tranh vdi cac ni/dc lang gililg:

l e n m a n h me v a o cuo'i t h e k i X I X .

+ I\l§m 1864, Bi-xmac tan cong Dan Mach, chiS'm Hdn-

C a u 5 : H a y t r i n h b a y tinh chat v a y n g h i a c u a c a i e a c h nong no d Nga.
* Huang

ddn trd lai :

- Disc ti§'n hanh thfi'ng nha't b^ng vu lire "tir trgn xud'ng" thdng

j

xtai-nd va Sd-le-xvich thuOc HSc Hai va Ban Tich.

.

+ Nam 1866, Bi-xmac gay cnig'n tranh vdi Ac, Bifc thanh
I5p mOt Lign bang B^c Difc.

- C a i e a c h n o n g no d N g a ( 1 8 6 1 ) l a cupc ckch m ^ g t i f s a n k h S n g t r i e t de,
c o n n h i e u h a n c h e . N o d u y t r i n h i i u d a u v e t c u a t r a i tiT p h o n g k i e n , t h e h i e n

- Nam 1870 - 1871, Bi-xmac gay chien vdi Phap, thu phyc

t r § n ckc m a t c u a c h e dp c h i n h t r i va k i n h t e - x a h o i . C h i n h q u y e n

cac bang mien Nam hoan thanh thd'ng nha't Difc.

chuyen

che v a n c 6 n t r o n g t a y g i a i c a p q u y t o e d i a c h u . H a u h e t r u p n g d a t vSn t h u p c
ve q u y t p c . N o n g d a n vSn c h i u n h i J n g t h i J t h u e ' nftng n l , p h u t h u o e v j i a mdug
Mt

c u a d i a c h u p h o n g k i e n . N h i J n g trcr lire ciia sir p h d t t r i ^ n k i n h t e t u b a n

c h u n g h i a v a n c h i r a dirpc g i a i q u y e t .
40

3. K§'t quS dgt difdc.

Vigc thd'ng nha't nirdc Difc mang tinh cha't mOt cuOc each mano
tir san, tgo di^u kign cho kinh te tir ban chu nghTa phat trien 5
Difc.

I
41


C a u 7 : H a y c h o b i e t h# q u a c u a c u p c d a u t r a n h t h o n g n h a t Dufc,
t h o n g n h a t I - t a - l i - a do'i vdri s U p h a t t r i e n c u a c h u n g h i a tvi b a n .
*HiCdng

ddn trd Idi :

- T h o n g nhfi't d a t nxxdc, t h o n g nhfi't t h i triTfifng d&n t p c
- Tao dieu k i e n cho chu nghia tu ban p h d t t r i e n d Bile, I - t a - l i - a

d cAc

niTdc chau A u .
- Nirdc Dure

I - t a - l i - a c6 dieu k i e n dua nen k i n h te p h d t t r i e n , tii do dSn

den h i n h t h a n h cdc cong t i doc quyen r o i d i den chu n g h i a de quoc.
- C h i n h sir t h o n g n h a t do l a m cho Dufc, I-ta-li-a s a u do h a i nirdc nay t r d
th^nh nhuTtig 16 lufa g&y chien t r a n h th§' g i d i .

nha s i n h l i hoc

ngUdi N g a Pap-lop (1849 -

1936) vdi thi n g h i e m ve nhOfng

phan xa c6 dieu k i f n da n g h i e n ciJu ve h o a t dpng ciia h§ t h a n k i n h cao cap
ciia dpng v a t va con ngu6i v.v...
C&u 2 : V i sao d e n k h o a n g n d m 1900, c a c n h a tvL b a n m d i c a n h t r a n h
gay g^t ve d a u m o ? .
* Hiidng ddn trd lai :
- NhCTng n a m 30 the k i X I X , nen k i n h te tU ban chii n g h i a phat t r i e n
n h a n h chdng, m o t p h a n la do nhOmg t i e n bp cua khoa hoc - k i t h u a t , dac biet
la sir p h a t m i n h cua dpng co do't t r o n g do k i sU R. Di-e-den (Dufc) cai t i g n m d i
dirOG ap d u n g r p n g r a i . Dpng co dot t r o n g suf dung n h i e n l i e u long, k h o n g can
noi hcfi, so vdi m a y hcfi nirdc t i e n I p i hon ra't nhieu.
- Viec sijf dung dpng c<3 do't t r o n g tao r a k h a n a n g phat t r i e n n g a n h dto va
may bay, dong t h d i thiic day nganh k h a i thac dau md. TCr dd cac n h a tir ban

Bai 8
CAC

Nl/CfC T I / M N

t r a n h gianh nhau ve dau md ngay cang gay g^t.

CHUYEN SANG GIAI DOAN

C a u 3 : T r i n h b a y h i e u b i e t c u a e m ve A . B . N 6 - b e n v a g i a i N 6 - b e n .
* Huang ddn trd lai :

DE QUOC C H U NGHIA
I . cAu

H O I CO SAN TRONG SACK GIAO K H O A

C a u 1 : Suf d u n g c a c k i e n thufc d a hoc ve V ^ t l i , H o a hoc... t r i n h b a y m^t
so t h a n h tuTu ve k h o a h p c - k i thu|it dvC* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- T r o n g l l n h viTc V a t l i , nhiJng p h a t m i n h ve dien ciia cdc n h a bdc hpc n h u
Gh§-o6c Xi-mon 6m (1789 - 1854) ngiT^i DuTc, Mai-ccfn Pha-ra-day (1791 -

1867)

\k G i e m x Pre-xcot G i u n (1818 - 1889) ngudi A n h , E - n U - l i K h r i - x c h i a - n o - v i c l i
Len-xcf (1804

- 1865) nguofi Nga da m d r a k h a n&ng iJng dung m o t nguon

nang lUOng m d i . Thuye't electron

cua T6m-xorn (Anh) cho tha'y nguyen tOf

k h o n g p h a i la p h a n tuf nho n h a t cua vat chat ma trudc do ngUofi ta v l n l a m
tirdng. Nhijmg phat h i e n ve h i e n tuong phong xa cua n h a bac hoc ngudi Phap
H a n g - r i Bec-co-ren (1852 - 1908), Pi-e Q u y - r i v a M a - r i Q u y - r i da dat nen
t a n g cho viec t i m k i e m nguon n a n g luang h a t n h a n ; cong t i n h n g h i e n ciJu cua
nha v a t l i hoc ngifdi A n h E c - n 4 t Rcf-do-pho (1871 - 1937) la m o t bifdc t i e n v i
dai t r o r ^ viec t i m hiiu

ca'u triic vat cha't va t r d thanh chig'c chia k h d a t h i n

- A. B. N6-ben (1833 - 1896) la nha bac hoc Thuy D i e n da phat m i n h r a
thud'c no va cd 350 h^ng p h a t m i n h khac, dac biet la thud'c no k h o n g k h d i . TCr
nhiTng n a m (1873 - 1890) sau k h i so'ng d N g a va M i , ong ve t a i P a - r i . Sau dd,
ong n g h i hiTU t a i I - t a - l i - a va lam chQ mot gia t a i k h o n g 16 v d i t r i gia 40 t r i e u
Phcf-rang vang.
Ngay 14 - 3 - 1893, ong v i e t chiic thir t h d n h a t . Do dieu ki§n khach
quan, chiic thir thiJ nha't thay ddi vao ngay 27 - 11 - 1895 va ong da lap r a
giai thirdng N6-ben. Theo dd, so' gia tai 33 t r i e u curoon dufpc silf dung nhiT
sau : Phan vo'n gufi vao ngan hang, phan l a i hang n a m se p h a n phoi l a m giai
thufdng cho nhiJng ai t r o n g n a m triTdc da ddng gdp dircJc n h i l u cho n h a n loai.
cac lofi tuTc di/dc chia n a m p h a n b^ng nhau. P h a n thuT n h a t cho t a c gia phat
m i n h quan t r o n g nha't ve v a t l i , phan thiif h a i v l hoa hoc, p h a n t h d ba ve y
te, p h a n t h d t i r ve v a n chirong, phan thuf n a m ve m o t so' n h a n v a t n o i t i e n g
cd nhieu ddng gdp cho t i n h doan ket, hoa b i n h cua n h a n loai.
C a u 4 : Q u a t r i n h x u a t h i ^ n c a c to chute dpc q u y e n d i e n r a nhtf the nao ?
* Huang ddn trd Idi :

hoc

- Den cuo'i the k i X I X , viec sijf dung nguon n a n g luong m d i ciing nhCfng

ngudi DiJc V i n - h e m Rcfn-ghen (1845 - 1923) ve t i a X vao n a m 1895 da giiip y

tien bp k i t h u a t tao r a k h a nang xay ditag c a c n g a n h cong nghipp t r e n quy

hoc chan idoan c h i n h xac b $ n h t a t , b i e t hifdng dieu t r j n h ^ m phuc h o i suTc

" I d Idn. D ^ t a p t r u n g nguon vd'n Idn du sufc canh t r a n h , cac nha tiT ban thanh

khde cho con ngudi.

l^p cac cong t i dpc quyen.

k i de t i m h i e u t h e gidi ben t r o n g cua nguyen tijf. Phat m i n h cua nha bac

- T r o n g l i n h vifc H 6 a hoc, d i n h lualt tuin

..^
hokn

'
ciia n h a bdc hoc

Nga

Men-d§-le-ep da dat ccf sd cho s\i p h a n h a n g cac nguyen to hda hoc.
- L i n h vifc S i n h hoc cung c6 nhieu t i e n bp Idn. Hoc thuye't Dac-uyn (Anh)
de cap den sU t i e n hda va d i t r u y e n , sir chon loc t i r n h i e n ciia s i n h v a t ; phat
m i n h ciia nha bac hoc ngirdi Phap L u - i Pa-xtctn (1822 - 1895) giiip p h a t h i ^ n
v i t r u n g v a che tao thanh cong vacxin chong b^nK cho d a i ; cong t r i n h cua
42

- 6 phap, n g a n h luy§n k i m va k h a i tac md t a p t r u n g t i c u g tay h a i cong t i
Cong t i "Snay-do Crcf-do" n ^ m cac nha may quan sir d Cra-dd va c a c nha
^ a y che tao do dong, th^p cung cac n g a n h khac d nhieu v i m g t r o n g nufdc.
Td'ng Cong t i dudng sdt va dien k h i " ciing 6 cong t i khac dpc quyen

nganh

'JiJdng s^t t r o n g niTdc. 50% t r o n g iki dirdng bien do 3 cong t i I d n n a m . H a i
^^ng t i "Xanh Gd-ben" va "Cu-man" k i e m soat t o a n bp cong n g h i e p hda chat.
43


- CJ Dijtc, Cong t i than Ranh-V6t-xpha-len (thanh lap nftm 1893) da kieni
so^t 95% tong san lifcfng than vung Rua - viing cong nghif p Idn nhat ciia Dilc
vk han 55% tong san luang than c& nirdrc.
C a u 5 : T r i n h bay nhuTng tien bp k i thu^t n^i b^t v a tac dpng c u a
chiing do'i vdri san xuat v a dUi song.
* Huang ddn trd Idi :
- Nhang tien bo vi ki thudt :

+ Net noi bat la nhufng phdt minh ve dien. Ph^t minh cua Mo6c-xa ve
di$n bdo, cua E-di-xcfn ve b6ng dfen dien v^ xay difng nha may dien ; tiep
theo \k nhOmg phat minh ve dien thoai, dien anh v6 tuy§'n dien t r u y i n thanh
vk tia X da dUa nguon nSng lucrng mdi vao cdc Iinh vUc cua cuoc song.
+ Viec suf dung 16 Betxme v^ 16 Mactanh danh dau mgt bu«Jc each mang
trong ng^nh luyen k i m .
+ Trong nhuTng nam 80 cua th§' k i XIX, nhufng sang che' ra may tuocbin
phdt dien chay bkng sufc nu^c v^ tuocbin phat dien cung viec chuyen tai dif n
di xa da tao nhChig dieu kien rat quan trong de nang cao nang sua't lao dong
vuat bac va md rong han nOa quy mo san xuat.
+ NhCmg phat hi$n dau tien ve dau mo of M i v^ d Nga dem lai cho lo^i
ngi/di mot nguon nhien lieu mdri ngoai than, sau n^y duoc s\i dung rong rai
trong cac ng^nh cong nghi^p.
- Tdc dong :

+ San lucfng cac ng^nh cong nghi$p tang len nhanh ch6ng.
+ Nhieu phucmg tien giao thong xuat hien nhu 6 to, may bay, tau bi^n,
tau ngam.
+ Dap uTng nhu cau ngay cang tang cua con ngUdi.

- Do nguon lai thu duac qua Idn tiT xua't khau tU ban, cac nU(Jc de quoc tftng
cuang xam luac thuoc dia khie'n cho sU tranh cha'p giufa cac nudc t u ban chu
nghia ngay cang cSng th^ng.
Nhu vay, den cuoi the k i XIX dau the k i XX, sU xua't hi§n cac to chUc doc
quyen, sU ra d6i cua tU ban tai chinh, sU tang cUdng xua't khau t u ban va k6o
theo n6 l a sU tranh cha'p thuoc dia ngay cang cang t h i n g la nhUng dau hieu
ca ban danh da'u budc chuyen cua chu nghia t u ban sang giai doan d§' quoc
chu nghia, trong d6 dac d i l m ndi bat nha't l a chu nghia tU ban doc quyen.
B. C A U H O I V A B A I T A P B O SUNG
Cau 1 : Nguyen n h a n h i n h thanh cac to chiifc dpc quyen vao cuoi the
ki X I X d a u the k i XX. Dfic diem chung va dSc diem rieng c u a chii
nghia de quoc.
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Nguyen nhdn :

+ Do tien bo cua khoa hoc - k i thuat san xua't cong nghiep cac nUdc A u - M l
tang nhanh dan dg'n tich tu tU ban.
+ c a c nganh kinh t§' chuyen tU tU do canh tranh sang to chUc d6c quyen
dUdi nhieu hinh thUc: cacten, xanhdica, t6rat.
- Dac diem chung cua chu nghia de quoc :

+ S u tap trung san xua't va tap trung tU ban dat den mUc do phat trien
cao, tao thanh nhOfng to chUc lung doan.
+ Sir dung hap giUa tU ban ngan hang vdi tU ban cong nghiep t r d thanh
tu ban t a i chinh.

C a u 6 : Cuo'i the k i X I X - dau the k i XX, cac ntfdc ti^ ban A u - Mi c6

+ Viec xuat kh^u tU ban duac quan tam.

nhifng c h u y e n bien quan trpng gi ? Trong do, chuyen bien nao dang

+ S u hinh thanh cac khoi lien minh tU ban doc quyen chia nhau the gidi.

chii y nhat ?
* Hu6ng ddn trd. Idi :

- Cuoi the k i XIX, do sir canh tranh da lam pha s&n nhieu ca sd kinh
doanh nho, tai san tap trung d^n vao tay cac nha t u ban Idn. Xu hudng tap
trung san xua't, tap trung tU ban da dan den sU xuat hien cac to chufc doc
quyin nhU cacten, xanhdica d Bvic vk Phap, tordt d M l .
- Su tap trung san xua't, tap trung tU ban lam tang vai tr6 cua ngkn hang.
Dan dan trong nganh ngan hang cung hinh thanh nhpmg ngan hang Idn.
Nhieu chu ngan hang \di so von khong 16 da n^ni'.lu6n cac ca sd skn xufi't
true ti§'p k i n h doanh cong nghi$p. Su dung hap giOfa tU hkn ngan hang vdi tU
b^n cong nghiep da tao nen t^ng Idp tU ban tai chinh.
- Cung vdi viec xuat k h l u hang hoa, tang Idp t u ban tai ehinh day manh
xua't khau tU ban. Ho chuyen von dau tU vao san xua't, kinh doanh 6 cac nUdc
thuOc dvA, phu thuge hoac cho vay lai de thu lai nhuan cao.
44

+ Cac cucfng quo'c t u ban Idn dua nhau phan chia da't dai the gidi.
- M5i de quoc con c6 dac diem rieng :

+ M l la sU hinh thanh cac tdrdt khong 16 vdi nhufng tap doan tai chinh
giau s u .

+ Anh la de qu6'c thuc dan vdi h$ thong thuoc dia rong Idn va dong dan.
+ Phap la de' quoc cho vay nang lai.
+ DUc la chu nghia de quoc quan phiet hieu chien.
Cfiu 2 : V\o cac n\idc de quoc tSng cvCdng xam chiem va tranh chap
thuQc dia?
* Huang ddn trd Idi :

• De khai thac nguyen l i ? u ,
thu duac nhieu lai.

sijf

dung nhan cong re mat hoac dem cho vay

- N a m 1990, nude Anh dau tU ra ben ngoai 2 t i livra xteeting ; den nam
1913, len gan 4 ti. N a m 1899, tien lai cua so von xua't kh^u l a 90 tri$u livra


x t ^ c l i n g , den nftm 1912 l e n t d i 176 t r i $ u . T h i trucfng dau tiT chu y§'u cua nifdc
A n h l a cac thupc dia

mot so n d i n h u A n Dp, T r u n g Quoc, Nga, cac nUdc

M i La-tinh...
- Cac thupc dia c6 v a i t r 5 quan t r o n g do'i v d i cac de' quoc, la noi dau tiX vk
tieu t h u hkng

hoa ciia c h i n h quoc, ngu6n cung cap nguyen lieu va n h a n c6ng

re m a t , cung cap b i n h l i n h cho nhufng cuoc chien t r a n h . . .
C a u 3 : T a i s a o t r o n g g i a i d o a n de q u d c c h u n g h i a , m a u t h u l n x a h ^ i
n g a y c a n g g a y g^t ?
* Huang dan trd lai :
Trong giai doan de quoc chii nghia, cac mau thuSn xa hpi : glOra cac midc de
quoc vdi nhau, giijfa de quoc vdd nhan dan thuoc dia, giCfa giai cap tuf san v6i c6ng
nhan vk nhSn dan lao dong trong c^c nude tiT ban... cang t r d nen sau s^c.
- Chu n g h i a d§' qu6'c v d i de quoc luon t r a n h chap thuoc dia.
- G i a i cap t\i san boc l o t g i a i cap cong n h a n .
- Chu n g h i a de quoc vd v6t t h o n g t r i cdc nude thuoc dia.

C&u 2 : T i n h h i n h k i n h te, c h i n h t r i c i i a P h a p v a c nhvCng n a m cuo';
th^' ki' X I X - d a u t h e k i X X d i e n r a nhrf the n a o ?
* Hi^^ng ddn trd lai :
. Tinh hinh kinh ti' :
+ Den cuo'i the k i X I X , san xua't cong nghiep cua Phap t u t xuo'ng hhiw,
thiJ tu, sau DiJc, M l , A n h va k i t h u a t l a c hau ro ret so v d i nen cong nghiep
cua nhieu nirdc t u ban t r ^ khac.
+ Tuy vay, cong nghiep Phap cung c6 nhufng ti^'n bp dang k§. He thong
difdng s^t I a n r p n g ca nirdc, da day n h a n h sU p h a t t r i e n cua cac n g a n h khiu
tad, luyen k i m va t h u o n g nghiep. Viec co k h i hoa san xuat dirge t a n g c u d n j ,
TiT n a m 1852 - 1900, so x i n g h i f p suf dung may moc t a n g len 9 lAn, so dpng
co chay b k n g h a i nUdc t a n g len 12 Ian.
+ N o n g n g h i e p v a n giOr v a i t r o quan t r o n g t r o n g k i n h te Phap v i p h a n
d6ng dan ciX song hhng nghe nong.
+ T r o n g thdi k i nay, d Phap cung hinh thanh n h i l u to chufc dpc
din dan c h i p h o i n e n k i n h te dat niJdc.

+ Do vay, dac d i e m cua chu n g h i a de quoc Phap l a chii n g h i a de quoc cho
vay lai.
-Tinh

Bdi9
C A C NtfCiC D E QUOC
(cuoi the k i X I X - dau the'ki XX)

quyen,

hinh chinh tri. :

+ T h a n g 9 - 1870, nifdc Phap t h a n h lap n6n Cong hda thiif ba. Seng, p h a i
Cpng h5a Phap da sdm chia t h a n h h a i n h d m : On hda va Cap t i e n , t h a y
nhau cam quyen d Phap.
+ T r o n g nhiJng t h a p n i e n cuo'i cua the k i X I X , nufdc Phap rao rid't chay

I. CAU H 6 I C O S A N T R O N G S A C H G I A O

dua vu t r a n g de t r a m o i t h u v d i DuTc, t i e n hanh nhiJng cuoc chife'n t r a n h xaro

K H O A

C a u 1 : V i s a o s a u n a m 1870, A n h m a t d i a v i d p c q u y e n c o n g n g h i ^ p ,

chie'm thupc dia, chu yeu d k h u vuc chau A va chau P h i .
+ Den trirdc C h i e n t r a n h the' g i d i thuf n h a t , thupc dia ciia Phap diigc m d

con cong nghi^p P h a p thi phat trien ch$m ?

rpng chi diJng sau A n h , v d i dien t i c h gan 11 t r i e u k m ^ va 55,5 t r i e u dan.

* Hudng d&n trd Idi :

C S u 3 : N e u m p t so s\i k i ^ n chufng to k i n h te Dilfc p h a t t r i e n m a n h .

- Sau n a m 1870 cong nghiep A n h m a t dan dia v i dpc quyen v i :
+ M a y moc xuKt hi§n sdm hcfn cAc niTdc h a n g may chuc nftm.
+ N h i e u t h i e t b i cu k i ducc t i c h l a i .
+ Sif canh t r a n h quyet l i e t cua cac niTdc tii ban m d i phdt t r i l n ( M i , DiJc).
- Cong n g h i e p Phap p h ^ t t r i e n Cham l a i :
+ TrUdc n a m 1870, Phap l a nirdc cong n g h i ^ j j ^ i e n t i e n dufng thuf h a i t h e
gidi sau A n h . Sau n a m 1871, k i n h te Phap phdt t r i e n c h $ m l a i v i :
+ Phap t h a t bai t r o n g cuoc chien t r a n h Phdp -

Phd do d6 p h a i boi

thirdng chien t r a n h .
+ Ngheo t a i nguyen va n h i e n lieu, dac b i e t l a t h a n da.
+ G i a i ca'p t u san chi chu t r o n g d§'n xuat cang tif b a n , k h o n g chii t r o n g
p h a t tri§'n cong n g h i e p t r o n g nirdc.

N g u y e n n h a n c u a stf p h a t t r i e n .
Huang ddn trd lai :
• Mdt so sU kien :
+ Vao giijfa t h e k i X I X , DiJc con l a mot nifdc n o n g nghiep, da so dan cu'
t r u n g d n o n g t h o n va cac t h a n h t h i nho. Sau k h i thd'ng nha't da't nUdc,
^ ~ 1871, nen k i n h te Dufc phat t r i l n v d i tdc dp mau le, vUcfn l e n d>Jng dau
^hSu A u va thuf h a i t h e gidi.
+ Den cuo'i the' k i X I X , nhieu k h u cong nghiep do so Dufc xuat h i e n . Qua
'-'•inh tap t r u n g san xua't va tap t r u n g tuf ban d Dufc d i § n r a m a n h me. Tii 66
d§'n sU r a d d i ciia cac cong t i dpc quyen I d n d nhufng n g a n h cong n g h i e p
•-hen chot. Cac cong t i dpc quyen Diife dudi h i n h thdc cacten va xanhdica.
+ Cong nghiep p h a t t r i e n , quy tpc dia chii DiJc cd dieu k i p n su" dung may
V a k i t h u a t m d i t r o n g nong nghiep.


- Nguy&n nhdn cua sU phdt trien :
+ Cong cuoc t h o n g nhS't dat nifdc tao nen m 6 t t h i t r u d n g dan tpc vdo h ^ n h c h i n h , quan thue, do ludng wk t i e n te t h o n g n h a t .
+ N h a n diroc k h o a n boi t h u d n g 5 t i p h r f l n g \k h a i vung giau nguyen lieu
cua Phap l a A n - d d t va L o - r e n .
+ L a n h t h d nUdc Dufc chufa n h i e u nguyen lifu k h o d n g san, dac b i e t la
vung Tay N a m .
+ Tif giOa t h e k i X I X , nufdc DiJc da c6 mot so ccf sd k i n h te cong, thUdng
nghiep, nay t i e p t h u va v a n dung k i t h u a t m d i , toe do t a n g t r u d n g r a t n h a n h .
+ C6 nguon n h a n liTc doi dao vk t a y nghe cao.

Cuba, can t h i e p sfiu vac n ^ i bp cac nude Mi L a - t i n h . ThiTc h i $ n c h i n h sdch
" m d cufa" de x a m n h a p vac T r u n g Quoc.
C a u 5 : V i s a o n o i c h u n g h i a de q u o c A n h l a c h u n g h i a de quo'c thtfc
d a n , c o n c h u n g h i a de q u o c P h a p l a c h u n g h i a de q u o c c h o v a y l a i ?
* Hu&ng ddn trd Idi :
- Chu nghia de quoc Anh

:

+ Bi bu d i p sir t h u a t h i e t do ma't dia v i l a "cong xxXdng cua the g i d i " , giai
cap t h o n g t r i A n h day m a n h toe dp x a m lupc de m d r p n g he t h o n g thuoc dia
d chau A v a chau P h i . N a m 1914, thupe dia A n h r p n g t d i 30 t r i e u k m ^ v d i
400 t r i e u ngudi, chiem '4 l a n h t h d va V4 dan so' the' gidi.
+ De quoc A n h t o n t a i va phat t r i e n n h d sir bdc lot t a n n h a n mot he

C a u 4 : T r i n h b a y nhffng n e t n o i b g t t r o n g n e n k i n h te, c h i n h t r i M i

t h o n g thuoc dia bao l a va giau cd n ^ m r a i k h ^ p h a n h t i n h . V i vay, chii n g h i a

c u o i t h e lei X I X - d a u t h e k i X X .

de quo'c A n h diTcfc goi l a "chii n g h i a de quoc thiTc dan".

* Hadng
- Tinh

ddn trd Icfi :

- Chu nghia dS' quoc Phap

hinh kinh te :

Sau cu^c n p i chien (1861 - 1865) chu nghia t u ban p h a t t r i ^ n n h a n h ch6ng
vUcft bac. Yi :
+ Viec giai phong ngurbi no le tao nen nguon lao dpng phong phii \k nSng d6ng
+ Nguon nhap cu tii chau A va chau A u cang lam t a n g t h e m n h a n cong
va t r i t u ^ cho cac n g a n h san xuat.
+ Che dp k i n h te don dien va t r a n g t r a i cung nhurng dong c6 m e n h m6ng
lam cho nirdc M l t r d thanh viia liia, nguon cung cap t h i t va ngu6n cung ca'p
nguyen l i f u r a t giau c6 va da dang.
+ M l giau nguyen l i e u , n h i e n l i e u , nhS't la mo v a n g , mo t h a n , dau cung
nhieu k h o a n g skn khac.
t r d ngai ve quyen luc c h i n h t r i cua gidi quy tpc.
+ Cong nghiep M i xay ditog mupn, c6 the ap dung k i t h u a t t i e n t i e n nen
n a n g sua't cao.
1865 den 1894, M i t i f thuf tiT n h a y l e n dufng ddu the'

gidi ve san xuat cong nghi$p.
Qua t r i n h canh t r a n h va k h u n g hoang k i n h te da thiic d^y m a n h me si/
tap t r u n g san xuat va tU ban d M i . Su r a ddi cac cong ti dpc quyen dien ra
n h a n h chdng, h i n h thiJc chu yeu la t d r d t v d i nhufng ong "vua dau lOfa", "vua 6t 6 " , "vua thep"... c h i p h o i m p i hoat dpng k i n h t e , c i ^ n h t r i nUdc M i .
- Tinh

hinh chinh

+ Cong nghiep Phap p h a t t r i e n cham. N h i m g nhGng cong t i dpc quyen
cung dan chi p h o i nen k i n h te cua Phap. Dac d i e m cua to chufc dpc quyen d
Phap l a viec t a p t r u n g ngan hang dat miJc cao.
+ Phap l a nirdc dufng thuf h a i ve xua't cang t u ban ( s a u A n h ) , n h u n g h i n h
thUe khac A n h d ch6 tU ban dem cho cac nude cham t i e n vay l a y l a i . V i vay,
chu nghia de quo'c Pha'p dUPc goi la "chu n g h i a de quo'c cho vay l a i " .
C a u 6 : V i s a o gidfi c a m q u y e n Dtfc r a o r i e t c h u a n b i c h i e n t r a n h t h e
gidri ?
* Hudng ddn trd lai :
- DUc budc vao con dudng t U ban chu n g h i a tUPng do'i cham, nen k h i t r d
t h a n h cUdng quo'c cong nghiep t h i p h a n Idn dat dai t r e n the g i d i da la thupe
dia hoac nijfa thupe dia cua A n h , Phap va cae nUde tU ban khac. Ngay tU thap

+ K h o n g b i r a n g buoc bdi t a n dii che do phong k i e n lac hau, k h o n g gap

N h d do, chi tii n&m

:

tri :

+ D i l n g dau C h i n h phii M i l a Tong thong. H a i dAng tU san : Cpng hoa
Dan chu t h a y n h a u len cam q u y l n .
+ M i cham t r e t r o n g vi$c xkm chiem t h i trUdng th§' g i d i .
+ NhQng nam 80 thg' k i X I X t r d d i , M i lap tufc vUcfn r a ngoai l a n h tb^
cua m i n h . N S m 1898, M i gay chien v d i Tay B a n N h a de ciTdp Phi-lip-pii'

ni§n t h e k i X I X , DUc cong k h a i ddi chia l a i t h i trUdng va thupe dia t h e gidi.
Rao r i e t chay dua vu t r a n g chuan b i gay chien, d i n den mau t h u l n giUa DUc
vdi A n h va Phap cang sau s^c. TU do, d chau A u h i n h t h a n h h a i t a p doan
chong doi nhau : M o t ben l a DUc, Ao - H u n g va Tho N h i K i ; m o t ben l a A n h ,
Phap, Nga. Ca h a i t a p doan nay deu 6m mpng x a m luac va dien cuong chay
dua vu t r a n g .
- Dac d i e m chu de quoc DiJc : l a chu nghia qu&n Phiet

hieu

chiS'n.

Cfiu 7 : N g u y e n n h a n n a o k h i e n k i n h te M i p h a t t r i e n vv^tft b ^ c ?
* Huang ddn trd lai :
Cudi the' k i X I X , t r o n g s d cac nUdc cong nghiep t i e n t i e n . M i l a nUde cd
n i n k i n h te p h a t t r i e n h a n ca. M i da nhay l e n v i t r i t h U nha't ve s a n xua't
cong nghiep. NhUng nguyen n h a n chu yeu tao nen sU p h a t tri^n

dd l a :

- N h d dieu k i e n t h i e n n h i e n t h u a n l a i : che dp k i n h te don dien va t r a n g
t r a i cung nhUng dong cd m e n h mdng l a m cho nUde M i t r d t h a n h vUa liia,
iigu6n cung ca'p t h i t va nguyen lieu ra't giau cd va da dang.
49


- Nu- C 6 nguon lao dgng doi dko, tay nghe cao luon dupe bo sung bdi luong
ngu^i nhap cU, tiep t h u dupc nhieu t h & n h tuu khoa hoc - k l t h u a t m d i .
- Su tap t r u n g san xuat

t u ban ciia M i .

- Cong nghiep M i r a d&i vk phkt t r i e n mupn nen ap dung dupc nhufng phat
m i n h khoa hpc - k i t h u a t t i e n t i e n ciia the gidi.

Cau 8 : Am mifti va hoat dpng banh trtfotag cua Mi d i i n r a nhxi the nao ?
* Hudng

ddn trd Idi :

- So vdi cac nudc de qudc khdc, M i cham t r i t r o n g viec x a m chiem t h i
t r u d n g the gidi v i m a i lo c h i n h phuc dat dai r p n g I d n cf m i e n T r u n g va mien
Tay ntrdc M i . Den nhufng n a m 80 the k i X I X , k h i bien g i d i M i da cham bd
T h d i B i n h Dudng, lap tufc gidi cam quyen M i thitc h i e n a m miOi b a n h t r u d n g
ra ngoM l a n h tho nUdc M i .
- Nirdc M i d i n h h i n h chien liTpc banh trUdng theo h a i hudng: Xuong p h i a
N a m l a m chu T r u n g N a m M i va sang phia Tay chiem l i n h m ot so hon dao
t r e n T h a i B i n h Duong de l a m ban dap sang chau A. M i thuc h i p n c h i n h sach
"cai gay" v^ "ngoai giao dong do l a " t r o n g qua t r i n h b a n h t r i f d n g . K l i i xam
chiem thuoc dia, M i k h o n g t h i e t lap che dp thuoc dia theo nguyen mku ciia
A n h , Phap ma lap cac nudc cong hoa c6 be ngoai d6c lap, n h u n g thifc cha't l a
thuoc dia cua M i .
- Nam 1898, M i gay chien vdi Tay Ban N h a de xSm chiem P h i - l i p - p i n va

- T r o n g t h d i ki nay, n h i l u cong ti d6c quyen xufit h i g n d h^u hgt cac
oganh cong nghipp : k h a i thdc t h a n , det, thuoc l a , hda cha't, luypn k i m , vSn
t ^ i va dac biet t r o n g l l n h vUc i i g i n hang.
. Nen ndng nghiSp A n h cung lam vao t i n h t r a n g khung hoang t r a m trong.
vao cuoi the k i X I X , gia liia m i nhap tir chau Au va M i r a t re trong k h i gia luctog
thirc s a n xua't t r o n g nudc l a i rait cao do che dp thue khoa. V i the, giai cgip t u san
js^h lao vao bu6n ban luotng thuc hon la dau t u vao san xua't ndng nghipp.
2 : Hay n e u nhffng net Idrn ve tinh hinh chinh tri nvidc A n h cuoi

the ki X I X - dau the k i XX.
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :

- V I h i n h thurc, nudc A n h la mot vUPng quoc nhuTng thiTc chat theo che dp
dai n g h i gom: T h u p n g v i e n va H a v i p n . H a i dkng {Ddng Tu do vd Ddng Bdo
thu) t h a y nhau cam quyen.
- Day cung la t h d i ki giai cap t u sdn A n h t a n g cudng, m d r p n g h§ t h d n g
thupc dia, dac biet d chau A va chau Phi.
- Nha'n m a n h t a m quan t r o n g cua viec bde lot thupe dia cua de quoc rdng
Idn m a " M a t t r d i k h o n g bao gid l a n " , L e - n i n da n h a n d i n h : chu nghia de
qu6'e A n h l a ehu n g h i a de quoc thuc dan.

Cau 3 : Net noi b^t cua tinh hinh kinh te Du-c cuoi th6' k i X I X - dau
thekiXX.

Cu B a . B&ng dong dola va siJc m a n h quan sU, M i can t h i e p vao n p i bp cac

* Hudng d&n trd Idi :

nUdc d M i L a - t i n h . 6 T r u n g Quoc, M i de r a c h i n h sach " m d cufa" de x a m nhap
vao dat nirdc r p n g I d n va giau c6 nay.

- T r o n g nhufng n a m 1890 - 1900, san lupng cong nghiep DiJc t a n g 163%
(Anh - 49%, Phap - 65%). Do san xuat phat t r i e n , viec xua't k h a u cac san
ph^m cong nghiep cua Dure t a n g r d ret.

B . C A U H O I VA B A I T A P B O SUNG
C a u 1 : T r i n h bay tinh hinh kinh te Anh vao cuoi the k i X I X - dau

- Den n a m 1900, DUc vupt A n h ve san xuat th6p. Ve tong^sdn luong edng
nghiep, D-dfc dan dau chau A u va diing thuf h a i the g i d i (sau M i ) .

the k i XX.
* Hudng ddn trd Idi :
- Ttr cuoi t h a p ni§n 70, A n h ma't d^n dia vi doc quyen cong nghiep, do wky,
m a t luon ca v a i t r o l u n g doan t h i trUdng the gidi. M i va Dure la nhOmg nudc tif
ban phat t r i e n sau n h i m g l a i vUpt A n h . T i n h r i e n g ve san lupng th6p :
^

^

^

Nirdc

^
^

^

^

^

(fl/c: tri^u

Ti 16 gia tSng

1900

1800

N3m

ta'n)

(d/v : t r i ^ u ta'n)

A

;

{%)
377

Anh

1,3

4,9

MT

1,2

10,2

850

OCfc

0,7

6,4

910

- Tuy v a i t r o ba chu the gidi ve cong nghiep b i g i a m sut, A n h van chiem
OU the ve t a i c h i n h , xuat k h a u t i f ban, thuong m a i , h a i quan va thupc dia.
50

- D i l m n o i bat cua qud t r i n h phat t r i e n cong nghiep Ddc bay gid la sU tap
trung san xuat va h i n h thanh cAc t 6 ehufe dpc quyen d i i n r a sdm h d n n h i i u
nudc khac d chau A u . H i n h thufc dpc quyen pho bien d Ddc la cacten vk
^anhdica.
' N o n g nghipp cua Dure cung cd nhufng t i e n bp n h u i i g eham chap han do
J'l^c tie'n h a n h caeh m a n g t U san k h o n g t r i p t de. P h a n Idn rupng da't t^p
^^^g t r o n g tay quy toe va dia chu.

Cau 4 : T r i n h bay nhtfng net I6n
**ay.
^^ong

tinh hinh chinh tri d DiJc thdi ki

ddn trd Idi :

3 "
Ph^P IS"^!
^ hanh pho' tu do, theo che dp quan chu lap h i e n . T r o n g N h a nudc L i e n
dft- ^'
^ ^ ^ i
dau, cd quyen h a n to'i eao (Tong chi huy quan
" h i ^ m va each chdc T h u tudng, t r i e u tap va g i a i tkn Qudc hpi...).
l^p phap t r o n g tay h a i v i e n : H p i dong L i g n bang (Thupng vipn) gom
51


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