MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING MINISTRY OF CULTURE, SPORTS & TOURISM
VIETNAM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CULTURE AND ARTS STUDIES
Tran Duc Nguyen
MANAGEMENT OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RELICS
IN BAC NINH PROVINCE IN THE PROCESS OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION
Major: Cultural Management
Code: 62 31 06 42
SUMMARY OF DOCTORAL DISSERTATION IN CULTURAL STUDIES
Ha Noi - 2015
The study has been completed at:
VIETNAM NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CULTURE AND ARTS STUDIES
External Examiner 1:
Associate Professor. Dr. Dang Van Bai
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bui Hoai Son
Vietnam National Institute of Culture and Arts Studies
External Examiner 2: Dr. Tran Dinh Luyen
Bac Ninh Department of Culture, Sports and
External Examiner 3: Dr. Nguyen Van Tinh
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism
The dissertation will be defended before the Institute - level Examining Committe,
Vietnam National Institute of Culture and Arts Studies
32 Hao Nam, O Cho Dua, Dong Da, Ha Noi
The dessertation could be looked up at:
- Vietnam National Library
- Library of Vietnam National Institute of Culture and Arts Studies
1. Rationale of the study
Bac Ninh Province is located in the Red River Delta with favorable
natural, fertile soil and convenient river systems for trading with other
localities in the region. Bac Ninh is steeped in local cultural and historical
tradition. These elements of nature and social history as above has
contributed to Bac Ninh’s treasure of diversified cultural heritage, unique,
rich value that has been transmitted to the present day. One of the elements
of such precious cultural heritage is is a system of historical - cultural
monuments which is diverse both in forms and types. According to
statistics, there remain approximately 2,000 historical - cultural relics
distributed throughout the districts, towns and cities in Bac Ninh Province.
Over the years, especially since the Cultural Heritage Law had
been enacted (2001), the management of cultural and historical relics in
Bac Ninh Province has been much positively changed. The key relics of
the Province has been managed, invested for restoration and renovation
so as to effectively to meet the needs of cultural enjoyment of the
community inside and outside the Province. However, there remain
limitations to such management, caused by defects in anti-degradation,
in the treatment of encroached land, in relic’s protection zoning, and in
the propagation, dissemination and implementation of guidelines and
policies of the Party and laws of the State on monument preservation.
Currently, Bac Ninh has the rapid socio-economic growth and the
strong process of industrialization and urbanization. This has positive
impacts on conservation and promotion of heritage value as increased
funding for restoration and renovation of relics, avoidance of
degradation and destruction of relics. However, it also has negative
effects such as state heritage overwhelmed, damaged, deformed or
damaged ... This is the problem faced by management agencies, standing
in front of a pressure force for the protection, exploitation and promotion
of traditional cultural values in a sustainable manner, while ensuring the
service of socio-economic development, raising spirit and material living
standards for residential community.
2. Aims of the study
- Researching the situation of historical - cultural management with
successes and limitations and determining the cause of such limitations.
- Studying the impact of industrialization and urbanization to the
ruins and relics management activities in Bac Ninh.
- Proposing some solutions to achieve higher efficiency in the
management, conservation and promotion of the values of the historicalcultural relics in Bac Ninh Province in the current period.
3. Object and scope of the study
3.1. Object of the study
The dissertation studies all issues relating to the management of
historical-cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province in recent years, which
focuses on the study of the policies of the Party, State and Local
authorities on conservation of monuments and policies for community,
participation in conservation of monuments, organizational structure and
operations management in the field of historical-cultural relics, the role
of the community in the management; the impact on the process of
industrialization and urbanization to historical-cultural management.
3.2. Scope of the study
- Scope of space: the historical and cultural monuments in Bac
- Scope of time: from the Cultural Heritage Law was enacted in
2001 to the present.
4. Method of the study
- Method of interdisciplinary research: Culture studies, Cultural
management, History, Preservation of historical cultural relics...
- Method of survey and field;
- Methods of cultural - sociological research: Qualitative and
quantitative methods research
- Methods of synthesis, analysis, statistics, classification and comparison
5. Scientific and practical significance of the study
The Dissertation contributes to systematize theories on cultural
heritage, cultural heritage management; perspectives, theoretical basis
for relic management. It provides information and data on the system of
cultural and historical monuments in Bac Ninh Province; Clarifies the
management, the impact of the development of industrialization and
urbanization for relics; then proposes the solutions for improving the
effectiveness of the management of historical cultural relics, creating
industrialization and urbanization.
6. Design of the study
Besides the Introduction, Conclusion, References and Appendices,
the dissertation is structured into 3 chapters:
Chapter 1: Theoretical fundamentals of heritage management, the
overview of historical and cultural relic system in Bac Ninh Province
Chapter 2: Current situation of the management of historical and
cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province
Chapter 3: Orientation and solution for improving the effective
management of historical and cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province in the
process of industrialization and urbanization
THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF HERITAGE
MANAGEMENT, OVERVIEW OF HISTORICAL AND
CULTURAL RELIC SYSTEM IN BAC NINH PROVINCE
1.1. Overview of the Study
1.1.1. The study on the management of tangible cultural heritage
1.1.2 The study of historical and cultural relics in Bac Ninh
1.1.3. The study on the management of historical and cultural
relics in Bac Ninh Province
Up to now, the studies on the relic management of heritage has not
yet focused deeply on issues such as managerial object and tools,
management of natural landscape environment and architectural space,
strategic issues of conservation and promotion of heritage value, the
systematical planning, master planning and conservation projects have
not been discussed and deeply studied. For Bac Ninh in particular, in
addition to the limitations above, there is no specific and systematical
study on managerial issues of historical and cultural relics, especially in
the condition of socio-economic development, the process of
industrialization and urbanization with positive and negative impacts to
the ruins. This has been a big challenge for local managers. Therefore,
the issues which have not yet been accessible shall be a certain gap that
will be mentioned and researched in this Study.
1.2. Theoretical fundamental of the Study
1.2.1. Theoretical fundamental
There are many different views on conservation of cultural
heritage with three outstanding viewpoints: the viewpoint of
preservation of original values, conservation on the basis of inheritance
and the viewpoint of conservation and development. In the study, the
objects of the management and conservation are the historical and
cultural relics in specific locality with the characteristics of type and
building materials. The conservation should respect the original,
accuracy, integrity and sustainability of the relics of the allowable
conditions. The relic preservation should be followed to the goal and
associated to socio-economic development, specially linked to the
community, respected and uphold the role of the community as the
cultural creators, heritage owners, beneficiaries of such heritage value,
but also played an active role in protecting and promoting the values of
cultural heritage. The monuments should be exploited and promoted the
value for propaganda and education on tradition, cultural identity,
promotion of the local image, practically contributing to the socioeconomic development, especially bringing material and spiritual
benefits to communities surrounding monument and heritage. This is the
theoretical viewpoint applied in the Dissertation.
1.2.2. Some basic concepts
* Cultural heritage
* Historical and cultural relics
* Management and management of historic and cultural relics
* Cultural Management
* Sustainable development
* Industrialization and urbanization
1.2.3. Legal fundamentals for the management of historical
The most legal fundamental for management of historical cultural relics is Cultural Heritage Law in 2001 and Law amending and
modifying some articles of Cultural Heritage Law in 2001.
1.3. Overview of the system of historical cultural relics in Bac
1.3.1. Some features of Bac Ninh Province
184.108.40.206. Geographical location and natural features
220.127.116.11. Economic - social features
18.104.22.168. Historical and cultural characteristics
1.3.2. Overview of the system of historical cultural relics in Bac
22.214.171.124. Quantity and type of relics
- Quantity of relics: Currently, there are a total of 1.545 monuments
of all kinds, including 498 rated monuments (194 nationally rated
monuments and 304 provincially rated monuments in overall Province).
Distribution: the relics were distributed in the Province; the
average density of 18 monuments/1km2.
- The type of relic in Bac Ninh Province: the relics can be divided
into three types of relics: 1/ Type of archeology; 2/ Type of historical
monuments; 3/ Type of architectural monuments.
126.96.36.199. The situation and technical status of the relics
The historical-cultural relics are divided into the following
categories: 1/Relics are ruins, accounting for approximately 3% of total
relics; 2/Relics are in the condition of serious degradation, accounting
for approximately 20% of total relics; 3/Relics are expressly degraded,
accounting for approximately 65% of total relics; 4/Relics are in good
condition, accounting for approximately 12%.
188.8.131.52. Ownership form of relics
There are two ownership forms: 1/Relics are under collective
ownership; 2/Relics are under private ownership.
184.108.40.206. Historical cultural relics with festival
There are about 547 festivals in Bac Ninh Province, the majority
of which are organized at relics which have been accredited and certified
as historical and cultural relics by the State.
The researches on relics and management of historical-cultural
relics in Bac Ninh in particularly have provided a relatively
comprehensive look on issues that have been paid attention by the
Dissertation. However, there is no study accessing in terms of full,
systematical and comprehensive management of historical cultural relics
in Bac Ninh and studying management situation of historical cultural
relics in the process of industrialization and urbanization. The
dissertation applies the theoretical framework of cultural heritage
acknowledgement as monuments as the managerial object that should
have the appropriate measures for conservation and preservation and
promotion of their values for socio-economic development of the
Province, to meet the enjoyment needs of the community.
With the relic system is composed of three types of historical
relics, architecture - arts and archeology - with different characteristics,
the appropriate management methods for promoting effectively the value
of such monuments that contribute to the overall development of the
locality should be necessarily applied.
CURRENT SITUATION OF THE MANAGEMENT OF
HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RELICS IN BAC NINH PROVINCE
2.1. The organizational structure of the monument management
2.1.1. People's Committees at all levels
As a rule, the Province People’s Committee bears the highest
responsibility for the state management of cultural heritage in local as
assigned by the Government. People's Committees of districts, towns,
wards and communes bears responsibility for managing, building and
implementing conservation and promotion of the value of monuments,
relics, antiques and national treasures in their localities.
2.1.2. Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism
Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism is a professionally
specialized agency, advising and assisting the Province People’s
Committee in performing “the state management in the Province of
cultural heritage”. The responsibilities of the Department of Culture in
the management of historical-cultural relics are clearly specified in The
Regulations on the management of monuments, relics, antiques and
national treasures in Bac Ninh Province. The Relic Management
Committee of Bac Ninh Province is the agency principally responsible
for the management of relics.
In communes, wards and towns where there are ranked relics,
Heritage Management Unit is established for the purpose of directly
managing, protecting and promoting the values of such relics.
*In coordination mechanisms of management agencies at all
levels: Heritage management is under administrative level, vertically
from the Province to the district/town, commune/ward and
* On the management model
- Management model of self-governing community: Local
management unit consist of representatives of communes and villages,
mainly in charge of supervisory role, and the heritage management is
mainly for the community with participants of the Elderly Association,
the Woman Association and the Youth Union of wards and villages.
- Management model fully undertaken by the State: Historic relics
of revolution and famous persons shall be fully managed by the State.
All activities such as repair, restoration, display... are planned and
deployed by the State.
- Model operated by private: applied for relics such as ancient folk
houses, family worship, temples and shrines...
2.2. Managerial human resources of historical cultural relics
- The staff of the Province management unit: Staff specialized in
museology basically assume and well perform managerial works such as
survey, fieldwork, research, collection, inventory, heritage
documentation, consultancy and verification of projects of heritage
restoration and renovation...
- The staff of the local management unit: management unit of
entire ranked relics by the State are established. The qualification and
capacity of these staff is inconsistent and uneven, should be trained for
knowledge of protection and promotion of cultural heritage.
- Staff at the district cultural office in charge of heritage
management has graduate and postgraduate education accounting for
100%. However, their training field is not consistent with the
requirements of the management of cultural heritage.
2.3. Management activities of historical - cultural relics in Bac
2.3.1. Building the planning, the plan and heritage conservation
220.127.116.11. Building the heritage conservation plan
Many relics of Bac Ninh Province have been included in the
overall plan and some key monuments restored and renovated...
Viewpoint that renovations and restoration for some key relics is
associated with tourism development. The goal of the planning is to
ensure maximum preservation of the original elements of the monument,
and promotion of the heritage value for socio-economic and cultural
development, satisfying the needs of cultural enjoyment of the people.
18.104.22.168. Building relic conservation plan
The restoration and renovation for preservation of the historical
and cultural relics has been now done with the annual short-term specific
plan plans and long/medium-term plans. The plans such as Management,
preservation and promotion of revolutionary historic relics in Bac Ninh
Province in the period of 2007-2010 in 2007 and Restoration plan for
historic cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province in the period of 2010-2015,
in 2010 were approved.
2.3.2. Issuing legal documents on historical and cultural relics
On the basis of characteristics and local situation, Bac Ninh
Province has issued a number of documents concerning the management
of cultural heritage in general, historical and cultural monuments in
particular. In 2008, the Regulation on management and use of historical
– cultural relics in Bac Ninh was promulgated, and in 2014 the
Regulation on management of monuments, relics, antiques and national
treasures in Bac Ninh Province was issued.
2.3.3. Propaganda, popularization and legal education of relics
The Province management unit guides the propagation on the legal
documents on cultural heritage for cultural staff and its members at each
locality. Conference to announce the list of anti-degraded monuments by
State with the capital originated from the national target programs,
guidelines, documentation procedures of religious monuments. The
propagation of cultural heritage protection and preservation at each locality
has been carried out mainly through the radio system or some other forms.
2.3.3. Organization of professional operations for preservation
and promotion of the values of historical-cultural relics
22.214.171.124. Heritage conservation
Listing and preparing heritage scientific document is conducted
annually, in districts, towns and communes, towns, villages, and each
Studying and preparing rank document for the monument: so far,
Bac Ninh has 498 ranked monuments, which 194 nationally ranked
monuments, 304 provincially ranked monuments; Dau pagoda and Thap
pagoda were recognized as a special national monument.
Heritage restoration and renovation: Heritage restoration and
renovation projects ensure ensure the principle, science and compliance
with prescribed procedures. Many relics have been funded for
renovations, anti-degradation typically such as Phu Luu building; Do
temple and Dau pagoda...
126.96.36.199. Antique management at relics: Bac Ninh Province
management unit counted and listed artifacts, antiques and relics at some
locations. Special valuable antiques have been researched and
documented scientifically and submitted to the Government to be
recognized as national treasures.
Currently, major relics, artifacts and antiques are assigned to elder
association or pagoda chairman for management. Artifacts and antiques
have not yet listed and verified statistics their dating. Protection
measures are mainly such as maintaining, cleaning the artifacts and
antiques. In general, the management has not been yet paid attention.
Many antiques and artifacts were stolen in many relics.
188.8.131.52. Promotion of heritage values
The promotion of heritage value is done in many different forms
such as: visiting the relics; organizing activities and events to promote the
value of the monument; exploiting value of relics for the development of
tourism, of which potentialities such mental culture and tourism, heritage
culture have been focused; associated relics with the teaching and learning
activities of the schools, the study competition on local history and
tradition ... Firstly, introducing and promoting relics in the mass media.
2.3.5. Organizing and management of scientific research
activities on the monument
Scientific research activities are carried out in some forms such as:
seminars on cultural and historical sites; research, writing, publication of
the value of the monument; survey, research, assessment of the value of
the monument ...
2.3.6. Mobilization, management and use of resources for
preservation, promotion of the value of historical and cultural
The renovations, heritage restoration is done primarily by two
In the first source - through the support of the state, for this
funding, management must comply with the principles of finance.
Investment for heritage renovation must go through the process of
verification and approval of status documents of the monument to the
budget allocation decisions. The budget must be properly used for
In the second source - mobilizing resources from the community Donations of money and human resources of the community to
participate in the preservation and promotion of heritage value. The role
of community in participation in conservation and promotion of heritage
values are clearly expressed, most notably the case of recovery, restore
the ruins of Ly Kings in Dinh Bang.
However, funds have just been focused on the monuments associated
with religion - beliefs as temples, pagodas, temples and shrines.... the ruins
of the type of archaeology, history, memory and famous characters ... has
been less attracted from public attention. The management of the funds
raised from the community as to put the donation boxes and the revenues
and expenditures in the ruins has been a problem. Beside effective
management of such funds such as Do temple, Tieu Son (Tu Son)
pagoda...., there is an untransparent management at some ruins...
2.3.7. Coordination and cooperation on the protection and
promotion of the value of historical cultural relics
Coordination and cooperation is carried out in two major forms
including: coordination with other domestic agencies and organizations
and with international organizations to implement conservation
programs, promotion of heritage value or calling, rising the funding for
2.3.8. Inspection and examination of the legal observance and
settlement of complaints and denunciations about the historical and
Heritage management agencies must arrange the inspection plan of
the issues related to the observance of the law on the protection and
promotion of the values of historical, cultural relics, such as renovation and
protection of relics and antiques in ruins, occupied land, superstition in
festivals...; Checking and receiving information from the people on the
violations related to the management of the monument to timely measures
or recommendations of the competent authorities to resolve and handled
according to law. Coordinating with relevant agencies to organize periodic
inspection and handling of complaints of violations of the monument.
2.4. Assessment of the advantages and limitations of the
management of historical and cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province
* About advantages
- About organization management structure: decentralized
management to the commune level. Developing a coordination
mechanism between units in the management of cultural and historical
- The role of state management is reflected in the following
+ Many legal documents are issued for direction and orientation
for conservation and preservation of cultural heritages.
+ Propaganda classes on laws and bylaws on cultural heritage,
professional training for staff working in management at all levels are
+ The research, documentation, relic ranking is an important and
+ State’s funds for the restoration, repair and renovation of the
monuments are used for the right and efficient purposes. Mobilizing
public resources for restoration and renovation of the monuments.
+ Studying and collecting intangible cultural values such as
festivals, legends, gods related to relics to make the raised value of the
monument in accordance with the needs of the community.
+ Advising and helping for localities to organize festival at the
monument in accordance with tradition, civilization, history and security
+ Inspecting, testing and handling violation of the monuments,
resolving complaints and disputes of relics and artifacts at the local
level. Giving the reward forms of the individual, collective achievements
in the protection and promotion of cultural heritage value.
- The role of the community: the local heritage management unit with
the participation of the community representatives. Monuments are created
by the community, existed with the community; the community’s
management is an appropriate method and effective management.
Communities contribute funds for the renovation, restoration of
monuments, restoration of festivals or ceremonies held at the monument.
Expressing the supervisory role of the protection, preservation of
cultural heritage. Distort behaviors and violation are detected and
notified to local governments.
* About limitations
Objectively: degradation and damage of the monuments are resulted
from climatic conditions, harsh nature and consequences of the war.
- Management role of managerial agencies reveals many
+ Propaganda and guidance on Cultural Heritage Law has no
specific and regular plans, mostly focuses on management unit without
paying attention on the community.
+ It is late in listing monuments, benchmarking, documenting,
archaeological planning, master planning...
+ The degradation of many relics still exists in many places. The
poor management of restoration projects funded by socialization sources.
+ Many infringement cases on land disputes of relics and artifacts
in ruins... are promptly untreated or irrationally treated.
+ There is no inventory plan, setting records for antiques for the
monument. The phenomenon of stolen relics, artifacts also occur in
ruins, the investigation.
+ The phenomenon of superstition, mediums, arbitrary burning of paper
votive, the social evils persist in many monuments, many annual festivals.
+ There is ineffective and lack of oriented exploitation and
promotion of the value of the monument. Tourism products are mainly
based on available values.
- Limited public awareness of the community in the management and
protection of monuments, self-decision of restoration and renovation of
relics without permission of professional bodies, even breaking the old
relics to build new monuments, cause deviation of the original nature of the
monument. In some cases, community agitation should have expressed a
lack of confidence in the specialized agencies, agency management.
The influence of the abbot is greater than management unit, even
conflict with the community, with local authorities.
* Reason for limitations
- Propagation and dissemination of guidelines and policies of the
Party and State on cultural heritage has not been appropriately paid
attention. Some local leaders are not fully aware of the importance of
heritage and scientific requirements in the renovation of the monument
led to the arbitrary behavior of ruins.
- Incomplete and asynchronous collaboration between the Province
management units. Inspection, detection and treatment are delayed.
- Lack of expertise and professional knowledge of management staff.
- The inter-sectoral coordination among agencies in the
management, conservation and promotion of the value of historical
cultural heritage is not close and effective.
- Lack of orientation, policies, specific sanctions to encourage, call
the contributions of organizations and individuals to engage in
protecting and promoting the value of cultural and historical monuments.
- The loose management of monuments and antiques loose, in a
Decentralization of historical cultural heritage in Bac Ninh so far
to commune/ward level expresses the consistency, focus and facilitation
for implementation of the plans, tasks of management, preservation and
promotion of heritage value. The management model to be applied in
practice will vary depending on the characteristics of each type of
monument. However, the state still plays a major role in regulating and
orienting the other components involved in management.
Heritage management activities are conducted under the provisions
of the Law on Cultural Heritage. The dissertation approaches the
management activities on specific aspects such as the promulgation and
implementation of documents related to historical and cultural
monuments in fact, building the planning and conservation plans of
heritage system, promotion of relics in the present conditions ... The
important role of the community for the protection of monuments is
expressed through mobilizing resources for the restoration and
renovation of the local heritage. In fact, the heritage management has
positive effects to meet the needs of the community and cultural life.
However, due to several different factors, the heritage preservation and
conservation reveals limitations that need specific solutions to contribute
to preservation and promotion of valuable cultural heritages.
ORIENTATION AND SOLUTION FOR IMPROVING THE
EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF HISTORICAL AND
CULTURAL RELICS IN BAC NINH PROVINCE IN THE
PROCESS OF INDUSTRIALIZATION AND URBANIZATION
3.1. The impact of industrialization and urbanization for the
management of historical cultural relics in Bac Ninh Province at the present
3.1.1. The situation of industrialization, urbanization in Bac Ninh
In recent years, the socio-economy of Bac Ninh Province has
flourished and risen to the top of the Provinces in the northern key economic
region. Previously, mainly agricultural production, Bac Ninh has shifted to
development of industry - urban - services; positive changes in economic
structure. Such developments are the result of the process of industrialization
development. Currently, Bac Ninh has 15 industrial zones with a total area
of 6,847 hectares. Along with industrial parks, industrial clusters of trade
villages formed and developed in all districts of the Province has been a key
factor for industrialization. Many traditional villages have been restored,
maintained and developed new occupations. At the present, there are 62
handicraft villages with over 200 different industries.
Along with the industrialization process in Bac Ninh, there is a strong
urbanization. The urbanization process is mostly concentrated in Bac Ninh
city and Tu Son town. Average urbanization speed in the period 2006 - 2010
reached 15% / year. The strong urbanization process in densely populated
areas, industrial zones, the areas along the highway 1A, 18, and 38 is the
premise of urban expansion and the formation of centralized housing areas
for the labor needs in the area, especially industrial workers.
3.1.2. The impact of industrialization and urbanization for
managing the historic cultural relics
* Positive impacts
- Local investment budget for the restoration, repair is guaranteed.
- Material lives of people increases significantly, with the
conditions for support, support for conservation and promotion of the
value of local monuments.
- Changes in public benefits, so there are different behaviors for relics:
sticking to the monument, interest and protection of local heritage.
* Negative impacts
- Breaking landscapes, sacred space of the monument; land
- Occurring social evils, the phenomenon of stealing artifacts and
antiques at the monument in many places.
- Construction of infrastructure directly affects the monument:
narrowed monument, flooding...
- Polluted ambient and water affects the landscape, the space of the
- Socio-economic development, market economy also lead to the
commercialization, market festivals of the relics.
3.2. Some viewpoints and fundamentals for solutions on
improving management efficiency of historic cultural relics
3.2.1. In term of management
184.108.40.206. In term of unified management roles of monuments
220.127.116.11. In term of conservation and promotion of relic values to
ensure the authenticity and the original nature of the monument
18.104.22.168. In term of conservation and promotion of the value of
tangible cultural heritage associated with intangible cultural heritage
22.214.171.124. In term of conservation and promotion of the value of
heritage associated with the community and for the community
126.96.36.199. In term of conservation and promotion of the value of
heritage associated with the socio-economic development of the locality
3.2.2. Fundamentals for solution
- Pursuant to on Cultural Development Strategy to 2020 has been
approved by the Prime Minister by Decision No. 581/QD-TTg dated
- Pursuant to the policies and guidance of Bac Ninh on conservation
and promotion of cultural heritage value ... those are expressed through
some plan of socio-economic and cultural development of the Province.
3.3. Some solutions
3.3.1. Strengthening the management apparatus
- For the Province heritage management unit:
function and mission of protection and promotion of cultural heritage
values in the Province. The Province heritage management unit should
be improved to the Cultural Heritage Conservation Center.
- For the local heritage management unit: enhancing the role of
stakeholders, including attention to the self-management role of
community. Setting up a hot line with phone numbers of the leader or
irregularities in the relics. Developing a coordination plan in heritage
protection between management unit and president of pagoda or temples
and local communities.
3.3.2. Strengthening the propaganda and education
awareness about the historical - cultural relic for the community
conservation, promoting the values of monuments mainly focus for staff
management, and people do not pay attention. Therefore, the need to
strengthen education and communication on the monument to the
people, because the support and the role of the community is one of the
important factors, the community to create the monument and also they
used, now the community must be the manager, protected monuments.
3.3.3. Planning maintenance, repair, restoration of relics
It is necessary to have a systematic planning for the entire ranked
monument. The systematic planning is the legal and scientific basis to
development of present sectors of Bac Ninh.
3.3.4. Mechanisms and policies
- Increasing investment for the protection and promotion of the
value of historical cultural relics.
- Developing mechanisms and policies to encourage and monitor
the investment resources from the community for preservation and
promotion of the monument value.
- There are subsidies to directly oversee and manage the
monument; honoring those who have preferential protection, teaching
and promoting the values of the monument.
3.3.5. Improving the quality of human resource for relic
Fostering the professional knowledge for management staff at all
levels. Additional staffing is the architect or civil engineer. Planning to
organize training courses for each specific geographical area, equipping
with the knowledge to those who are directly preservation and protection
of monuments; appointing staff to learn and visit managerial experiences
in the countries in the region.
3.3.6. Strengthening the inspection and examination at the relics
Strengthening the inspection and examination to detect and handle
violations of the monument, settle complaints and denunciations and
handle violations of the law on monuments; Praising timely
organizations and individuals to strictly abide by the law, timely
handling of cases of violation of Cultural Heritage Law.
3.3.7. Effectively exploitation of the cultural and historical relis
associated with the tourism development
It should focus on some of the contents: Raising the attractiveness
of the relics to tourists; accelerating the promotion of heritage;
developing a unique tourism product; investing for upgrading and
building new infrastructure for tourist attractions and improving the
quality of human resources in tourism.
3.3.8. Strengthening inter-agency coordination
Close linking between heritage management with management
units of industrial development and urban management. Building rapid
handling mechanisms in case of appearance of the adverse impacts of
industrialization and urbanization to the ruins. Discussion and agreement
between the parties in quick and reasonable manner to make the
monuments to avoid the risk of occupy and directly affect the value of
Bac Ninh Province with rapid socio-economic growth, the process
of industrialization and urbanization at provincial level causes both
positive and negative way to the ruins.
From the management status of historical cultural relics, the
dissertation proposes some solutions to improve the efficiency of this
work. These solutions focus on the role of state management, to enhance
the role and participation of the communities where existing monuments.
Coordination mechanisms between the participants are one of the factors
to bring success in management. In addition, the solutions of
mechanisms and policies, enhanced professional activities and
exploitation of the value of relics in reasonable and effective way... are
1. With the object as management of historical-cultural relics in a
particular location, the theory of cultural heritage management is
determined as a basis for the study of specific contents. The theory of
cultural heritage management has been paid attention by many domestic
and foreign scholars. The study focuses on two contents that are
conservation and promotion of heritage values for overall social
development. It also highlights the role of heritage management
community. Conservation, preservation of cultural heritage is intended
for the community and the community is considered as partner, an
integral part of the heritage management. Conservation and preservation
of relics respect to the intangible heritage value contained in it.
Cultural heritage plays an important role: as the property of the
community, as development resource, as the soul linking the community
to preserve identity in the period of industrialization and urbanization to
form new value system. In terms of strong industrialization and
urbanization has impact on the monument as well as management
activities in both positive and negative way. Socio-economic
development is also associated with social relationships between
conservation and development, priority in selecting problems.
2. Bac Ninh’s cultural heritage is very abundant and diversified.
Historical cultural relics play an important role, including many different
types. Such relics contain the value of history - culture - science and
aesthetics. This is a great potentiality for socio-economic development,
particularly associated with the development of local tourism. Economic
development resulted from the process of industrialization and
urbanization has an impact on the field of culture, the village model
changed in comparison with the past, the historical cultural relics are
also resisted by this effect. The previous studies on the heritage
management in Bac Ninh has not yet mentioned the management issues
in the development process of industrialization and urbanization with
implications for the historical cultural relics and community psychology,
not yet put relics in the relation to the local development. The preserved
relics will contribute to the conservation of national cultural identity, but
in the context of the current development, such relics need to be
exploited to bring benefits to the community and the society.
Exploitation must be reasonable and harmonized with the development
process and sure of sustainability. Solving this content with specific
arguments will be orientation to provide solutions on preservation and
promotion of historic-cultural heritage value at the present.
3. The key role of State in the management of cultural heritage is
reflected in the management hierarchy: powers and particular obligations
of preservation and promotion of heritage value are specified at each
level. Managerial decentralization to the commune/ward level has shown
consistency, synchronization and specification in management. At the
local level, participants of heritage management unit are authorities and
representatives of the community. In fact, through the surveys, there are
now three management models including State management model, selfmanagement model of community and private management, of which
self-management model of community is existed in most of the ranked
relics. The role of the community is evident at mostly through this
model, people are proactive in protecting the ruins of the village,
mobilizing social resources to carry out the repair, restoration for
monuments, and conduct activities to introduce and promote the value of
local monuments. However, the autonomous model of the community,
not all the case of relics always achieve the desired effect, many
shortcomings appear in the management process. For an effective
management model, it needs different factors, including ethical issues,
self-discipline, transparency of those who are selected to participate in
the conduct of management, particularly issues related to finance. The
implementation of responsibilities, the behavior of local governments for
heritage management, with the local community as well as the factors
also contributes to the success or failure in the management of cultural
4. The dissertation has focused research and analysis of the actual
management of cultural heritage in Bac Ninh Province in recent years,
especially two basic contents as heritage conservation for preserving and
promoting the monuments. On the other hand, the monument should be
exploited, and promoted the value to meet the needs of cultural
enjoyment of the community. Thereby, the dissertation initially provides
an assessment of the effectiveness of these activities. The assessment is
not only based on the statistical figures of the managerial agency, but
also based on the evaluation and feedback from the community.
5. In the context of the current development, the government and
people of Bac Ninh Province are interested in investment for
conservation, preservation and promotion of the values of cultural
heritage by mechanisms, policies and more specific actions. Effective
heritage management will be the basis for the implementation of local
socio-economic development, put the monument to become a particular
product to attract inbound and outbound tourists to Bac Ninh.
Identifying such targets, the author's dissertation proposes some
solutions to improve the management efficiency of local heritage as
management apparatus, developing policies of top
investment for preservation and promotion of the heritage value,
investing for key human resources in management, mobilizing and
enhancing the role of the community in a rational exploitation of