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Ngữ pháp và bài tập tiếng anh cơ bản và nâng cao

Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
Tenses ( Thời của động từ)
I/ Present Simple (Hiện tại đơn)
1. Form
a. Khẳng định
- I, you, we , they + V(nguyên thể)
- He, she , it + V+s / V+es
* Notes :
- Các động từ kết thúc là sh, ch, ss, o, x thì sang ngôi he, she , it thêm es
Eg : I wash He washes
I watch He watches
I go He goes
I miss He misses
Fix > fixes
- Sau các phụ âm k, p, t s đợc đọc là /s/
- Sau các trờng hợp còn lại s đợc đọc là /z/
- Sau các phụ âm sh, ch, ss, x đuôi es đợc đọc là iz
- Những động từ tận cùng là phụ âm + y thì sang ngôi he, she, it y đổi thành i trớc khi thêm es.
Eg : I study He studies
- Những động từ tận cùng là nguyên âm + y, biến đổi bình thờng khi sang ngôi he, she, it.
Eg: I play, he plays

b. Phủ định
- I, we, you, they don't + V
- He, she , it doesn't + V
c. Nghi vấn
- Do I / you/ we / they + V ?
- Does he/ she/ it + V ?
2. The use.
a. Diễn tả mức độ thờng xuyên diễn ra của hành động ở hiện tại. Thờng đi với always, usually,
often , sometimes, occasionally (thỉnh thoảng), rarely, seldom (hiếm khi), never, everyday, every
week
once
twice / 2 times
3 times

a week/ a month/year
một lần
hai lần một tuần/ một tháng/ một năm
ba lần
Eg : - He usually goes to the cinema.
- We clean our house everyday.
- Lan washes clothes twice a week.
b. Diễn tả điều luôn luôn đúng (sự thật), hoặc đã đúng trong một khoảng thời gian dài.
Eg : - Some animals don't eat during winter. ( Một vài loài động vật không ăn vào mùa đông)
- We are Vietnamese. We speak Vietnamese.
- He works in a bank.
Exercise 1: Chia động từ trong ngoặc:
1. They (go) on holiday every winter.
2. The days (be) longer in summer.
3. She often (talk) to herself.
4. Oak trees (grow) very slowly.
5 My dog (not eat) vegetables.
6. My brother (not like) animals.
7. Most people (not like) to visit a doctor.
8. In his job she usually (stand) .
9. My brother never (go) out in the evening.
10. He usually (work) with paints and brushes.
11. Do you know anyone who (speak) Italian?
12. At work he usually (sit) all day.
13. (you ever work) at the weekend?
Exercise 2: Đọc đoạn văn sau, dùng từ gợi ý đặt câu hỏi và trả lời


Hans Huser is a ski-instructor. He is Swiss and he lives in Villars, a village in the mountains. In
summer he works in a sports shop and in winter he teaches skiing. He speaks 4 languages :
French, German, Italian and English. He is married and has two children. He plays football with
them in his free time. He's happy with his family.
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
1/ What / Hans Huser / do ?
2/ Where/ he / come / from ?
3/ he / live / city ?
4/ Where / he / work / summer ?
5/ What / do / winter ?
6/ How many languages / he / speak ?
7/ he / single ?
8/ How many children / he / have ?
9/ What / he / do / free time ?
10/ he / happy / family ?
Exercise 3: Đọc đoạn văn sau, điền một từ thích hợp vào chỗ trống , sau đó dùng từ gợi ý đặt
câu hỏi và trả lời
Alan is a lorry -driver. He's 25 years He works five days week. Every morning he gets
up at 6 o'clock. He eats enormous breakfast at 6.30. He two cups of tea. Then he
kisses wife. He leaves for work at 7.30. He lunch in a transport cafe. He home at 5
o'clock. In the evening he goes to the pub. He goes to at 10.30.
1/ What / Alan / do ?
2/ How many days / week / he work ?
3/ What time / he get up ?
4/ he / drink coffee / morning ?
5/ What time he / leave / work ?
6/ Where / he / have lunch ?
7/ he / go cinema / evening ?
II/ Present Continuous (Hiện tại tiếp diễn)
1. Form
a. Khẳng định
I am
You/ We/ They are + V-ing
He/ she/ it is
b. Phủ định
S + to be + not + V-ing
c. Nghi vấn
To be + S + V-ing ?
*Notes :
- Những động từ kết thúc là một nguyên âm e, trớc khi thêm ing ta bỏ e.
Eg : have having
write writing
- Những động từ 1 âm tiết, 1 nguyên âm, kết thúc là một phụ âm, trớc khi thêm ing ta gấp đôi phụ
âm cuối.
Eg : - sit sitting
- swim swimming
- Các động từ: die, lie, tie biến đổi nh sau:
die dying, lie lying, tie tying
2. The use
a. Diễn tả hành động đang diễn ra ở hiện tại, thờng đi với at the moment, at present, now ( bây
giờ , vào lúc này )
Eg : - I'm cooking at the moment.
b. Diễn tả hành động tơng lai đã đợc sắp xếp sẵn
He is meeting his brother at the station tonight.
(Anh ta sẽ đón anh trai ở nhà ga vào tối nay.)
c. Thời hiện tại TD đi với always khi ta muốn phàn nàn về một hành động lặp đi lặp lại.
Eg : He's always losing his keys. (Anh ta cứ luôn đánh mất chìa khóa)
* Notes : Một số động từ không thờng dùng ở dạng tiếp diễn : be, understand, think (cho rằng),
know, hear, love, like , stop , feel, smell, taste, sound
Exercise 1: Chia động từ trong ngoặc:
1. What's that noise? Somebody (practise) the piano.
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
2. She (have) a shower at the moment.
3. Right now she (run) down a hill.
4. I'm looking at that woman, she (wear) a nice dress.
5. 'Where is Kate?' 'She (watch) TV in the living room.'
6. Don't bother me now. I ______________. ( work)
7. Take an umbrella. It ______________.( rain)
8. - Where's Jim?
- He ______________ with friends.(stay)
Exercise 2: Đọc đoạn văn sau, dùng từ gợi ý đặt câu hỏi và trả lời
It's a Sunday morning. The sun is shining. Mary is watching TV in her room. Her father is reading
newspapers. Her mother is cooking in the kitchen. Mary has got a dog. It is playing with a cat in
the garden. It's a nice dog and Mary loves it very much.
1/ sun / shine ?
2/ What Mary / do / now ?
3/ father / read / newspapers ?
4/ What / mother / do ?
5/ What / dog / do ?
6/ Mary / love / dog ?
Exercise 3: Đọc lá th sau dùng từ gợi ý đặt câu hỏi và trả lời
Dear Tom,
Now I'm in Rio. I'm staying in a big hotel. It's very beautiful but expensive. In the morning I
usually go to the beach. I sometimes go shopping in the afternoon. There are a lot of goods but I
don't have much money. In the evening I usually stay in my room and watch TV. At the moment,
I'm eating a delicious cake and writing this letter to you.
Tomorrow I'm going to the Trade Exhibition in the city centre. Well, let me stop now, Give my
love to everyone.
Love,
Susan
1. Where / Susan / stay ?
2. Where / she / go / morning ?
3. What / she / do / evening ?
4. What / she / do / at the moment ?
Exercise 4: Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở đúng thời
1/ Hello, this is Dr Smith's office. Who (speak) ?
2/ Hurry up ! The train (come).
3/ It is a lovely day. The sun (shine) and the birds (sing).
4/ The Earth (go) round the Sun.
5/ Some animals (not eat) during the winter.
6/ - What Oanh (do) at the moment ?
- She (cook). She usually (cook) dinner for her family.
7/ In the evening he often (play) chess with his door neighbour.
8/ They (build) a new hospital in my town now.
9/ My father always (have) a rest after lunch.
10/ She's very lazy. She never (wash) the floor.
11/ Look at those boys ! They (hurry) home after school.
12/ Your mother usually (catch) the 8.10 bus ?
13/ Your sister (wait) for her friend at the station now?
14/ He usually (smile) at his wife when he (come) home.
15/ - Mrs Lan (use) the computer now ?
- Yes, she usually (use) it for her work.
16/ Minh sometimes (miss) his bus.
17/ My uncle often (watch) TV in the evening. But right now he (write) a letter .
18/- They (have) breakfast now ? - No, they (sleep)
19/ My father always (relax) at the weekend.
20/ You can't see Tom now. He (have) a bath.
21/ Tom can't have the newspaper now because his aunt (read) it.
22/ I'm busy at the moment. I (redecorate) the room.
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
23/ The kettle (boil) now. Shall I make the tea ?
24/ I don't want to go out now because it (rain) and I (not have) an umbrella.
III/ Simple Past (Quá khứ đơn)
1. Form
a. Khẳng định
- Động từ có qui tắc : V-ed
Eg : - work worked
- clean cleaned
* Notes :
- Những động từ một âm tiết, một nguyên âm, kết thúc là một phụ âm thì trớc khi thêm ed ta gấp
đôi phụ âm cuối.
Eg : -stop stopped
- drop dropped
- Những động từ kết thúc là phụ âm + y , trớc khi thêm ed ta đổi y thành i.
Eg : - study - studied
- Những động từ kết thúc là nguyên âm + y, biến đổi bình thờng.
Eg: - play - played
- Những động từ kết thúc là e thì chỉ thêm d :
Eg : - arrive arrived
*Cách đọc đuôi ed :
- Đuôi ed đợc đọc là /id/ khi đứng sau t và d :
Eg : wanted needed
- Đuôi ed đợc đọc là / t / khi đứng sau k, p, sh, ch, ss, x
Eg : - stopped, washed, watched, missed, fixed, cooked
- Đuôi ed đợc đọc là d sau các trờng hợp còn lại
- Động từ bất qui tắc : - see saw
- get got
- do did
- have had
- be was / were
b.Phủ định : S + didn't + V(nguyên thể)
c. Nghi vấn : Did + S + V(nguyên thể) ?
2. The use
* Thời quá khứ đơn diễn tả hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ có thời điểm rõ ràng :
- yesterday
- last night (tối hôm qua )
week ( tuần trớc )
month ( tháng trớc )
year ( năm trớc )
- 2 days ago (hai ngày/ tuần trớc đây)
weeks
Eg: - We played football yesterday.
* Đi với when trong câu hỏi về hành động trong quá khứ
Eg : - When did you see him ?
- I saw him this morning.
Exercise : Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở đúng thời
1/ Minh (be) very tired when I (see) him yesterday.
2/ My father usually (work) 8 hours a day, but yesterday he (start) at 9.00 a.m and (finish) at 9.00
p.m.
3/ It usually (rain) a lot in summer but it (rain) a little last summer.
4/ -When John (leave) home ? -He (leave) 5 minutes ago.
5/ What you (do) last Sunday ?
- I (have) a holiday in New York.
Exercise : Đọc đoạn văn sau, dùng từ gợi ý đặt câu hỏi và trả lời
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
Last year David went to Barcelona for his holiday. He went by air and stayed in a big hotel in the
city centre. He stayed there for 5 days. When he was there, he visited many beautiful places in
Barcelona. He took many photographs and bought a lot of souvenirs for his friends. He enjoyed
the holiday very much.
1/ When / David / go / Barcelona ?
2/ How long / stay ?
3/ How / he / go / Barcelona?
4/ Where / he / stay ?
5/ he / take / a lot / photographs ?
6/ What / he / buy ?
IV/ Past Continuous (Quá khứ tiếp diễn)
1. Form
a. Khẳng định : S + was + V-ing
were
b. Phủ định: S + wasn't + V-ing
weren't
c. Nghi vấn : Was + S + V-ing ?
Were
2. The use
a. Diễn tả hành động đang diễn ra tại một thời điểm trong quá khứ. Thờng đi với at 2 o'clock /
at this time yesterday (Vào lúc 2 giờ / thời điểm này ngày hôm qua )
Eg : - They were swimming at 8 a.m yesterday.
b. Diễn tả hành động đang diễn ra trong quá khứ thì có một hành động khác (thời quá khứ đơn)
xảy tới. Trong các câu này thờng có While , As (Trong khi), When (Khi, trong khi)
Eg : - While I was going home, I saw an accident. (Tôi thấy tai nạn trong khi đang về nhà)
As
When
- Mai was cooking when I came. (Khi tôi đến Mai đang nấu nớng)
- When I came Mai was cooking.
c. Đi với all yesterday morning
Eg : - They were dancing all yesterday morning. (Họ khiêu vũ cả buổi sáng)
d. While đợc sử dụng trong câu có 2 hành động ở thời quá khứ tiếp diễn
Eg : While I was reading, my sister was listening to music.
( Trong khi tôi đang đọc sách thì chị tôi lại nghe nhạc)
Exercise : Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở đúng thời
1/ When I (arrive) at his house, he still (sleep) .
2/ The light (go) out while we (have) dinner.
3/ The last time I (see) him, he (wear) a grey suit.
4/ Just as I (leave) , a student (stop) me in the hall
5/ Nam (play) football when he (break) his leg.
6/ We (drink) a lot of beer at the party the day before yesterday.
7/ They (build) a new bridge when I was there 2 months ago.
8/ He (sit) in a cafe when I saw him.
9/ My company (make) a lot of profits 5 years ago.
10/ What you (do) when I phoned you on Monday ?
11/ While the two thieves (argue), someone (steal) their car.
12/ When he was a boy at school, Edison (ask) a lot of questions. The teacher (think) he was
stupid and she (send) him home. Edison's mother (teach) her son at home and he (begin) to carry
out a lot of experiments.
13/ - You (visit) the zoo yesterday ?
- Yes, I did. When I (go) there, I (see) our teacher.
14/ Who (invent) the radio ?
V/ Present Perfect (Hiện tại hoàn thành)
1. Form
a. Khẳng định : I / you / we / they + have + P
II

He / she / it + has
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
b. Phủ định : S + haven't + P
II

hasn't
c. Nghi vấn : Have + S + P
II
?
Has
* P
II
: Phân từ 2 (phân từ quá khứ):
- Là dạng quá khứ đơn của động từ có qui tắc.
- Động từ bất qui tắc :
Eg : - go - went - gone
- do - did - done
2. The use
a. Diễn tả hành động vừa mới xảy ra, đi với just
Eg : - I've just cleaned my house. (Tôi vừa mới lau nhà)
b. Diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra trong quá khứ nhng không nhắc tới thời điểm xảy ra của hành
động.
Eg : - I've lost my key. (Tôi đã bị mất chìa khóa)
Khác với câu I lost my key yesterday. (Tôi đã mất chìa khóa hôm qua )
c.Diễn tả hành động đã diễn ra trong khoảng thời gian vẫn còn là hiện tại today, this week /
month
Eg : - Have you seen Lan today ?
- No, I haven't.
- There have been 3 accidents here this month. (Đã có 3 tai nạn ở đây vào tháng này)
d. Diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra trong quá khứ nhng thời điểm không rõ ràng, đi với already (đã
rồi), recently, lately (gần đây), before (trớc kia).
Eg : - He's already done his homework.
- I've seen this film 3 times before. (Tôi đã 3 lần xem bộ phim này trớc đây)
e. Dùng với yet (cha, vẫn cha) trong câu hỏi và câu phủ định.
Eg : - Have you met your new teacher yet ?
- No, we haven't met her yet.
f. Diễn tả hành động bắt đầu trong quá khứ và kéo dài đến hiện tại , đi với since, for, up to now ,
so far (cho tới bây giờ),
- for + khoảng thời gian
Eg : - My brother has been a doctor for ten years now. (Anh tôi đã là bác sĩ đợc 10 năm)
- since + mốc thời gian
Eg : - We haven't met each other since we left school. (Chúng tôi đã không gặp nhau kể từ khi
chúng tôi ra trờng )
-Up to now / So far we have visited 3 countries in the world. (Cho tới bây giờ chúng tôi đã thăm 3
nớc trên thế giới.)
g. Thời hiện tại hoàn thành dùng với ever (đã từng), never (cha bao giờ)
- ever đi với câu hỏi và câu khẳng định
Eg : - Have you ever read this book ? ( Cậu đã từng đọc cuốn sách này cha ?)
-No, I've never read it. (Tôi cha bao giờ đọc nó)
- This is the most interesting film I've ever seen.( Đây là bộ phim hay nhất mà tôi đã từng xem)
h. Thời hiện tại hoàn thành dùng với
in the past 2/ 3 years/ months ( Trong 2/3 tháng/ năm qua) .
for last
Eg : -There have been a lot of changes in our town in the last 2 years. (Đã có nhiều đổi thay ở thị
trấn chúng tôi trong 2 năm qua)
i. Thời hiện tại hoàn thành dùng với This is the first, second, third time ( Đây là lần đầu
tiên, lần thứ hai )
Eg : - This is the first time I've tasted this food. (Đây là lần đầu tiên tôi đợc nếm món ăn này)
= I've never tasted this food before. (Trớc đây tôi cha bao giờ ăn món này)
k. Thời hiện tại hoàn thành dùng với
ages
for months (đã lâu rồi)
a long time
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
Eg : - I haven't seen my sister for ages. (Đã lâu rồi tôi không gặp chị gái tôi)
= It's ages since I last saw my sister. (Đã lâu rồi kể từ lần cuối cùng tôi gặp chị gái tôi)
Exercise : Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở đúng thời
1/ My wife and I (be) there several times in the past.
2/ We (study) almost every lesson in this book so far.
3/ He (visit) his friends recently.
4/ - You (see) her today ?
- No, I haven't seen her yet.
5/ She (do) her homework already.
6/ They never (go) to the cinema in their life.
7/ Tom, I (not see) you for ages ! Where have you been ?
8/ He is the most kind-hearted man I ever (meet).
9/ There (be) 3 accidents on this street in the past 3 days.
10/ Is this the first time you (visit) our beautiful country ?
11/ Scientists (find) cures for many illnesses in the last 50 years.
12/ My uncle's health (improve) since he (leave) India.
13/ I (buy) a new shirt last week but I (not wear) it yet.
14/ I (not see ) Lan since we (leave) school.
15/ We just (move) to a new house but we (be) dissatisfied with it.
VI/ Present Perfect Continuous (Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn)
1. Form
a. Khẳng định : S + have/ has + been + V-ing
b. Phủ định : S + haven't / hasn't + been + V-ing
c. Nghi vấn : Have / Has + S + been + V-ing ?
2. The use
a. Thời hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn diễn tả hành động bắt đầu từ trong quá khứ kéo dài liên tục
cho tới hiện tại và vừa chấm dứt ở đó .
Eg : - He's very tired now. He has been walking for 2 hours. (Bây giờ anh ấy rất mệt. Anh ấy đã
đi bộ 2 tiếng đồng hồ)
b. Thời hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn diễn tả hành động bắt đầu từ trong quá khứ kéo dài liên tục
cho tới hiện tại và còn diễn ra trong tơng lai.
- I've been waiting for my friend since 2 o'clock. He hasn't arrived yet. (Tôi đã đợi bạn từ lúc 2
giờ. Cậu ấy vẫn cha đến)
c. Thời hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn dùng vớ câu hỏi How long, Since when
Eg : - How long have you been living here ? (Anh đã sống ở đây đợc bao lâu rồi ?)
- I've been living here for 12 years. = I started living here 12 years ago. (Tôi bắt đầu sống ở
đây 12 năm trớc đây.)
Exercise 1: Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở đúng thời
1/ - How long you (learn) English ?
- I (learn) English for 5 years.
2/ - Where is Peter ? - He (be) in his room. He (sleep). He (sleep) since 2 o'clock.
3/ They (live) here for 20 years now.
4/ Look ! Her eyes are red and wet. She (cry).
5/ The boy is tired. He (run) for two hours.
6/ You look tired! Yes I (work) _____very hard.
7/ Where's the magazine I gave you? What (you do) _____________________ with it?
8/ We (have) ____ the same car for twelve years.
9/ This room was white. Now it is blue. He (paint) _____________________ it.
10/ This is the first time I (drive) _____________ a car. Thanks for lending me your car.
11/ These shoes are nice and clean. (you clean) _____________________ them?
12/ Sorry I'm late. (you wait) __________ long?
13/ Somebody (steal) _____________________ my keys. They are not on the table.
14/ Mary is still watching TV. She (watch) _____________________ TV all day.
15/ Look! Somebody (spill) ______________ wine on the floor.
VII/ Past Perfect (Quá khứ hoàn thành)
1. Form
7
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
a. Khẳng định : S + had + P
II

b. Phủ định : S + hadn't + P
II

c. Nghi vấn : Had + S + P
II
?
2. The use
* Thời quá khứ hoàn thành diễn tả hành động xảy ra trớc một hành động quá khứ hoặc một thời
điểm quá khứ khác . Thờng đi với after, before, when, by the time (cho tới khi), as soon as ( ngay
sau khi)
Eg : - After he had done his homework, he went to the cinema. ( Sau khi nó làm xong bài tập, nó
đi xem phim.) = Before he went to the cinema, he had done his homework.
- When I got there, they had gone home. (Khi mà tôi tới đó, họ đã về nhà rồi.)
- When he had sung his song, he sat down. (Khi anh ta hát xong, anh ta ngồi xuống)
- By the time we got to the station, the train had already left. ( Cho tới khi chúng tôi tới ga, tàu
đã chạy rồi)
Exercise : Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở đúng thời
1/ After her husband (get) home, she started to wash the clothes.
2/ When they reached France, they (visit) 13 countries.
3/ When she (arrive) at his house, she (find) that he (leave) a few minutes before.
4/ Before Mr Ron met me, he (do) nothing.
5/ Yesterday I was sorry that I (hurt) him.
6/ They (tell) her that they (not meet ) her before.
7/ When she (realise) her mistakes, she apologised.
8/ When I (meet) my cousin 2 weeks ago, he told me that he just (return) from the South.
VIII/ Thời tơng lai đơn (will/ shall)
1. Form
a. Khẳng định S + will / shall + V
b. Phủ định S + won't / shan't + V
c. Câu hỏi Will/ Shall + S + V ?
* Notes : - Will đợc dùng với tất cả các ngôi. Shall thờng dùng với ngôi I , we.
2. The use : - Thời tơng lai đơn diễn tả hành động tơng lai đơn thuần.
Eg : - I'll do it tomorow. (I'll = I will) ( Tôi sẽ làm việc này vào ngày mai)
- He'll come here soon. (Chẳng mấy chốc nó sẽ tới đây)
- Our exam will be in two weeks. (Kỳ thi của chúng tôi sẽ diễn ra trong 2 tuần nữa)
- They won't help you.
- Will you buy it ?
- Yes, I will/ No, I won't.
* Will còn đợc sử dụng trong lời yêu cầu, lời mời
Eg : - Will you please get it for me ? (Yêu cầu)
- Yes, certainly/ OK / of course.
- Will you come to my party ? (Lời mời)
* Will đợc sử dụng khi đa ra lời hứa
Eg : - I will pay you tomorrow. ( Tôi sẽ trả cậu vào ngày mai)
* Shall đợc sử dụng trong lời gợi ý
Eg : - Shall we go to the zoo this afternoon ? ( Chiều nay chúng ta đi vờn thú chứ ?)
* Shall đợc dùng trong lời đề nghị giúp đỡ
Eg : - Shall I do it for you ? ( Để tôi giúp cậu nhé)
IX/ Thời tơng lai gần, tơng lai dự định (Be going to)
1. Form
a. Khẳng định S + be going to + V
b. Phủ định S + be + not + going to + V
c. Nghi vấn Be + S + going to + V ?
- Are you going to work in France next month ? - Yes, I am / No, I'm not.
2. The use
a. Diễn tả hành động tơng lai đã lên kế hoạch từ trớc.
Eg : - He's going to get married next month.(Anh ấy sẽ cới vợ vào tháng sau)
b.Diễn tả hành động sắp xảy ra trong tơng lai gần
.Eg : - Look at those clouds ! It's going to rain. (Nhìn những đám mây kìa ! Trời sắp ma đấy !)
8
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
* So sánh Will và Be going to
- Be going to chỉ hành động tơng lai có dự định.
Eg : - I'm going to England for my holiday next week.
- Will chỉ hành động tơng lai bất chợt, không đợc dự tính từ trớc.
Eg : - Our teacher is ill. (Thầy giáo bị ốm đấy)
- Is he ? I'll visit him this afternoon (Thế à ? Chiều nay tớ sẽ thăm thầy. )
Exercise 1: Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở đúng thời
1/ - Hai has just been taken to hospital with a broken leg.
- I'm sorry to hear that. I (visit) him.
2/ Look at those clouds. It (rain).
3/ What are you going to do with that dress ?
- I (shorten) it.
4/ I've hired a typerwriter and I (learn) to type.
5/ Listen to this ! I think this news (surprise) you.
6/ Tom, when you (get) married, this month or next month ?
7/ - What you (do) next week ? - I (visit) my grandparents.
Exercise for Revision : Chia động từ trong ngoặc ở đúng thời
1/ Roy (come) from New York. He (live) in California now. He (study) marketing. He has earned
a lot of money and just (buy) a car. He (drive) his car to his friend in the countryside yesterday.
While he (drive) there, he (see) a train accident
2/ Mr Baker (work) as an engineer. He (be) an engineer since 1985. He (have) 2 children. They
(study) abroad now.
3/ I never (meet) anyone famous yet. Have you ?
- Yes, I (have). I (meet) Elton John in New York in 1988 and we (talk) to each other a lot.
4/ In the evening I often (play) chess with my door neighbour. I (play) chess with him ever since I
(come) to live here ten years ago. He (be) here all his life. He (inherit) the house from his father,
another great chess player.
5/ Alice (be) 18 years old and she (come) from England. She is now in Hanoi and (study)
Vietnamese. She (arrive) in Hanoi in January, so she (be) there for 6 months. Next month she (go)
to Hue.
6/ When I was young I (want) ______ to be a pilot.
7/ Who (you wait) __________ for when I arrived?
8/ - You (see) ________________ Jane last night?
- Yes. She (wear) ____ her new jacket when I saw her.
9/ By the time we got to the cinema the film ____________ (to start), so we missed the first five
minutes
10/ When I rang the bell there was no answer. The neighbour told me that they (to go out) about
half an hour ago.
Adjectives - Adverbs ( Tính từ - Trạng từ)
1/ So sánh về cấu tạo
Adv = Adj + ly
Eg :
- quick - quickly (nhanh)
- slow - slowly (chậm)
- careful - carefully ( cẩn thận)
- bad - badly (kém, tồi)
* Lu ý :
+ Những tính từ có tận cùng là y biến đổi nh sau :
- happy - happily ( hạnh phúc, vui vẻ)
- easy - easily (dễ)
- lazy - lazily (lời)
+ Những trờng hợp không theo qui tắc :
- good - well ( tốt)
- fast - fast (nhanh)
- late - late (muộn)
9
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
- much - much ( nhiều)
- hard - hard ( chăm chỉ)
- early - early (sớm)
- far - far (xa)
2/ So sánh về cách sử dụng
* Adj :
+ Đứng trớc danh từ (n) :
Eg : - He is a careful driver. ( Anh ấy là một lái xe cẩn thận)
+ Đứng sau động từ to be :
Eg : - He is careful. ( Anh ấy cẩn thận)
* Adv :
- Đứng sau động từ thờng :
Eg : - He drives carefully.( Anh ấy lái xe cẩn thận)
Exercise : Chọn từ đúng trong số hai từ trong ngoặc :
1. John is reading (careful / carefully).
2. He is a (slow / slowly) learner.
3. Maria Elena speaks Spanish ( fluently / fluent)
4. Rita plays the violin ( good / well).
5. He was working ( hard / hardly).
6. The sun is ( bright / brightly) today.
7. She's a ( fast / fastly ) swimmer.
8. You can do this exercise (easily/ easy).
Exercise : Viết lại các câu sau, giữ nguyên nghĩa :
1. Mr Hai is a bad driver. Mr Hai drives
2. She is a careless driver. She
3. Hoa is a fast typist. Hoa
4. Mary dances marvellously. Mary is
5. Celine Dion sings well. Celine Dion is
6. Lien is a good English speaker. Lien speaks
7. Mr Linh is a hard worker. Mr Linh
8. Minh is a fast swimmer. Minh swims
9. My father drives well. My father is
10. He runs quickly. He is
11. Lan is a bad English speaker. Lan speaks
12. Mrs Young is a very slow typist. Mrs Young types
13. My mother cooks well. My mother
Exercise : Đọc đoạn văn sau, dùng từ gợi ý đặt câu hỏi và trả lời:
Carol Stuart is a good student. She is studying chemistry. She can play the piano and the guitar
very well. She is a very good cook and swimmer. She speaks Russian and French perfectly. She is
beautiful, too.
1. Carol / good / bad student ?
2. What / she / study ?
3. How / she / play / piano / guitar ?
4. She / cook / well ?
5. She / swim / well ?
6. How / she / speak Russian / French ?
7. She / beautiful ?
10
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
So sánh ( Comparisons)
A/ So sánh Tính từ
I/ So sánh ngang bằng
* Mẫu câu : S + to be + as + adj + as + noun (danh từ)
pronoun (đại từ)
Eg : - Nam is as quick as Hai.
- They are as happy as we are.
us.
* Lu ý :- Trong câu phủ định ta có thể dùng so thay cho as :
Eg : - Mai isn't as tall as her brother.
= Mai isn't so tall as her brother.
Exercise 1 : Dùng từ gợi ý để viết câu ở dạng so sánh ngang bằng :
1. Ha Noi / noisy / Ho Chi Minh City.
2. Today / cold / yesterday.
3. My bag / expensive / his.
4. Their house / big / our house.
5. I / not / tired / yesterday.
6. this pen / good / that one ?
7. Her shoes / cheap / mine.
II/ So sánh hơn ( Comparative)
1/ Short adj (Tính từ ngắn)
Tính từ ngắn là tính từ có một âm tiết :
Eg : - big, cold, hot, tall
Mẫu câu : S + to be + adj + er + than + noun (danh từ)
pronoun (đại từ)
Eg : - Hoa is taller than I am. = I'm not as tall as Hoa (is).
me.
- It was colder yesterday than (it is) today.
* Lu ý :
+ Những tính từ kết thúc là một phụ âm, trớc khi thêm er, phải gấp đôi phụ âm cuối.
Eg : - big - bigger
- hot - hotter
+ Những tính từ kết thúc là e , chỉ thêm r :
Eg : - large - larger
+ Những tính từ 2 âm tiết , kết thúc là y, đợc biến đổi nh sau :
Eg : - happy - happier
- pretty - prettier (đẹp)
- lazy - lazier ( lời)
Exercise 1: Dùng từ gợi ý để viết câu ở dạng so sánh hơn :
1. I / short / my brother.
2. Hai Duong / small/ Ha noi.
3. His shoes / cheap / mine.
4. Russia / big / Canada.
5. This exercise / easy / that one.
6. this car / fast / yours ?
7. Today / cold / yesterday.
2/ Long adj ( Tính từ dài)
Tính từ dài là tính từ có 2 âm tiết trở lên:
Eg : tired, expensive, difficult, interesting
Mẫu câu : S + to be + more +long adj + than + noun (danh từ)
pronoun (đại từ)
Eg : - They are more tired than us. = We are not as tired as them.
- This exercise is more difficult than that one.
Exercise 2: Dùng từ gợi ý để viết câu ở dạng so sánh hơn :
1. Her shoes / expensive / his.
2. Mr Jones / careful / wife.
11
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
3. Football / popular / table-tennis.
4. English / difficult / Chinese ?
5. Spring / pleasant / summer.
6. Her car / comfortable / mine.
7. His chidren / hard-working / my chidren.
3/ Irregular Adj ( Bất qui tắc)
- good - better
- bad - worse
- far - farther / further ( xa)
- much - more
- many - more
- little - less ( ít)
Eg : - His English is better than mine. = My English isn't as good as his.
Exercise 3: Dùng từ gợi ý để viết câu ở dạng so sánh hơn :
1. My friend's bike / good / mine.
2. This picture / bad / yours.
3. He has / much money / I have.
4. My sister / have / many books / me.
Exercise 4: Viết lại các câu sau, giữ nguyên nghĩa :
1/ They were happier yesterday than today. Today they
2/ English isn't so interesting as biology. Biology is
3 / I'm not as good at English as him. He is
4/ His role is more important than mine. My role
5 / My kitchen is bigger than yours. Your kitchen
6 / I haven't got as much money as you. You have
7 / French is more difficult than English. English
8 / Nam isn't so careful as his father. Nam's father
9 / Mai is prettier than her sister. Mai's sister
10 / Hai Duong isn't so noisy as Ha Noi. Ha Noi
11/ My house is smaller than his. His house
III/ So sánh nhất
1/ Short adj :
Mẫu câu : S + to be + the + short adj + est + in / of
Eg : - John is the tallest student in his class. = No one in his class is taller than John.
= No one in his class is as tall as John.
* Lu ý :
+ Những tính từ kết thúc là một phụ âm, trớc khi thêm est, phải gấp đôi phụ âm cuối.
Eg : - big - the biggest
- hot - the hottest
+ Những tính từ kết thúc là e , chỉ thêm st :
Eg : - large - largest
+ Những tính từ 2 âm tiết , kết thúc là y, đợc biến đổi nh sau :
Eg : - happy - happiest
- pretty - prettiest
- lazy - laziest
2. Long adj :
Mẫu câu : S + to be + the + most + long adj + in / of
Eg : - Freedom is the most important of all. ( Tự do là quan trọng nhất trong số mọi điều)
= Nothing is more important than freedom.
3. Irregular Adj :
- good - the best
- bad - the worst
- many - the most
- much - the most
12
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
- little - the least
- far - the farthest/furthest
Eg : - Mai is the best student in our class.
Exercise 1: Dùng từ gợi ý để viết câu ở dạng so sánh nhất :
1. Russia / large / country/ in the world.
2. She / careful pupil / in my class.
3. Ronaldinho / good / footballer / in the world.
4. Phil / happy / person / we know.
5. These shoes / expensive / of all.
6. Ho Chi Minh City / big city / in Viet Nam.
7. This / interesting film / I / ever / see.
8. Hoa / pretty / girl / in her group.
9. Mr Pike / generous / person / in my town.
Exercise 2: Hoàn thành các câu sau theo mẫu
Eg : It's a very nice room. It's one of the nicest rooms in the hotel.
1/ It's a very old castle. It's in Britain.
2/ She's a very good player. She's in the team.
3/ It was a very bad experience. It was in my life.
4/ Nam is a very intelligent student. He .in the class.
Exercise 3: Viết lại các câu sau, giữ nguyên nghĩa :
1/ No one in my class is more intelligent than Lan. Lan is
2/ We don't know a happier person than him. He is
3/ Nothing is more interesting than football. Football is
4/ Is this the biggest hat you've got ? Have you got ?
5/ Everest is higher than any mountains in the world. Everest is
6/ No one in my class is fatter than Minh. Minh is
7/ Mr Ron is the richest man in our town. No one
8/ No one in my group is better at English than Lan. Lan is
B/ So sánh Trạng từ
I/ So sánh ngang bằng
Mẫu câu : S + V + as + adv + as + noun (danh từ)
pronoun (đại từ)
Eg : - Mr Ba works as hard as Mr Lam.
* Lu ý : Ta có thể thay as bằng so trong câu phủ định.
Eg : - I can't play the piano as well as my sister. = I can't play the piano so well as my sister.
II/ So sánh hơn
1/ Short adverbs (Trạng từ ngắn)
Mẫu câu : S + V + short adv + er + than + noun (danh từ) / pronoun (đại từ)
Eg : - My brother runs faster than I do. = I don't run as fast as my brother.
me.
2. Long adv :
Mẫu câu : S + V + more + long adv + than + noun (danh từ)
pronoun (đại từ)
Eg : - Mr Jones drives more carefully than Mr Smith.
= Mr Smith doesn't drive as carefully as Mr Jones.
3. Irregular adv ( Bất qui tắc)
Eg : - well - better
- badly - worse
- much - more
- early - earlier
- late - later
Eg : - Sam can speaks French better than me.
- Yesterday he drank more than today.
13
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
Exercise : Viết lại các câu sau, giữ nguyên nghĩa :
1/ Jane can swim further than I can. I can't
2/ We didn't do the test as quickly as Linh. Linh did
3/ Peter can't run as fast as Tim. Tim runs
4/ John speaks French more fluently than I do. I cannot
5/- Thuy is a more fluent French speaker than Phong. Thuy speaks French
6/ He plays football better than me. I don't
7/ Mrs Hoa doesn't work as hard as her husband. Mrs Hoa 's husband works
8/ They answered the teacher's question yesterday more intelligently than us.
We didn't
9/ Hai couldn't listen to the teacher yesterday as attentively as his friend did.
Hai's friend
10/ She runs faster than me. I don't
11/ Thanh works harder now than last year. Last year Thanh
12/ He doesn't understand the lessons as well as last year. Last year he
13/ My sister usually gets up earlier than me. I usually
14/ Yesterday, Mr Pike didn't drink as much as Mr Withe. Yesterday Mr Withe
15/ Tom speaks more persuasively than Bill. Tom is
16/ I don't know as much about it as her. She knows
17/ Mrs La is a slower and more careful driver than I am. La drives
18/ Jane is a better cook than Robert. Robert can't
19/ He didn't arrive as early as we expected. He arrived
C/ Một số lu ý thêm về các câu So sánh
1. Ta có thể dùng much, (by) far , a lot , a little trớc adj và adv trong câu so sánh hơn để nhấn
mạnh.
Eg : - My bag is much cheaper than my friend's.
- My father swims far better than me.
2. Có thể dùng danh từ với câu so sánh.
Eg : - I have more books than my sister. = My sister doesn't have as many books as I have.
- He has more money than his brother. = His brother doesn't have as much money as him.
3. Có thể thay danh từ số ít bằng that, danh từ số nhiều bằng those nếu ta không muốn nhắc lại
danh từ đó.
Eg : - The salary of a professor is higher than that of a teacher. ( Lơng của giáo s thì cao hơn của
giáo viên) (that = the salary)
- Classes in the college aren't as difficult as those in the university. (Those = classes)
4. Có thể dùng twice (2 times), 3, 4 times trong câu so sánh ngang bằng.
Eg : - His house is twice as big as my house. (Nhà của anh ấy to gấp đôi nhà tôi)
5. The same as đợc sử dụng trong dạng so sánh ngang bằng.
Eg : - Ann's salary is as high as Peter's. = Ann's salary is the same as Peter's.
- Tom is as old as George. = Tom is the same age as George. (Tom bằng tuổi George)
6. More and more, better and better, harder and harder, more and more difficult
Eg : - His English is getting better and better. (Tiếng Anh của anh ấy ngày càng trở lên tốt hơn)
- These days more and more people are learning English. (Ngày nay ngày càng có nhiều ngời học
tiếng Anh)
7. So sánh kép :
Mẫu câu : The + so sánh + chủ ngữ + động từ + the + so sánh + chủ ngữ + động từ
Eg : - The more I thought about the plan, the less I like it. (Càng nghĩ về kế hoạch đó, tôi càng
thấy không thích nó)
- The warmer the weather (is), the better I feel.
- The sooner you leave, the earlier you will arrive at your destination.
( Bạn càng đi sớm bạn càng tới đích sớm hơn)
- The younger you are, the easier it is to learn. (Chúng ta càng trẻ thì học càng dễ)
Exercise 1: Hoàn thành các câu sau theo mẫu
14
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
Eg: It's becoming harder and harder to find a job.(hard)
1/ That hole in your pullover is getting (big)
2/ As I waited for my interview, I became (nervous)
3/ As the day went on, the weather got (bad)
4/ Travelling is becoming (expensive)
5/ Since she has been in Britain, her English has got (good)
Exercise 2: Hoàn thành các câu sau theo mẫu
Eg: I like warm weather. The warmer the weather , the better I feel (feel)
1. I didn't really like him at first. But the more I got to know him, (like)
2/ She had to wait a very long time. The longer she waited, (impatient/become)
3/ If you use more electricity, your bill will be higher. The more electricity you use, (high)
Exercise 3: Chọn từ đúng trong số các từ đã cho :
1. This car is as expensive as our car.
a. double b. twice c. much d. a lot
2. The harder she works, the money she earns.
a. better b. much c. more d. less
3. The you are, the it is to concentrate.
a. more tired / more hard b. more tired/ harder c. tired / hard d. tired / hardly
4. The she waited, the she became.
a. more long / more impatient b. longer / impatient
c. long / more impatient d. longer / more impatient
5. The standard of living in Canada is higher in many countries.
a. than that b. as that c. than those d. as those
6. My boss is very young. He's than I am.
a. younger 10 years b. 10 years more young c. 10 years younger d. 10 years young
7. Life in Hai Phong is expensive than that in Hai Duong.
a. a little more b. a little much c. far much d. more a lot
8. What do you think about the parks in London ? Are they bigger in Ha Noi ?
a. than that b. than those c. as that d. as those
9. pollution is being produced nowadays.
a. Much and much b. Many and many c. Better and better d. More and more
10. The you spend learning, your study result will be.
a. much time / the best b. more time / the good c. more time / the better d. better time / the
well
11. Is your weight Hoa's.
a. the same as b. as the same c. the same like d. like the same
Revision 1
I/ Rewrite the following sentences
1/ They were more tired yesterday than today. Today they
2/ Mr Hai is a good driver. Mr Hai drives
3/ English isn't so difficult as Maths. Maths is
4/ His brother is not so good at French as him. He is
5/ His role is more important than mine. My role
6/ I can't swim as well as Jane. Jane
7/ No one in my class is noisier than Lan. Lan is
8/ We didn't do the test as fast as Linh. Linh did
9/ Peter can't run as far as Tim. Tim runs
10/ My kitchen is smaller than yours. Your kitchen
11/ Phong speaks English more fluently than I do. I
12/ She is a dangerous driver. She
13/ Hoa is a careful typist. Hoa
14/ Mary dances marvellously. Mary is
15/ Celine Dion sings wonderfully. Celine Dion is
16/ Lien is a good English speaker. Lien speaks
15
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
17/ We don't know a lazier person than her. She is
18/ Nothing is more interesting than football. Football is
19/ I am 20 years old. My brother is 40. My brother is twice
20/ Everest is higher than any mountains in the world. Everest is
21/ Minh is the most hard-working in our class. No one
22/ You have more money than us. We
23/ Mr Robinson is the poorest person in our town. No one
24/ No one in my group is better at English than Linh. - Linh is
25/ Phong speaks French more fluently than Thuy. Thuy does
26/ He plays football more skilfully than me. I don't
27/ Mrs Hoa doesn't work as hard as her husband.
Mrs Hoa 's husband works
28/ He doesn't run as quickly as five years ago.
Five years ago he
29/ My sister usually gets up later than me. I don't usually
30/ French is more difficult than English. English
31/ Nam isn't so careless as his brother. Nam's brother
32/ My house is much smaller than his. His house
33/ The streets in Ha Noi aren't as quiet as those in Paris.
The streets in Paris
34/ Yesterday, Mr Pike didn't drink as much beer as Mr Withe.
Yesterday Mr Withe
35/ Mrs Ha is 2 years younger than Mrs Lanh. Mrs Lanh
36. He hasn't written to his parents for 2 months. The last time
37. I've never been to Scotland before. This is
38. I started learning English 5 years ago. I've
39. The last time I saw him was in 1995. I haven't
40. We haven't seen Ann for ages. It's ages
41. Linda's career as a television presenter began 4 years ago.
Linda has been
42. It started to rain at two o'clock. It has
43. Samuel started keeping a diary 2 years ago. Samuel has
44. It is ages since I last saw you. I haven't
45. We last saw him when we were students. We haven't
46. She is the most beautiful girl I've ever met. I've never
47. He hasn't received news from home for two months. The last time
II/ Chọn đáp án đúng trong số A, B, C hoặc D
1/ Hurry up ! We've been waiting for you. What's taking you so long ?
- I for an important phone call. Go ahead and leave without me.
A. wait B. will wait C. am waiting D. have waited
2/ Robert is going to be famous someday. He in 3 movies already.
A. has been appearing B. had appeared C. has appeared D. appeared
3/ "Where's Polly ?"" - "She "
A. is in her room
studying
B. in her room is
studying
C. studies in her
room
D. has in her room studied
4/ When is Mr Fields planning to retire ?
- Soon, I think. He here for a long time. He'll probably retire either next year or the year
after that.
A. worked B. had been working C. has been working D. is working
5/ Next week when there is a full moon, the ocean tides higher.
A. is being B. is C. will be D. will have been
6/ - I once saw a turtle that had wings. The turtle flew into the air to catch insects.
- I it.
A. don't believe B. am not believing C. didn't believe D. wasn't believing
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
7/ My family loves this house. It the family home ever since my grandfather built it 60 years
ago.
A. was B. has been C. is D. will be
8/ A minor earthquake occured at 2.00a.m on January 3rd. Most of the people in the
village at the time and didn't even know it had occured until the next morning.
A. slept B. had slept C. were sleeping D. slept
9/ Would you like to join Linda and me tomorrow ?
We visit the Natural Museum.
A. will B. are going to C. will be D. will have
10/ When I came, everyone
A. has left B. had left C. left D. was leaving
Danh động từ (Gerund)
I/ The form
V+ ing : - swimmimg, having, playing
II/ Một số mẫu câu với danh động từ
1/ Danh động từ đóng vai trò là chủ ngữ trong câu
- Swimming is my hobby. (Bơi là sở thích của tôi)
2/ Danh động từ làm bổ ngữ trong câu (đứng sau to be)
- My hobby is swimming.
3/ Danh động từ đợc sử dụng sau giới từ
*Một số cụm tính từ +giới từ + V-ing
to be interested in
afraid of
bored with
capable of
tired of doing sth
used to
good at ( giỏi về)
good for ( tốt cho ai, điều gì)
fond of
fed up with
excited about ( phấn khích)
Eg : - I'm afraid of flying.
- Are you bored with staying at home at weekends ?
- He's used to getting up early.
- Nam is good at learning French.
*Một số cụm động từ + giới từ
- succeed in doing sth thành công khi làm gì
- object to phản đối làm gì
- apologise for xin lỗi vì đã làm gì
- go on tiếp tục làm gì
- keep on cứ, tiếp tục
- give up từ bỏ làm gì
Eg : - He succeeded in finding a good job.
- I object to going out. ( Tôi phản đối việc tôi phải ra ngoài)
- I object to his going out. (Tôi phản đối việc anh ta ra ngoài)
- He apologised (to me) for breaking the glass. (Anh ta xin lỗi (tôi) vì đã đánh vỡ cái cốc)
* Một số ví dụ về các giới từ khác :
After, before, without, like , for , on
Eg : - He left my house without saying good bye. ( Anh ta rời nhà tôi mà không nói lời tạm biệt)
On seeing her mother, she burst out crying. = When she saw her mother, she burst into tears.
( Khi nhìn thấy mẹ, nó òa lên khóc)
- After saying good bye to me, he went back to the college.
4/ Danh động từ đợc sử dụng sau một số động từ
- love doing sth
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
- like
- hate
- enjoy
- begin
- start
- avoid (tránh)
- postpone (trì hoãn)
- mind (ngại, phiền)
- remember (Nhớ đã làm gì)
- regret doing sth ( Tiếc đã làm gì)
- prevent sb from doing sth ( Ngăn cản ai làm gì)
- suggest (gợi ý làm gì)
- consider (suy tính)
- deny (chối bỏ)
- keep (giữ, tiếp tục)
- practise (thực hành)
- admit (thú nhận)
- finish
- stop

Eg : - He suggested visiting the museum. ( Anh ta gợi ý đi thăm viện bảo tàng)
- We are considering leaving our village.
- He kept (on) listening to the radio.
- I don't mind working hard.
- Would you mind opening the window ?
- You should practise speaking English in class.
- The bad weather prevented us from having a picnic.
( Thời tiết xấu ngăn cản chúng tôi đi picnic)
- The children enjoy walking in the rain.
- My father started working here when he was 23.
- They stopped laughing when the teacher came in.
5/ Danh động từ đợc sử dụng để tạo thành danh từ kép : Dđtừ + Danh từ = Danh từ kép
Eg: - a reading lamp (đèn đọc sách) = a lamp for reading
- a travelling bag ( túi du lịch) = a bag for travelling
6/Danh động từ đợc sử dụng sau một số cụm từ sau
- can't stand/ can't bear không thể chịu đựng đợc
- can't help / can't resist không thể đừng đợc
- look forward to mong muốn
- It's no use vô ích khi làm gì
- It's no good
- There's no point in
- It's (not) worth Thật (không ) đáng
Eg : -I look forward to hearing from you. ( Tôi mong nhận đợc tin cậu)
- It's no use waiting for her. ( Thật vô ích khi đợi cô ta)
There's no point in asking him for money.
- We can't help laughing when he told his funny story.
( Chúng tôi không nhịn đợc cời khi nghe anh ấy kể chuyện cời)
- It's worth reading this book. (Thật đáng đọc cuốn sách này)
7. S + V + possessive adj / object pronoun + Gerund
(Chủ ngữ + đ từ + t từ sở hữu/ đại từ tân ngữ + Danh động từ )
- object to one's doing sth (phản đối ai làm gì)
- insist on one's doing sth (nài nỉ ai làm gì)
- approve / disapprove of one's doing sth (chấp nhận/ không chấp nhận ai làm gì)
- dislike one's doing sth (không thích ai làm gì)
Eg : - We object to his/ him coming late. (Chúng tôi phản đối anh ta đến muộn)
- I object to working overtime this week.
(Tôi phản đối việc phải làm việc quá giờ vào tuần này)
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
- They insisted on my attending the party. ( Họ nài nỉ tôi đến dự tiệc)
- She insisted on seeing the manager.= She insisted that she had to see the manager.
( Cô ta khăng khăng đòi gặp giám đốc)
- His parents disapprove of his marrying that woman.
(Bố mẹ anh ấy không tán thành anh ấy cới ngời đàn bà đó)
- I dislike people criticising me unfairly. (Tôi ghét việc mọi ngời chỉ trích tôi không công bằng)
Exercise 1: Provide the correct form of the verbs in brackets
1/ He doesn't enjoy (sit) alone and (do) nothing.
2/ My brother (give) up (fish) last year.
3/ Please go on (write). I don't mind (wait).
4/ Their children (be) afraid of (walk) on the street at night.
5/ Do you mind (turn) off the radio ?
6/ I'm fond of (swim) in the river.
7/ She (hate) (get) up early.
8/ We are fed up with (eat) the same food everyday.
9/ My child is bored with (play) with the same picture.
10/ We like (see) people living peacefully.
11/Are you interested in (have) dinner with me this afternoon ?
12/ Mr Long loves (watch) football on TV.
13/ Nam is used to (stay) up late.
14/ There's no point in (ask) him for money. He's broke.
15/ The bad weather prevented us from (go) on holiday.
16/ (Have) a talk with a man like him is really interesting.
Exercise 2: Use the suggestions to write complete sentences
1/ Lan / enjoy / listen / music.
2/ brother/ interested / find / new job.
3/ father / tired / work / his factory.
4/ father / give up / drink coffee / last month.
5/ your sister / fond / go swimming ?
6/ they / bored / talk / their neighbour.
7/ I / begin / learn / English / last year.
8/ They / stop / argue / when / I / arrive.
9/ The workers / start / widen / road / 1999.
10/ I can't stand / stay / home all day.
11/ He / leave / restaurant / without / pay the bill.
12/ They / stop / talk/ when / teacher / come in.
13/ Lan / hate / drink milk.
14/ I / not mind / work hard.
15/ sister / afraid / be at home / alone.
16/ We / bored / watch / Vietnamese films / TV.
17/ mother / interested / learn / foreign language.
18/ favourite pastime / fish.
19/ Play chess / not / pastime.
20/ I / not used to / work / overtime.
21/ Children / fed / with / water / flowers.
22/ They / fond / practise English.
Exercise 3: Fill in the blank with one suitable word
1/ They're bored watching the same programme everyday.
2/ His wife is washing the dishes.
3/ She enjoys at home on Sunday.
4/ I'm in playing the piano.
5/ We're fond English.
6/ Do you getting the remote control ?
Exercise 4: Read the following passage, use the suggestions to make questions and then answer
them.
Mr Smith used to be a worker, but now he is unemployed. He is 45 years old. It's not easy to start
looking for a job at his age. He's interested in learning a new skill but nobody wants to train him.
19
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
He's tired of sitting around the house. When he was with his factory he was bored with doing the
same thing everyday, but now he really enjoys doing a job again. He's looking forward to working
in a company in the city.
1/ Mr Smith / unemployed / now ?
2/ How old / he ?
3/ it / easy / start / look / job / his age ?
4/ What / he interested / do ?
5/ anyone / want / train him ?
6/ he / fond / sit/ around / house ?
7/ he / bored / do / same thing/ when / he / with / factory ?
8/ he / enjoy / do / a job / now ?
Exercise 5: Complete the following
1/ I don't mind
2/ He's interested
3/ They enjoy
4/ We are afraid
5/ Are you tired ?
Exercise 6: Complete the following
1/ A stick for walking is
2/ A rod for fishing is
3/ A pair of shoes for dancing is
4/ A bag for sleeping is
5/ A bag for traveling is
Exercise 7: Read the following passage and do the tasks below
Fishing is my favourite sport. I often fish for hours without catching anything. But this does not
worry me. Some fishermen are unlucky. Instead of catching fish, they catch old boots and rubbish.
I'm even less lucky. I never catch anything, not even old boots. After having spent the whole
morning on the river, I always go home with an empty bag. My friends advise me to give up
fishing, but they don't realize one important thing. I'm only interested in sitting in a boat and doing
nothing at all !
Use the suggestions to make questions and then answer them.
1/ What / writer's favourite sport ?
2/ he / catch / anything ?
3/ What / unlucky fishermen / catch ?
4/ What / writer / interested / do ?
Exercise 8: Điền vào chỗ trống một giới từ thích hợp
1/ Jane is always afraid flying.
2/ She's very bad foreign languages.
3/ You should drink this. It is good keeping fit.
4/ They succeeded finding a good job for their children.
5/ I object her coming to work late.
6/ Are you interested collecting stamps ?
7/ Lan's fond cooking.
8/ We're fed up learning philosophy.
9/ Mr Kha is used jogging in the morning.
10/ My teacher is capable writing articles.
11/ The students are bored his lectures.
12/ saying good bye to his wife, he left for London.
13/ I don't feel working here.
14/ He looked angry. He left my house saying good bye.
15/ She apologised her boyfriend hurting him.
16/ My parents approved my going to study at this college.
17/ I want to sell my house. I'm really tired my neighbour playing music at night.
18/ You can't succeed working hard.
19/ We can only succeed working hard.
20/ Do your parents approve your working for that company ?
21/ They are excited going to see the football match.
20
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
22/ I find it hard to get used driving on the left.
23/ You should turn off the lights leaving the room.
24/ seeing her brother, Lan burst out crying.
Exercise 9: Rewrite the following sentences
1/ Do you mind if I borrow your pen ? Do you mind ?
2/ "I don't want to walk there alone.", he shouted. He objected to
3/ "Sorry ! I'm late !", she said to me. She apologised
4/ "We don't want you to marry that woman", they said to me. They objected to
5/ Persuading her to come is pointless. It's no use
6 / It's pointless to worry about someone else's problems. There's no point
7/ He tried to escape but the police stopped him. The police prevented him
8/ "I'm sorry that I broke the glass', said Peter. Peter apologised
9/ She doesn't stay up so late. She's not used
10/ It was a bit difficult to get to work this morning. Getting to work
Infinitive (Động từ nguyên thể)
I/ The form :
to work, to play
II/ Một số mẫu câu sử dụng với động từ nguyên thể
1/ It + to be + adj + to do sth
It is dangerous to go out alone at night.( Thật là nguy hiểm khi đi ra ngoài một mình vào ban đêm)
2/ It + to be + adj + for sb + to do sth
It is necessary for you to learn English. ( Cậu cần phải học tiếng Anh)
3/ It + to be + adj + of sb + to do sth
It is very kind of you to help me. ( Cậu thật tốt bụng khi giúp tôi)
It was very careless of you to leave the door open last night. ( Cậu thật cẩu thả khi để cửa mở tối
qua)
4/ S + to be + too (quá) + adj + to do sth
- You are too young to get married. (Cậu còn quá trẻ để lập gia đình)
5/ S + to be + too + adj + for sb + to do
- The bag is too heavy for me to carry. (Cái túi quá nặng để tôi mang)
6/ S + to be + adj + enough + to do sth
I'm not strong enough to carry this case. (Tôi không đủ khỏe để mang cái va li này)
7/ S + to be + adj + enough + for sb +to do
- The bag isn't light enough for me to carry.
8/ S +V + too + adv + for sb + to do
- The cat ran too fast for the dog to catch.
9/ S + V + adv + enough + for sb + to do
- He doesn't speak slowly enough for us to understand. (Ông ấy không nói chậm để chúng tôi
hiểu)
10/ S + to be + the first / second to do sth
- He was the first person to leave the party.( Anh ta là ngời đầu tiên rời bữa tiệc)
= He was the first person who left the party.
Exercise I : Dùng từ gợi ý để viết thành câu hoàn chỉnh
1/ It / interesting / have a talk / him.
2/ It / unhealthy / live / this / house.
3/ It / boring / stay / home / Saturday.
4/ It / difficult / speak English well.
5/ It / wonderful / have / holiday / Paris.
6/ It / important / you / know how to drive.
8/ It / easy / her / finish work on time.
9/ It / impolite / him / say like that.
10/ It / careless / you / leave / umbrella / train yesterday.
11/ Mr Hai / too old / apply for that job.
12/ Children / too young / join this club.
21
Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
13/ The test / too difficult / us / do.
14/ house / too expensive / uncle / buy.
15/ We / not / rich / buy / car.
16/ shoes / not / cheap / me / buy.
17/ The task / not / easy enough / us / do.
18/ The robber / ran / too fast / policeman / catch.
19/ They / walking / too slowly / reach the top before night.
20/ Mr Ba / not speak clearly / us / understand.
21/ She / the last / person / come in.
22/ It / careless / you / let / door / open / last night.
23/ It / necessary / us / finish/ work / this afternoon.
Exercise II : Viết lại các câu sau, giữ nguyên nghĩa
1/ The man spoke too fast for us to understand. The man didn't
2/ She is very old so she can't dance beautifully. She is too
3/ Your writing is so small that I can't read it. Your writing
4/ To learn English is easy. It is
5 / They think speaking French is difficult. They think
6/ It isn't easy to start looking for a job at his age. Starting
7 / He is very old, so he can't apply for that job. He is too
8 / They ran too fast, so we couldn't catch them. They ran too
9 / She spoke too quickly for me to understand. She didn't
10 / Mrs Hoa was too weak to go to work yesterday. Mrs Hoa wasn't
11/ It is too cold, so we can't go out. It is
12/ He couldn't move the piano because it was too heavy. The piano was
13 / Mrs Hoa was the last person who came to visit him. Mrs Hoa
11/ Động từ nguyên thể đứng sau động từ to be
Eg : His ambition is to become a director.
( Tham vọng của ông ấy là trở thành giám đốc)
12/ Những động từ theo sau là động từ nguyên thể-
- agree đồng ý
- arrange sắp xếp
- attempt cố gắng
- fail thất bại
- neglect lơ là
- threaten đe dọa
- plan lập kế hoạch
- manage xoay sở
- refuse từ chối
- remember nhớ phải làm gì
- regret tiếc phải làm gì
- try cố gắng
- decide quyết định
- offer đề nghị
- want
- seem có vẻ, dờng nh
- promise hứa
- expect mong chờ
- hope hy vọng
- need cần
Eg : - She agreed to marry that old man.
- I'll arrange to meet her.
- They decided to move to Ha Noi.
- Tom failed to catch the train.
- I hope to see you again.
-They offer to do the shopping for us.
- I managed to get out of the car.
- She promised to wait for him.
- The kidnappers threatened to kill the child if his parents informed the police. ( Bọn bắt cóc
dọa giết đứa bé nếu bố mẹ cậu báo cảnh sát)
13/ Những động từ theo sau là tân ngữ và động từ nguyên thể
- advise sb to do sth khuyên
- encourage khuyến khích
- allow cho phép
- permit cho phép
- remind nhắc
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
- warn sb not to do sth cảnh báo ai đừng làm gì
- tell sb to do / not to do sth bảo ai làm gì / không làm gì
- order ra lệnh
- persuade thuyết phục
- invite mời
- want
- force bắt buộc
- ask yêu cầu
- help
Eg : - The doctor advised me to do morning exercise.
- I remind Minh to bring the umbrella.
- They allow their children to watch TV in the evening.
- My family encouraged me to apply for the job.
14/ Những động từ theo sau là tân ngữ và động từ nguyên thể không "to"
- make sb do sth ( Bắt ai làm gì )
- let sb do sth
- hear sb do sth
- watch sb do sth
- see sb do sth
- have sb do sth = get sb to do sth (nhờ ai làm gì)
Eg : - Our father made us work hard.
- Don't let him go out too much.
- I had my neighbour repair my bike. = I got my neighbour to repair my bike.
- Someone saw him steal the car.
15. Những cụm từ theo sau là động từ nguyên thể
- to be about to do sth ( sắp sửa làm gì)
- to be able to do sth ( có khả năng làm gì)
- do / try one's best to do sth ( cố gắng hết sức làm gì)
Eg : - I was about to leave when it started to rain.
- Try your best !
- She hasn't been able to find a job yet.
( Cô ta vẫn cha thể tìm đợc công việc)
16. Động từ nguyên thể dùng sau but , except (trừ, ngoại trừ)
Eg : - We can do nothing but wait.
- She does nothing but complain. ( Cô ta chẳng làm gì ngoài việc kêu ca.)
17. S + V + noun + to do sth
Eg : - He didn't have a chance to explain.
- We have a lot of work to do.
Exercise 1 : Rewrite the following sentences
1/ "You'd better do morning exercise, Minh", said I.
I advised
2/ "I won't lend you any more money !", she said to me.
She refused
3/ "Don't hurry !", my mother said to me.
My mother told
4/ "Don't go too near the elephant !", his father said to him.
His father warned him
5/ "Keep silent !', the teacher said to his pupils.
The teacher ordered
6/ "I think you'd better not go to work for a few days, Cathy".
I advised
7/ Finding a good job nowadays is difficult.
It's
8/ Lying in the sun is pleasant.
It's
9/ "Please don't tell anyone what happened.", Ann said to me.
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Ng÷ ph¸p vµ Bµi tËp TiÕng Anh c¬ b¶n vµ n©ng cao
→ Ann told me
10/ "You'd better not lend her any money, John", said Jack.
→ Jack advised
11/ " I won't let anyone know your address", she said to me.
→ She promised
12/ "Don't forget to order the supplies I need". My boss reminded me.
→ My boss reminded me
Exercise 2: Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form
1/ Try to avoid (make) him angry.
2/ Stop (argue) and start (work).
3/ It's no use (cry) over spilt milk.
4/ I suggest (hold) another meeting.
5/ He finished (speak) and sat down.
6/ It's difficult to get used to (eat) with chopsticks.
7/ He warned her (not touch) the wire.
8/ I want the boys (grow) up hating violence.
9/ We are looking forward to (read) your new book.
10/ I advise him (ask) the bus conductor (tell) him where (get) off.
11/ After (read) this article you will give up (smoke).
12/ Is there anything here worth (read) ?
13/ She promises (wait) for me.
14/ Would you mind (put) your pet snake somewhere else ?
15/ I don't feel like (work); what about (go) to a disco instead?
16/ He taught me how (light) a fire without matches.
17/ By (work) day and night he succeeded in (finish) the job in time.
18/ The sea was too rough for the children (swim).
20/ He tried (explain) but she refused (listen).
21/ I get tired of (stay) at home for my wife keeps (shout) at me all day.
22/ I can't help (sneeze); I caught a cold yesterday from (sit) in a draught.
23/ His doctor advised him (take) up (jog).
24/ I regret (inform) you that your application has been refused.
25/ People used to (make) fire by (rub) two sticks together.
26/ I tried (persuade) him (agree) with my proposal.
28/ He hates (answer) the phone, and very often just lets it (ring).
32/ They try their best (make) us (buy) the things we don't need.
33/ We object to his (go) out.
36/ He was about (leave) when she came.
46/ He tried (make) me (believe) that he was my stepbrother.
47/ Carol had no difficulty in (make) friends.
48/ When she heard the bad news, she burst out (cry).
49/ They left early in order to avoid (get) caught in the traffic.
50/ We don't want anybody (know) that we are here.
51/ I'm tired of my neighbours (play) their records at full volume at night.
52/ Sam was reluctant, but we finally got him (play) his guitar for us.
53/ My roommate's handwriting is very bad, so he had me (type) his paper for him last night.
54/ (Eat) in restaurant as often as they do is very expensive.
55/ Marone needs (find) another job. Her present company is going out of business.
56/ Joan is considering (move) to London.
57/ I hope (write) my autobiography before I die.
58/ Joy thanked us for (invite) them to dinner.
59/ You should plan (arrive) at the stadium early.
60/ My lawyer advised me (not say) anything further about the accident.
61/ When the university suggested (raise) the tuition again, the student senate protested
vigorously.
62/ Are we permitted (bring) the guests to the ceremony ?
63/ The city agreed (accept) the architect's proposed design for a new parking garage.
64/ She's so impatient ! She can't stand (wait) in line for anything.
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Ngữ pháp và Bài tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản và nâng cao
65/ Ms Thompson is always willing to help, but she doesn't want anyone (call) her at home unless
there is an emergency.
66/ I made my son (wash) the window before he could go outside to play with his friends.
67/ It is always interesting (observe) people in airports while you're waiting for a flight.
Phân từ hiện tại (Present Participles)
1. Form : V-ing : working , driving
2. The use
* Làm trạng ngữ trong câu
Eg : - Driving along the road I saw an accident. = When I was driving along the road I saw an
accident. ( Tôi thấy một vụ tai nạn khi tôi đang lái xe trên đờng. )
- Fearing that the police would recognize him, he never went out in daylight. = As he feared that
the police would recognize him, he never went out in daylight.
(Sợ rằng cảnh sát sẽ nhận ra cho nên hắn không bao giờ đi ra ngoài vào ban ngày)
* Nếu muốn nhấn mạnh hành động trớc diễn ra xong rồi mới đến hành động thứ 2 ta dùng dạng
"Having done"
Eg : - Having written the letter, I went to post it. = When I had written the letter, I went to post it.
( Khi đã viết xong th, tôi mang đi gửi)
* Đợc sử dụng trong mẫu câu:
- waste time doing sth ( lãng phí thời gian làm gì)
- spend time doing sth (dùng thời gian làm gì)
- see sb doing ( Nhìn thấy ai đang làm gì)
- watch sb doing ( Quan sát ai đang làm gì)
- keep ( Bắt, giữ ai làm gì)
- catch ( Bắt gặp ai đang làm gì)
- find ( Phát hiện thấy ai đang làm gì)
- feel sth/ sb doing (Cảm thấy cái gì đang diễn ra/ ai đang làm gì)
- leave sb doing sth (để cho ai làm gì)
- to be busy doing sth (mải mê làm gì)
- go shopping, swimming, hunting, fishing
Eg : - Don't waste time playing video games.
- We caught a child climbing over the wall.
- I saw an old man coming into that house.
- Don't keep her waiting !
- Mr Whithe wastes time going to the pub.
- My father spent 2 years working in Hue.
- They found someone lying under the bed.
- Do you want to go dancing this afternoon ?
Gerund and infinitive instructions
1. Try
a.Try to do sth ( Cố gắng làm gi)
Eg : - You should try to work hard.
b. Try doing sth ( thử làm gì)
Eg : - I decided to try playing hockey. ( Tôi quyết định thử chơi môn hockey )
2. Allow
a. Allow sb to do sth ( Cho phép ai làm gì)
Eg : - They allow their children to watch TV in the evening. ( Họ cho phép con của họ xem phim
vào buổi tối)
b. Allow doing sth ( Cho phép làm gì)
Eg : - They don't allow smoking here. ( Họ không cho phép hút thuốc ở đây)
3. Stop
a. Stop doing sth ( Dừng làm gì)
Eg : - They stopped playing football when it rained. ( Họ ngừng chơi bóng khi trời ma)
b. Stop to do sth ( Dừng lại để làm một việc gì khác)
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