Tải bản đầy đủ

agape in the selected works of thich nhat hanh - implications on vietnamese students’ values





THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



i

AGAPE IN THE SELECTED WORKS OF THICH NHAT HANH:
IMPLICATIONS ON VIETNAMESE STUDENTS’ VALUES




A Dissertation
Presented to the
Faculty of the Graduate School
Batangas State University
Batangas City, Philippines





In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy in English










By
Nguyen Thuy Linh (Link)
December, 2014




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



ii

APPROVAL SHEET
This dissertation entitled AGAPE IN THE SELECTED WORKS
OF THICH NHAT HANH: IMPLICATIONS ON VIETNAMESE
STUDENTS’ VALUES prepared and submitted by MA. NGUYEN THUY
LINH in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree doctor of
Philosophy in English has been examined and is recommended for oral
Examination.

LUISA A. VALDEZ
Adviser

PANEL OF EXAMINERS
Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a grade of _____





Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree doctor of Philosophy in English Language and Literature.






THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



iii

ABSTRACT
Title : Agape in the Selected Works of Thich Nhat Hanh:
Implications on Vietnamese Students’ Values
Author : MA. Nguyen Thuy Linh
Degree : Doctor of Philosophy
Major : English Language and Literature
Year : 2014
Adviser : Dr. Luisa A. Valdez


Summary
The study attempted to analyze Thich Nhat Hanh’s two selected
works entitled True Love: A Practice of Awakening the Heart and Being
Peace, pointing out events and situations on how the agape is reflected
in these works. Likewise, this study tries to present how the selected
works of Thich Nhat Hanh manifest the meaning of respect, peace, and
service; and to show the social issues particularly focused on the youth;
and to bring about from these works the implications of agape on
Vietnamese students’ values. This dissertation was guided by the idea
that literature can be a writer’s channel for conveying the philosophical
dimension of agape.




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



iv

This study employed the qualitative method of research in
analyzing the tenets of agape in the representative literary works
chosen. This study also involved content analysis, which is a systematic
technique in analyzing message content and message handling.
The data analysis in this research centered on pattern seeking
and the extraction of meaning from Thich Nhat Hanh’s selected literary
narrative or image data. Much effort was focused on the task of
recording data or making notes through concepts and categories;
altering or creating new codes or more subtle categories; linking and
combining abstract concepts; extracting the essence; organizing
meaning; creating theory from emerging themes; writing an
understanding; and drawing conclusions.
The essential features in the treatment of materials were
considered by the researcher in the conduct of this study. The general
rules cited by Stott (2014) as regards the seven standards a piece of
literature should abide to in order to be considered literary guided in the
selection of works under study.
For the purpose of this study and to give philosophical credibility,
the representative literary works were analyzed: Love Is Being There,
Overcoming Pride, Interbeing, Meditation in Daily Life, Feelings and
Perceptions, Working for Peace, Telephone Meditation, Everybody




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



v

Should Practice Mindfulness, The Heart of Practice, and The Three
Gems, which are all found in his masterpieces entitled True Love: A
Practice of Awakening the Heart, and Being Peace.
In subjecting the materials to internal and external criticism and
analysis, the meaning and trustworthiness of the statements in the
aforecited primary and secondary sources were carefully chartered and
analyzed.
Likewise, to attain congruency between the theories used in
explaining the concept of agape, coding and categorization were
conducted. Direct lines were lifted from the selections served as the
primary and juxtaposed with the theoretical statements discussed.
These passages from the chosen prose and poetry substantiated the
theoretical basis of the study.

Findings
The study yielded the following findings:
1. The Historical Root of Agape in the Buddhist Tradition

The root of agape in the Buddhist religion started with the birth of
Buddha Shakyamuni as a royal prince in 624 BC in a place called
Lumbini, which was originally in Northern India but is now part of Nepal.
“Shakya” is the name of the royal family into which he was born, and




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



vi

“Muni” means “Able One.” His parents gave him the name Siddharta
and there were many wonderful predictions about his future. In his early
years, he lived as a prince in his royal palace but when he was 29 years
old, he retired to a forest where he followed a life of spiritual meditation.
His intention in founding Buddhism was to lead living beings to
permanent liberation from suffering because he realized that temporary
liberation from suffering and difficulties is not enough. Motivated by love
and compassion, his aim was to help living beings find lasting love or
nirvana.
Historically, agape is one of the basic founding principles of
Buddhism. Motivated by love and compassion, the founder of Buddhism
strived to help others find love. This clearly states the early stint of
unselfish, unrequited love, agape love, in the early days of Buddhism.
Buddhism, formed from the very beginning, has expressed relief
of suffering and mental distress for men. In the teachings of the
Buddha, people need to have agape - compassion and loving-kindness.
This is a fundamental factor to help develop agape or compassion and
relieve happiness suffering, leading to the orientation of Buddhist
activities for people. Thus, one can already see the emergence of this
virtue in the historical pages of Buddhism.




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



vii

2. The Manifestations of Agape in the Following Works of Thich
Nhat Hanh
In the Buddhist tradition, the teachings on agape or true love
offered by the Buddha are called the four Brahmaviharas. The word
“vihara” is used to refer to an abode or a dwelling place and the word
“brahmavihara” means dwelling place of the God Brahma. Thich Nhat
Hanh (2011) and Ward and Ward (2008), called these teachings the
four immeasurable namely: loving-kindness (maitri), compassion
(karuna), joy (mudita), and equanimity (upeksha). They are said to be
the four aspects of true love within every man and everything. They are
referred to as “immeasurable” because of the belief that if men practice
these virtues, the love in their hearts will grow so much that it cannot be
measured.
From the selected literary pieces, readers can glean Thich Nhat
Hanh’s portrayal of how the practice of the immeasurable mind of
loving-kindness extinguishes anger in the hearts of living beings; the
practice of the immeasurable mind of compassion eliminates all sorrows
and anxieties in the hearts of living-beings; the practice of
immeasurable mind of joy removes sadness and joylessness in the
hearts of living beings; and the practice of immeasurable mind of




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



viii

equanimity puts an end to hatred, aversion, and attachment in the heart
of living beings.
3. The Virtues of Peace, Respect, and Service Portrayed in the
Selected Works
From the selections, Nhat Hanh’s concepts of the virtues of peace,
respect, and service were also portrayed. This Zen Buddhist monk is
convinced that everybody can practice mindfulness, inner peace, deep
listening and loving speech not only for the sake of their own inner
peace and happiness but for the other people as well. Another virtue
which is portrayed in the selected works is respect or reverence. Such
respect recognizes and honours the presence of the sacred in
everything - the bodies, other people, animals, species, or nature.
Respect is also an attitude men should have toward personal
possessions, those of others, or things in the neighbourhood, village,
community and surrounding landscape. The virtue of service is likewise
portrayed in the identified works. Nhat Hanh believed that service does
not start when people have something to give - it springs naturally when
they have nothing left to take. They start to do their part - initially, by
becoming mindful of the offerings and services they receive, then by
feeling grateful for them, and finally by continuing to pay forward their
blessings with a joyful heart. Service, for him means awareness or




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



ix

knowing what is going on. Nhat Hanh emphasized that when a group of
people manifest the virtues of peace, respect and perform a kind of
service as a practice, it creates an ecosystem that holds a space,
allowing value to emerge organically. All of these indirect values, the
ripple effect, have space and time to add up, synergize with other
ripples, and multiply into something completely unexpected.
4. The social issues particularly focusing on the youth are gleaned
from the selections.
In the context of this study, the term social issues are referred to
as social problems or societal induced conditions that harm segments of
the Vietnamese populace particularly the youth. These problems are
also related to acts and conditions that violate the norms and values
found in the society. Some of these common social issues particularly
focused and have affected the youth which can be gleaned from the
selected works of Nhat Hanh include poverty, environmental
degradation, war, violence, equality or discrimination, social injustice,
and suppression of human rights.
5. The Implications of Thich Nhat Hanh’s Agape on Noted
Vietnamese Values.
The gentle and simple tone of Thich Nhat Hanh’s literature is an
embodiment of the Vietnamese culture and way of life as well. In the




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



x

analysis of his writings, it can be gleaned that the central theme of
agape, its facets, principles and related concepts, bore relation to noted
Vietnamese values and customs as well. Nhat Hanh captured the true
essence of agape in his selected works. The context of his works
analyzed all showed the search of man for peace, compassion and love
in a world where great changes are happening. In the same way, the
world of Vietnamese people and their society is undergoing drastic
changes too.
Nhat Hanh’s agape, comprised of respect and peace, and service
reflect the heart and soul of the Vietnamese people’s spirit. The
unyielding attitude of these people against major challenges
characterizes the compassion of the people for each other, concerned
for the welfare of their kinsmen.
Thus, through the selected works, the Vietnamese people,
especially teenagers realize that agape or compassion plays an
important role in life because it has left the depth of thought and
become really ingrained moral lifestyle of the Vietnamese people.
Concurrently, the practice of four immeasurable minds help men
perfect moral personality, give them to altruism lifestyle, equality,
charity.





THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



xi

Conclusions
Based on the findings and interpretations of the study, the
following conclusions are drawn:
1. The historical root of agape can be traced back to the early days
of Buddhism and is manifested in many teachings of the said religion.
2. From the selected literary pieces, Thich Nhat Hanh elaborated
on the Four Immeasurable Minds known as loving-kindness,
compassion, joy and equanimity as concrete expressions of man’s
deepest love.
3. Nhat Hanh emphasized that when a group of people manifest
the virtues of peace, respect and perform a kind of service as a
practice, it creates an ecosystem that holds a space, allowing value to
emerge organically. All of these indirect values, the ripple effect, have
space and time to add up, synergize with other ripples, and multiply into
something completely unexpected.
4. There are social issues particularly focused and have affected
the youth. These include poverty, environmental degradation, war,
violence, equality or discrimination, social injustice, and suppression of
human rights. It is very important for the youth to take part in engaged
Buddhism to avoid social problems that violate the norms and values of
the Vietnam society.




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



xii

5. Research has also shown that practicing four immeasurable
minds daily to help people curb greed, hatred and delusion to have the
peaceful mind.

Recommendations further studies
From the foregoing findings and conclusions, the researcher offers
the following recommendations:
- Further and wider research or expanding the scope of the study
order to look at the philosophy comprehensively and the radical
Buddhist ethics aim to initiate, user-friendly human.
- The further development of this study about Buddhism is to
propose solutions to eliminate social evils in society, especially the
youth.










THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



xiii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the many
individuals who have supported me in my studies.
I wish to acknowledge first and foremost the instruction and hard
work of my dissertation advisor, Dean of Colleges, Head of the
Graduate School and Visiting Professor, Prof. Maluh A.Valdez. I feel
truly lucky to have had the opportunity to work with her closely. It was
she who first inspired and interested me in the field of literature and in
her gentle way she has acted as an excellent advisor from the very
beginning when I started working with her up to the present. She has
always provided a helpful direction, assistance and support for my
dissertation whenever I needed it. Without her guidance and support,
this dissertation would have been impossible.
I am also grateful to the other members of my doctoral
committees from the Batagas State University, Philippines, Prof. Matilda
H.Dimaano, Prof. Amada Banaag, Prof.Lavage B. Labura for their
valuable comments and suggestions.
I would like to thank to Dr. Prof. Dang Kim Vui, the President of
TNU, for the linkage between the Thai Nguyen University and the
Batangas State University and Dr. Prof. Nguyen The Hung, Director for




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



xiv

International Training Centre for his help so that the learners complete
this course.
Many thanks should also go to other related people for their
academic supports towards the end of this research, Ms. Le Quynh Anh
in International Training Center, College of Agriculture and Forestry,
Thai Nguyen University.
I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my family who are
always there to cheer me up and stand by my side with the
unquestioned support.
Last, but not least, I am deeply indebted to my husband, for his
patience and for his unlimited support and love. Without him, I would not
have been able to complete this long journey.
The Researcher












THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



xv

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
TITLE PAGE ……………………………………………………… i
Table of Contents ……………………………….…… …… ii
CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM
Introduction ……………………………….…….


1
Statement of the Problem ………………….…. 4
Scope,Delimitation and Limitation of the
Study
5
Significance of the Study ………………… …

7
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual Literature ………………………….


9
Research Literature …………………………….

35
Synthesis ……………………………….………. 40
Theoretical Framework ………………………

44
Conceptual Framework ……………………… 49
Definition of Terms …………………………… 52
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Method ………………………………


52
Treatment of Materials ………………………… 56
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA






THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam




BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



xvi

Analysis and Interpretation…………………… 62
CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary…………………………………….…

138
Findings ………………………………………… 141
Conclusions …………………………………… 146
Recommendations ……………………….……. 147

BIBLIOGRAPHY
CURRICULUM VITAE









THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



1

CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM
Introduction
Nowadays, while the human being strides on the path of
development towards the knowledge society, opened society, the more
"great risk" posed for the whole society, including the degradation of
ethics, lifestyle becoming a global problem. Sadly, this situation occurs
more frequently in young people, especially, in pupils, and students -
the future owners of the country. And Vietnam is one of the countries
which need to give the alarm about morality and lifestyle. Facing
requirements for sustainable development of the country, Vietnam is
necessary to build a new moral foundation in order to be suitable for
ages on the basis of inheriting the moral values, the good traditional of
the nation.
Born in India, spent nearly 20 centuries existence and
development of the nation, Buddhism has left a deep commitment of
thought and become really ingrained moral lifestyle of Vietnam people
because Buddhism is always appreciated as compassion, charity. Since
the transmission of Buddhism into Vietnam, the helping rescue the spirit
of Buddha is widely promoted in a country where were affected by many
war-torn, disasters. It is the important reasons to tie to Buddhism and be
accompanied with the Vietnamese people through the long year.
The philosophy of loving-kindness, compassion, joy, and
equanimity encouraging human to live in a friendly and good way, it is
easy for Buddhism to take part in the heart of human beings in order to
perfect ethic personality, and create men to have lifestyle of altruism,
equality, charity. It also has proved that Buddhism is in accordance with
the ethics of Vietnamese people, and it has made a positive contribution




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



2

for the construction and defense of the homeland. Today in the complex
context of the political situation - the world cultural, the positive values
of Buddhism are proven again.
Men have made significant progress in science and technology,
but it is likely that people never feel miserable and anxious as today. A
series of complicated political situation of the world and the dark side of
the industry make the natural ecological environment and humanistic
environment be seriously polluted. Among these challenges, increasing
income gap, poverty reduction, rampant corruption, and ethnic conflicts
and growing religion have appeared. In addition, natural disasters and
climate change, the inequality of women, and poor understanding of the
law, and the potential threat to growth and development of Asia
countries in the future more and more, and Vietnam also suffer more
from these hazards. Thus, before this situation, Buddhism has an
important role to contribute to support our country's security and to
ensure social justice.
Buddhism, formed from the very beginning, has expressed relief
of suffering and mental distress for men. In the teachings of the
Buddha, people need to have agape - compassion and loving-kindness.
This is a fundamental factor to help develop agape or compassion and
relieve happiness suffering, leading to the orientation of Buddhist
activities for people. Thus, in the literature, there are many works born
and honestly reflect these phenomena. And the writer named as Thich
Nhat Hanh is mentioned. He has considered as the one who was
enlightening for people to enjoy the pure life. Agape is valuable quality
required of every man that Nhat Hanh mentioned in the typical work of
this study.




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



3

Thich Nhat Hanh is a Vietnamese Buddhist monk, teacher,
author, poet and peace activist who now lives in France. Born Nguyễn
Xuân Bảo, Nhat Hanh joined a Zen monastery at the age of 16, and
studied Buddhism as a novitiate. Upon his ordination as a monk in
1949, he assumed the Dharma name Thich Nhat Hanh. Thích is an
honorary family name used by all Vietnamese monks and nuns,
meaning that they are part of the Shakya or the Shakyamuni Buddha
clan. He is the leader of Buddhism influenced the second largest in the
West only after the Dalai Lama (http://thichgvdevindia.blogspot.com/).
He has left men the famous literature works and teachings all over the
world.
His literature works about the ways of life and principles of the
Buddhist teachings to bring people living in peace and happiness.
Agape was presented very clearly in prose and poetry of Thich Nhat
hanh. With a gentle melody is reflected in the work, agape has affected
to human beings in life.
Moreover, Nhat Hanh’s works such as True Love: A Practical of
Awakening the Heart, and Being Peace have reflected more clearly the
concept of agape. Concurrently, these works help men recognize the
valuable living principles, and the ways to solve the social problems and
especially these focused on the youth all over the world in general and
in Vietnam in particular.
One of the most important teachings of Nhat Hanh is to
emphasize respect, peace and service, combined with the practice of
mindfulness in daily life. He said that the school directors help mankind
to live deeply each moment of daily life, and treat the sadness and
pain, and concurrently, men also know how to manipulate joy,
happiness, and peace in their daily lives when going, standing, talking,




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



4

laughing, working. From the perspective of the Bodhisattva practice, as
often said in Beijing: "The ball is headed"; "Great compassion is
fundamental. Without compassion, there is no Dharma because of
Dharma developed on the basis of compassion.
Through the teachings of Nhat Hanh, Vietnamese students will be
able to contact their own values with the values shown in the Buddhist
his work. Love, peace, respect, and service and the other values are
defined as the core values of the Vietnamese people. While reading and
analyzing of representative works of Nhat Hanh, the Vietnamese people
realize agape, is the origin of morality. Agape is nothing beyond human
beings, not outside man. Each one cultivate his moral to improve
human personality in order to contribute to building a civilized, good,
peace and happiness society.
With these thoughts in mind, the researcher who is an English
teacher from the Thai Nguyen University of Information and
Communication Technology deemed the necessary to analyze the
literary works of Thich Nhat Hanh to gain honest implications of his
virtue of agape on Vietnamese students’ values

Statement of the Problem
The study primarily aims to identify manifestations of agape in
selected works of Thich Nhat Hanh and their implications on
Vietnamese student values.
Specifically, this study seeks answers to the following questions:
1. What is the historical root of agape in the Buddhist Tradition?
2. How is the agape in the following works of Thich Nhat Hanh
manifested:
2.1 True Love: A Practical of Awakening the Heart; and




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



5

2.2 Being Peace?
3. How are the following virtues portrayed in the selected works in terms of:
3.1 respect;
3.2 peace and;
3.3 service?
4. What social issues particularly focusing on the youth are gleaned
from the selections indented?
5. What are the implications of Thich Nhat Hanh’s agape on noted
Vietnamese students’ values indented?.

Scope, Delimitation and Limitation of the Study

This study analyzes of agape as embodied in the selected literary
pieces of Thich Nhat Hanh pointing out the events and situations which
show the implications of the writer’s agape on noted Vietnamese
students’ values Likewise, this paper tries to present how the historical
beginnings of agape in the Buddhist tradition; the virtues of loving-
kindness, compassion, joy and equanimity as the essence of agape; the
virtues of peace, respect and service portrayed in the selected works;
the social issues particularly focused on the youth gleaned from the
selections; and the implications of the writer’s agape on noted
Vietnamese students’ values.
This study employed the qualitative method of research in
analyzing the Thich Nhat Hanh’s concept of agape in the representative




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



6

literary works chosen. Likewise, this analysis made use of the
sociological, philosophical and historical approaches as the bases for
analysis. In particular, the Sociological and Philosophical Approaches
are supported by Goseph Fletcher’s Situational Ethics and Peter Alber
David Singer’s Utilitarian ethics Theories. Other approaches in literary
criticism that may be employed in the analysis like the Formalist
Criticism, Biographical Criticism, Historical Criticism, and Psychological
Criticism are not part of this study.
This paper also involved content analysis, which is a systematic
technique in analyzing message content and message handling. The
data analysis in this research centered on pattern seeking and the
extraction of meaning from Thich Nhat Hanh’s selected literary narrative
or image data. Much effort was focused on the task of recording data or
making notes through concepts and categories; altering or creating new
codes or more subtle categories; linking and combining abstract
concepts; extracting the essence; organizing meaning; creating theory
from emerging themes; writing an understanding; and drawing
conclusions.
The essential features in the treatment of materials were
considered by the researcher in the conduct of this study. The general
rules cited by Stott (2014) as regards the seven standards a piece of




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



7

literature should abide to in order to be considered literary guided in the
selection of works under study.
The representative literary works were analyzed: Love Is Being
There, Overcoming Pride, Interbeing, Meditation in Daily Life, Feelings
and Perceptions, Working for Peace, Telephone Meditation, Everybody
Should Practice Mindfulness, The Heart of Practice, and The Three
Gems, which are all found in his masterpieces entitled True Love: A
Practice of Awakening the Heart, and Being Peace. The said selections
were chosen because of the correlation between the afforecited
themes, literary devices, the social issues particularly focused on the
youth gleaned from the selections, which helped in unveiling the
implications of the writer’s agape on noted Vietnamese students’
values.

Significance of the Study
The germaneness of literary analysis as an essential part of a
research study is highlighted in terms of its significance to a number of
individuals. Therefore, it is vital to expound how this study is beneficial
to Viet Nam’s Ministry of Education and Training and Educational
Institutions, Vietnamese teachers and students, and the members of the
community.
Viet Nam’s Ministry of Education and Training and
Educational Institutions: employ this study to ensure that the practice
of agape can access the academe and spawn activities in the curricula




THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



8

that will educate pupils, students the traditional moral values of the
Vietnamese people from social evils, environmental degradation, war,
violence, social injustice and human rights abuses.
Vietnamese teachers and students: can utilize as the reference
source, and to help students to realize agape which is always seen as
the very important factor in life. The value of true love, peace, respect
and service for each other to create the atmosphere of peace and
warmth for themselves and for society are performed by learners.
The members of the community: can realize the value of agape
or compassion while living, learning and working in every society or
nation. The results of the study also shows that practicing four
immeasurable minds brings a peace and happiness life for man.




















THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY
Socialist Republic of Vietnam





BATANGAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Republic of the Philippines



9

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The following review of literature is presented with the end view of
identifying the constructs of the study.

Conceptual Literature
The review of conceptual literature yields five types of
constructs, which are used in the analysis and interpretation of the
prose and poems dissected. These constructs include: Literature and
Philosophy; Thich Nhat Hanh, his Significant Works and Philosophy;
Social Issues; Philosophical Human Transformation; and Sociological
and Philosophical Approaches in Literary Criticism.

Literature and Philosophy.
Literature is the art of written work by writers. Literature explores
or brings to people not only the real world but also reflects the people’s
life in the true ways. It reminds the past events happening for a long
time and can continue at the moment.
Moreover, Boris Pasternak (1998) regards literature as the art of
discovering something extraordinary about ordinary people, and saying
with ordinary words something extraordinary. Literature also adds to

Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×

×