Tải bản đầy đủ

Ảnh hưởng của các loại hỗn hợp đất vùng rễ cỏ lên sinh trưởng của hai giống cỏ Tifwarf và Tifeagle tại sân golf Thủ Đức, tp Hồ Chí Minh

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'$1+6È&+&È&%Ҧ1* ....................................................................................... vii
DANH SÁCH CÁC HÌNH ........................................................................................ vii
DANH SÁCH CÁC HÌNH ........................................................................................ vii
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WUӗQJ .......................................................................................................................... 33
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WUӗQJ .......................................................................................................................... 34
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WUӗQJ .......................................................................................................................... 35
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WUӗQJ .......................................................................................................................... 36
%ҧQJDҦQKKѭӣQJFӫDKӛQKӧSÿҩWOrQVLQKWUѭӣQJFӫDFKӗLYjUӉVDXWUӗQJ ... 37
%ҧQJEҦQKKѭӣQJFӫDKӛQKӧSÿҩWOrQVLQKWUѭӣQJFӫDFKӗLYjUӉVDXWUӗQJ ... 38
viii
DANH SÁCH CÁC HÌNH

+uQK³7UiLWLPFӫDVkQJROI´*UHHQ ..................................................................... 5
+uQKĈѭӡQJOăQEyQJIDLUZD\ ............................................................................. 7
+uQK&KѭӟQJQJҥLYұWKӕFiWEXQNHU .................................................................. 8
+uQK&KѭӟQJQJҥLYұW KӗQѭӟFZDWHUKD]DUG ....................................................... 9
+uQK6ѫÿӗEӕWUtWKtQJKLӋPNLӇXO{VӑF .............................................................. 18
+uQK'өQJFөOҩ\PүXÿҩW.................................................................................... 18
+uQK9ӏWUtOҩ\PүXÿҩWWUrQPӝWO{WKtQJKLӋPÿѫQYӏ .......................................... 18
+uQKĈRWӕFÿӝWKҩPQJRjLÿӗQJ.......................................................................... 23
+uQK'өQJFөÿөFOӛFӡ ....................................................................................... 24
+uQK9ӏWUtOҩ\PүXFӓWUrQPӝWO{WKtQJKLӋPÿѫQYӏ ........................................... 24
+uQKĈRFKLӅXGjLUӉ ............................................................................................ 25
+uQK/ҩ\FӓJLӕQJWӯYѭӡQѭѫP .......................................................................... 26
+uQK7UӝQKӛQKӧSÿҩW ......................................................................................... 26
+uQK5ҧLOӟSFiWPӓQJVDXNKLUҧLFӓ ................................................................. 27


1
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1.1 ĈһWYҩQÿӅ
Golf ÿDQJOjPӝWP{QWKӇWKDRNKiPӟLPҿWҥL9LӋW1DPĈiQKJROIJL~SJLҧL
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cho nêQYLӋFTXҧQOêWKҧPFӓÿӇÿҥW\rXFҫXFӫDQJѭӡLFKѫLÿzLKӓLUҩWF{QJSKXYjUҩW
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trong bҧRGѭӥQJVkQFӓĈLӅXÿyOjPFKRQӅQ*UHHQFjQJEӏQpQFKһWOjPFKREӝUӉ
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*UHHQSKҧLFKӏXÿѭӧFVӭFQpQWKҩPQKDQKQKѭQJÿӗQJWKӡLJLӳҭPYjGLQKGѭӥQJ
WӕWWK{QJNKtYQJUӉĈӇFKӫÿӝQJWҥRNӃWFҩXÿҩWWKHR\rXFҫXÿyQJѭӡLWDWKѭӡQJ
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UҩWOӟQÿӃQTXiWUuQKEҧRGѭӥQJ Hai JLӕQJFӓFKR*UHHQÿѭӧFWUӗQJWҥLVkQ*ROI7Kӫ
2
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YQJQKLӋWÿӟLYjFұQQKLӋWÿӟL%URVQDQYj'HSXW\.
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ngoài sân bãi.
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lên siQK WUѭӣQJ FӫD KDL JLӕQJ Fӓ Tifdwarf và TifEagle WҥL VkQ JROI 7Kӫ ĈӭF -
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thàQKPӝWP{QWKӇWKDRSKәELӃQWURQJFiFQJj\WӃWQJj\KӝL7ѭѫQJWUX\ӅQWӯWKӡL
+DL%j7UѭQJWUzÿiQKSKӃWÿmÿѭӧFWәFKӭFÿӇUqQOX\ӋQWKӇOӵFYjPѭXWUtFKR
TXkQ Vƭ Tuy nhiên, WKHR Vӕ ÿ{QJ QKj QJKLrQ FӭX P{Q JROI Fy WKӇ [XҩW SKiW Wӯ
,FHODQGOjWUzFKѫLFӫDQKӳQJQJѭӡLFKăQFӯXQJj\[ѭD7URQJNKLODFӯXÿLăQKӑ
GQJFk\Jұ\FyPӝWÿҫXWRÿӇÿiQKYLrQVӓLWUzQÿL[DYjKӑWKLYӟLQKDX[HPDL
ÿiQKÿL[DQKҩWYjFKtQK[iFQKҩW
1ăP&/%JROIOҫQÿҫXWLrQWUrQWKӃJLӟLÿѭӧFWKjQKOұS± &/%JROIFӫD
FiFTXt{QJ7KH*HQWOHPHQW*ROIHURI/HLWKYӅVDX&/%Qj\ÿәLWrQWKjQK+LӋSKӝL
JROIGDQKGӵ(GLQEXUJKWKH+RQRXUDEOH&RPSDQ\RI(GLQEXUJK*ROIHU6ӵNLӋQÿy
ÿѭӧFQӕLWLӃSEҵQJYLӋFWKjQKOұS+LӋSKӝLJROIPDQJWrQ7KiQK$QGUHZV YjRQăP
6W$QGUHZV6RFLHW\RI*ROIHU1JX\rQWҳFWtQKÿLӇPÿѭӧFÿѭDUDYjRQăP
4
YjÿӃQQăPVkQJROIOӛEҳWÿҫXWUӣWKjQKPүXVkQJROIWLrXFKXҭQ9jWӟLQăP
JLӟLÿjQ{QJPҩWWKӃ³ÿӝFTX\ӅQ´NKL&/%FiFWD\JROIQӳÿѭӧFWKjQKOұS
0ӝWVӕTX\FKXҭQYӅ golf
0ӝWVkQJROIFiFOӛJROIOLrQWLӃSQKDXWURQJÿyPӛLEDRJӗPFiF YӏWUtSKiW
EyQJWHH ER[ ÿѭӡQJÿiQK IDLUZD\ YQJ JҥW EyQJ JUHHQ FiF FKѭӟQJQJҥL YұW
KD]DUGYjYQJÿӋPFҧQKTXDQ[XQJTXDQK7ҩWFҧÿӅXÿѭӧFWKLӃWNӃFKRPӝWWUұQ
ÿҩXWURQJVkQJROI&ѫVӕQKӓQKҩWFӫDPӝWVkQJROIOjÿѭӡQJJROIEDRJӗPÿѭӡQJ
QJҳQSDUÿѭӡQJWUXQJEuQKSDUYjÿѭӡQJGjLSDU. 6ӕÿѭӡQJÿiQKKROH
ӣPӝWVkQJROIWLrXFKXҭQOj
.K{QJFyKDL VkQJROIQjRÿѭӧF WKLӃW NӃJLӕQJ QKDXÿӏDKuQKFӫDFK~QJOX{Q OX{Q
NKiFQKDX0ӑLVkQJROIÿӅXFyPӝWÿLӇPFKXҭQSDUFӝQJGӗQFKRVӕÿѭӡQJÿiQKÿy
YjWәQJVӕF~ÿiQKPjPӝWFҫXWKӫJLӓLQKҩWFҫQWKӵFKLӋQÿӇÿѭDEyQJWӟLFiFOӛJROI
ĈӇWtQKÿѭӧFVӕÿLӇPFKXҭQFӝQJGӗQFӫDPӝWVkQJROIPӛLÿѭӡQJÿiQKÿѭӧFJLDR
PӝWÿLӇPFKXҭQW\WKXӝFYjRFKLӅXGjLFӫDÿѭӡQJEyQJÿy&yEDÿLӇPFKXҭQNKiF
QKDXSDUOjÿѭӡQJÿiQKFyFKLӅXGjLFKRÿӃQPPӝWÿѭӡQJÿiQKSDUFyFKLӅX
GjLWӯPÿӃQPYjÿѭӡQJÿiQKSDUFyFKLӅXGjLWUrQP
2.1.3 7KjQKSKҫQ FKtQKFӫD sân golf
0ӝWÿѭӡQJÿiQKEDRJӗPSKҫQÿҩW QҵPJLӳDNKXSKiWEyQJWHHLQJJURXQGvà khu
OӛJROISXWWLing green). .KRҧQJFiFKJLӳDNKXSKiWEyQJYjNKXOӛJROIOjKjQKODQJ
IDLUZD\NKXFӓFDRURXJKFiFKӕFiWEXQNHUVQѭӟFYjFiFFKѭӟQJQJҥLYұWNKiF
GRNLӃQWU~FVѭTX\ӃWÿӏQK&KLӅXGjLFӫDVkQKRjQWRjQNK{QJEҳWEXӝFQKѭQJWKHR
TX\ѭӟFFӫD USGA WKuFKLӅXGjLWӯYӏWUtSKiWEyQJWtQKWKHRWLPÿѭӡQJIDLUZD\WӟL
WUXQJWkPJUHHQWKѭӡQJ:
¾ ĈӕLYӟLQDPJLӟL
o 3DU'jLÿӃQ\DUGV
o 3DU7ӯ\DUGVÿӃQ\DUGV
o 3DU7ӯ\DUGVÿӃQ\DUGV
o 3DUWӯ\DUGVWUӣÿL
¾ ĈӕLYӟLSKөQӳ:
o Par 3: Dài ÿӃQ\DUGV
o 3DU7ӯ\DUGVÿӃQ\DUGV
5
o 3DU7ӯ\DUGVÿӃQ\DUGV
o 3DU7ӯ\DUGVWUӣÿL
2.1.3.1 Green
Green (putting green) OjQѫLPjPӑLJLiPÿӕFEҧRGѭӥQJVkQEmLJӑLOj³WUiLWLP
FӫDVkQJROI´7UrQJUHHQFyGX\QKҩWQKѭQJSXWWLQJJUHHQFó thӇFyQKLӅX PӝWOӛ
ÿѭӡQJNtQKLQ OjPPөFWLrXFKRFiFJROIWKӫÿiQKEyQJYjRYjÿѭӧFÿiQKGҩX
EҵQJFӡ.K{QJFyJUHHQQjRJLӕQJQKDXYjJUHHQFyWKӇWKD\ÿәLKuQKGҥQJWURQJTXi
WUuQKEҧRGѭӥQJ+uQKGiQJJUHHQSKәELӃQQKҩWOjKuQKEҫXGөFKRһFKuQKFKӳQKұW
&ӓWUrQJUHHQWKѭӡQJOjFiFJLӕQJFӓOiQKӓPӏQWKkQYjEҽOiUҩWQJҳQQKѭ7LI*UHHQ
EHUPXGD JUDVV 6HD ,VOH  3DVSDOXP JUDVV %HQWJUDVV«Fy FKLӅX FDR WKѭӡQJ
JLDRÿӝQJWӯPP± 4,2 PP%DRTXDQKJUHHQOjPӝWYjQKÿDLÿӋPFROODU.
&ROODU9jQKÿDLÿӋPTXDQKJUHHQFyEӅUӝQJNK{QJQKҩWÿӏQKYjWKѭӡQJEҵQJ
2 - EӅUӝQJFӫDPi\FҳWFӓJUHHQ&ӓWUӗQJӣYjQKÿDLSKҧLFQJJLӕQJYӟLFӓWURQJ
JUHHQYuPөFÿtFKFӫDYjQKÿDLOjYQJÿӋPQJăQFKһQFӫDFӓIDLUZD\WKѭӡQJPӑF
PҥQKKѫQFҳWFDR KѫQYjFKҩWOѭӧQJNpPKѫQ[kPQKұSOjPJLҧPFKҩWOѭӧQJYjWtQK
ÿӗQJQKҩWFӫDJUHHQ&KLӅXFDRFӓYQJQj\GDRÿӝQJ mm - 14 mm.

Hình 2.1 ³7UiLWLPFӫDVkQJROI´*UHHQ


6
2.1.3.2 Tee
7HHER[OjYQJÿҩWÿѭӧFJLӟLKҥQOjPYӏWUtSKiWEyQJYjÿѭӧFÿһWӣÿҫXPӛL
ÿѭӡQJJROI+uQKGҥQJWHHER[WKѭӡQJKuQKYX{QJKRһFEҫXGөF7UrQOêWKX\ӃWEӅPһW
WHHER[SKҷQJWX\ӋWÿӕLÿӇWҥRÿLӅXNLӋQWӕWQKҩWFKRF~SKiWEyQJQKѭQJNKLWKLF{QJ
QJѭӡLWDWKѭӡQJÿiQKPiLGӕFYӅSKtDVDXQKҵPWăQJNKҧQăQJWKRiWQѭӟFFho tee.
7ӯWHHER[QJѭӡLFKѫLEҳWÿҫXSKiWEyQJWHHVKRWÿӇKRjQWKjQKWUұQÿҩXFӫDPuQK
7K{QJWKѭӡQJ YӏWUtSKiWEyQJWUrQWHHER[ÿѭӧFJLӟLKҥQEҵQJKDL PӕFJӑLOj³WHH
PDUN´1JѭӡLFKѫLFKӍÿѭӧFSKpSÿһWEyQJPuQKWURQJJLӟLKҥQFӫDWHHPDUNQJѭӧF
YӅSKtDVDX&ӓWUӗQJӣWHHER[WKѭӡQJNKiFYӟLFӓӣJUHHQYjIDLUZD\FKLӅXFDRWUXQJ
bình 8 cm ± 12 cm
7K{QJWKѭӡQJPӛLÿѭӡQJJROIFyÿӃQWHHER[FyNKRҧQJFiFKÿӃQOӛJROI
NKiFQKDXÿjQKFKRFiFWUuQKÿӝWKӇOӵFNKiFQKDXYjSKkQELӋWEҵQJPjXQKҵPWҥR
PӝWWUұQ ÿҩXF{QJEҵQJYjQJDQJVӭF
9 7HHÿHQ
9 Tee vàng
9 7HH[DQKGѭѫQJ
9 7HHWUҳQJ
9 7HHÿӓ
2.1.3.3 Fairway
)DLUZD\OjYQJFӓÿѭӧFFKăPVyFWӕt YjFҳWÿӅX, QҵPJLӳDWHHER[YjJUHHQ7UrQ
ÿѭӡQJJROIQJҳQSDUFyWKӇNK{QJFҫQIDLUZD\YuÿtFKQJҳPFӫDQJѭӡLFKѫLOjJUHen.
1KѭQJӣQKӳQJÿѭӡQJJROIWUXQJEuQKSDUYjGjLSDUÿtFKQJҳPFӫDQJѭӡLFKѫL
OX{QOjQKӳQJYӏWUtEҵQJYjWKRiQJWUrQIDLUZD\OjQKӳQJQѫLFyÿLӅXNLӋQWӕWÿӇWKӵF
KLӋQF~ÿiQKWLӃSWKHRQKҵPKRjQWKjQKWUzFKѫL. Nói cách khác, faiUZD\OjNKXYӵF
EyQJUѫLOêWѭӣQJWURQJTXiWUuQKÿiQKEyQJWӯWHHER[OrQJUHHQ&NJQJQKѭÿDVӕFiF
KҥQJPөFWKLӃW NӃNKiFWURQJ VkQ JROIIDLUZD\NK{QJFyTX\ FKXҭQ 7K{QJWKѭӡQJ
IDLUZD\UӝQJWUXQJEuQKyards, dDRÿӝQJWӯ\DUGVÿӃQ 65 yard tùy theRÿӏDKuQK
iSFKӃNLӃQWU~FKRһFTX\P{VkQJROI&ӓӣÿk\WKѭDKѫQWK{KѫQFӓӣJUHHQYjWHH
ER[GRÿyÿӇFyÿѭӧFQKӳQJF~ÿiQKFyFҧPJLiFEyQJFҫQFӓFyFKLӅXFDROӟQKѫQ
Trung bình giDRÿӝQJWӯLQÿӃQLQ&KLӅXFDRFӓ SKөWKXӝFQKLӅXYjRJLӕQJFӓ
7
ÿLӅXNLӋQWKәQKѭӥQJNKtKұXQJkQViFKWUuQKÿӝEҧRGѭӥQJYjJLҧLÿҩX\rXFҫXFӫD
EDQWәFKӭFYjQJѭӡLFKѫL


Hình 2.2 ĈѭӡQJOăQEyQJIDLUZD\
2.1.3.4 Rough
/jNKXYӵFErQQJRjLIDLUZD\YӟLFӓGj\KѫQPӑFFDRKD\PӑFWӵQKLrQW\
WKXӝFYjR WKLӃWNӃYjFiFKEҧRGѭӥQJ
5RXJKÿѭӧFWKLӃW NӃQKѭ PӝWORҥLFKѭӟQJQJҥLYұWQKҵPFҧQWUӣ QKӳQJQJѭӡLFKѫL
ÿiQKEyQJNK{QJYjRÿѭӧFIDLUZD\1KѭQJPӑLNKXYӵF NKiFWUrQVkQ URXJKFNJQJ
NK{QJFyTX\ÿӏQKQKҩWÿӏQK&KLӅXFDRFӓURXJKFNJQJW\WKXӝFYjRQKӳQJÿLӅXNLӋQ
WѭѫQJWӵIDLUZD\&KLӅXUӝQJFӫDURXJKJҫQQKѭNK{QJJLӟLKҥQ&yORҥLURXJK:
9 /RҥLFҳWWKѭӡQJ[X\rQPRZHG/RҥLQj\EӕWUt[XQJTXDQKIDLUZD\Eү\FiW
Eү\QѭӟFQKѭYQJWUXQJJLDQ. /RҥLWӵQKLrQXQNHSW
9 /RҥLQj\WKѭӡQJOjFӓWӵQKLrQӣÿӏDSKѭѫQJPӑFQJRjLURXJKFҳWWKҩS5RXJK
Qj\tWÿѭӧF EҧR GѭӥQJ ÿӇ SKiW WULӇQ Wӵ QKLrQ YjWKӵF Vӵ Jk\ NKy NKăQ FKR
QJѭӡLFKѫLQjRÿiQKEyQJYjRÿy.
2.1.3.5 Hazard
+D]DUGKLӇXPӝWFiFKÿѫQJLҧQOjYQJFKѭӟQJQJҥLYұWÿӕLYӟLQJѭӡLFKѫL. 9Ӆ
PһWNӻWKXұWWKLӃW NӃVkQJROIWKuKD]DUGFKӍ EDRJӗPKDLORҥL&KѭӟQJQJҥLYұWFiW
EXQNHUYjFKѭӟQJQJҥLYұWQѭӟFZDWHUKD]DUG:
8
- %XQNHUOjORҥLFKѭӟQJQJҥLYұWFyFӕW[k\GӵQJWKҩSKѫQVRYӟLÿѭӡQJÿiQKEóng.
7KHRÿӏQKQJKƭDFKtQKWKӭFEXQNHUOjNKXYӵFPjFӓYj ÿҩWPһWNKXYӵFҩ\ÿѭӧFEyF
VҥFKYjWKD\WKӃEҵQJFiWKD\YұWOLrXWѭѫQJÿѭѫQJQKѭEӑWQ~LOӱD«W\WKHRÿLӅX
NLӋQWӵQKLrQӣÿӏDSKѭѫQJ&NJQJQKѭWҩWFҧFiFWKjQKSKҫQNKiFFӫDPӝWÿѭӡQJÿiQK
EyQJEXQNHU NK{QJKӅFyTX\WҳFYjPӑLEXQNHUÿӅX NKiFQKDXYӅ NtFKWKӭFKuQK
GҥQJÿӝVkX&K~QJFyWKӇQҵPӣEҩWFӭÿkXQKӳQJQѫLPjQKjWKLӃWNӃFҧPWKҩ\WKұW
VӵFҫQWKLӃWSKҧLFҧQWUӣQKӳQJF~ÿiQKOLӅXOƭQKQKҵPYѭӧWTXDPһWÿӕLWKӫFӫDQKӳQJ
QJѭӡL FKѫL NK{QJFKX\rQ 9t Gө 4XDQK JUHHQJLӳD IDLUZD\ SKtD VDX QKӳQJ ÿRҥQ
QJRһWGRJOHJQҩSWURQJURXJKYjWURQJQKӳQJYQJÿѭӧFWKLӃWNӃQKҵPWҥRUDѭXWKӃ
PҥRKLӇPULVNUHZDUG.


Hình 2.3 &KѭӟQJQJҥLYұWKӕFiWEXQNHU
- Water hazardÿyOjQKӳQJKӗFKӭDQѭӟFFNJQJOjQѫLWҥRFҧQKTXDQQKѭWUӗQJFk\
WKӫ\VLQKYzLSKXQQѭӟF
9

Hình 2.4 &KѭӟQJQJҥLYұWKӗQѭӟFZDWHUKD]DUG
2.2 7әQJTXDQYӅKDLJLӕQJFӓ7LIGZDUIYj7LI(DJOH (Cynodon spp.)
Theo Brosnan và ctv (2008), Fӓ gà có tên WLӃQJ Anh là ³Bermuda grass´ ӣ Úc
JӑL là ³FRXFK JUDVV´ và có tên khoa KӑF là Cynodon spp., WUѭӟF QăP 1956 dòng WKXҫQ
C. dactylon là ORҥL Fӓ ÿѭӧF Vӱ GөQJ SKә ELӃQ cho WKҧP Fӓ vùng QKLӋW ÿӟL và FұQ QKLӋW
ÿӟL /RҥL Fӓ này ÿѭӧF Vӱ GөQJ QKLӅX ӣ Trung 4XӕF ҨQ Ĉӝ Châu Phi, Úc (Duble,
2010), vùng sa PҥF phía Tây Nam và PӝW Vӕ vùng ӣ Ĉ{QJ Nam QѭӟF 0ӻ
(Wenjing
pang và ctv., 2010). Loài này có QJXӗQ JӕF ӣ châu phi, WăQJ WUѭӣQJ FKұP PұW ÿӝ dày
và ÿһF ELӋW là FKӏX ÿѭӧF JLүP ÿҥS và stress khi khô KҥQ phát WULӇQ WӕW QKҩW khi có ánh
sáng PһW WUӡL ÿҫ\ ÿӫ (Trenholm và ctv., 1991). Ngoài ra, Vӱ GөQJ QѭӟF ít, FKӏX ÿѭӧF ӣ
NKRҧQJ pH UӝQJ có NKҧ QăQJ kháng ÿѭӧF PһQ cao ('DYLG7X\QKLrQQKѭӧF
ÿLӇPOӟQFӫDGzQJWKXҫQOjFKӃÿӝEҧRGѭӥQJFDRNKҧQăQJNKiQJWKҩSFiFORҥLF{Q
WUQJEӋQKKҥLYjWX\ӃQWUQJNKiQJOҥQKYjFKHEyQJWKҩS7UHQKROPYjFWv., 1991).
6DX WKұS QLrQ  7LIJUHHQ (GzQJ ODL JLӳD Cynodon dactylon và Cynodon
trasvaalensis) ÿѭӧF Vӱ GөQJ SKә ELӃQ (Jason và Richard, 1999). Cynodon dactylon
FRPPRQ EHUPXGDJUDVV Fy WKӇ Wӭ EӝL Q = 4x =  WURQJ NKL ÿy Cynodon
trasvaalensis FyQJXӗQ JӕFӣFKkXSKL WӗQWҥLWKӇOѭӥQJEӝL Q = 2x = 9uWKӃ
GzQJODLÿѭӧFWDRUDFyWKӇWDPEӝLQ = 3x = 27). ĈһFWtQKFӫDGzQJODLQj\OjNK{QJ
VҧQ[XҩWUDKҥWJLӕQJPjSKҧLQKkQJLӕQJY{WtQKVSULJVVWRORQVYjVRGGLQJĈLӇP
WKXұQOӧLFӫDGzQJODLQj\OjFҧLWKLӋQÿѭӧFYӅFKҩWOѭӧQJPjXVҳFPұWÿӝFNJQJQKѭ
FKӕQJOҥLVWUHVVEӣLEӏJLүPÿҥSYjWKӡLWLӃWNK{KҥQ7KrPYjRÿyGzQJQj\FzQFKӏX
10
ÿѭӧFÿӝFDRFҳWFӓWKҩSKѫQLQFK7X\QKLrQÿLӇPNK{QJWӕWFӫDGzQJODLQj\OjFKL
SKtFDRWURQJWKLӃWOұSYjQKXFҫXEҧRGѭӥQJFDRKѫQ(Brosnen, 2008).
2.2.1 *LӕQJFӓ7LIGZDUI
7LIGZDUIFyQJXӗQ JӕF Wӯ ÿӝW ELӃQ FӫD GzQJ Tifgreen YjÿѭӧF WLӃQ KjQK WKӱ
QJKLӋP ÿҫXWLrQYjRQăP ĈѭӧF SKiWKLӋQWӯKDLQJXӗQNKiFQKDXWDLPӝWWKӡL
ÿLӇPÿyOj T.M Baumgardner và Marion Mc .HQGUHHWҥL6HD,VODQGbang Georgia vào
QăP&NJQJWҥLWKӡLÿLӇPQj\YѭӡQѭѫP WKҧPFӓSKtDQDP Georgia FNJQJ EҳWÿҫX
bán Tifdwarf WӯPӝW QJXӗQkhác (&kXOҥFEӝTXӕFJLDGlen Alvin). 7LIGZDUIFNJQJOj
GzQJWDPEӝLWKӇQKѭ7LIWRQTifdwarf ÿmÿѭӧFWKӱQJKLӋP YjVRViQKYӟL Tifton
328 trong ba QăP ӣ 7UҥPWKtQJKLӋP Georgia và ÿmFKӭQJPLQK ÿһFÿLӇP YѭӧWWUӝLÿӇ
ÿѭDUD sân Fӓso YӟL Tifton 328 (Darren Moore, 2010). Tifdwarf FyPӝWVӕÿLӇPWѭѫQJ
WӵQKѭ TifgreenOi[DQKYӯDYjPӏQ, YӟLPұWÿӝ FKӗL cao YjWăQJWUѭӣQJ WKҩp. 0һFG
Tifgreen FyWKӇ VҧQ[XҩWKҥWJLӕQJ ÿӭQJÿҫX, WX\QKLrQYLӋFVҧQ[XҩWKҥWJLӕQJkhông
NKҧWKL. Trong khi Tifgreen WKѭӡQJÿѭӧF Vӱ GөQJ trên sân golf Yj FiF OƭQK YӵF WKӇ
thaoQyWKѭӡQJÿzLKӓLQKLӅX TXҧQOê
chuyên sâu KѫQ Tifway và GӉEӏ WX\ӃQWUQJ
1JRjLFiFÿһFÿLӇPWUrQ7LIGZDUIFyPӝWVӕGLӇPNKiFYӟL7LIJUHHQÿyOj lá có màu
WӕLKѫQ và lóng QJҳQKѫQ. Dòng Qj\ÿѭӧFVӱGөQJ QKLӅX trên sân golf do có màu xanh
ÿұP, PұWÿӝ quay FDRNKҧ QăQJFKӏX FҳW WKҩS UҩWcao (<1/8 in). TX\QKLrQQKѭӧFÿLӇP
OjGӉEӏ WәQWKѭѫQJ do sâu YjGӃ%URVQDQ*OHQQ
2.2.2 *LӕQJFӓ TifEagle
7LI(DJOH ÿѭӧF EҳW ÿҫX QJKLrQ FӭX Wӯ QăP WҥL Tifton EҵQJ FiFK WҥR ÿӝW
ELӃQ trong Tifdwarf và Tifgreen 328. TifEagle OjPӝW GzQJÿӝWELӃQÿѭӧFWҥRUDWӯTXi
WUuQKFKLӃX[ҥ ÿRҥQWKkQVWRORQVTifway II trong QăP 1990, WҥRWKӇWDPEӝLQ [
EҵQJFKLӃX[ҥWLDJDPPDӣPӭFÿӃQ 9.000 radian WӯQJXӗQ cobalt - 60.
TifEagle ÿm ÿѭӧF KӧSWiF WҥRUDEӣL USDA - ARS YjĈҥLKӑF Georgia vào tháng 8
QăP (Darren Moore, 2010).
Ngoài tên TifEagle còn ÿѭӧF JӑL là ³7: - ´ ĈһF ÿLӇP FӫD dòng này là có lá
PӏQ màu xanh ÿұP và
WӕF ÿӝ WăQJ sinh FKӗL cao. 'zQJQj\ÿѭӧFOӵDFKӑQÿӇWҥRVkQ
Fӓ FKҩW OѭӧQJ FDR NKL FKӃ ÿӝ FҳW YӟL  PP KRһF WKҩS KѫQ ÿLӅX Qj\ WӕW KѫQ GzQJ
7LIGZDUI.KҧQăQJWҥR stolons cao KѫQ7LIGZDUI. Màu VҳF WKҧP Fӓ YүQ WӕW ngay Fҧ khi
11
có ÿLӅX NLӋQ OҥQK Tuy nhiên không FKӏX ÿѭӧF bóng che (Brosnan và ctv, 2008; Darren
Moore, 2010).
2.3 1KӳQJQJKLrQFӭXKӛQKӧSÿҩt
2.3.1 1KӳQJQJKLrQFӭXYӅ FiFYұWOLӋXWҥRKӛQKӧSÿҩW
7KHR'DYLVFyKDLQKyPYұWOLӋXOӟQGQJÿӇOjPKӛQKӧSÿҩWÿyOjYұW
OLӋXKӳXFѫYjYұWOLӋXY{FѫCác YұW OLӋX KӳX Fѫ bao JӗP than bùn, PөQ Jӛ UѫP
SKkQ« các YұW OLӋX vô Fѫ là các khoáng bao JӗP vermiculite, perlite và cát. Ngoài ra
có các YұW OLӋX SKә ELӃQ khác QKѭ ÿi Wә ong, diatomite, zeolite (Cale, Dan và Keith,
2000).
&iFYұWOLӋXKӳXFѫNKLWKrPYjROjPWKD\ÿәLWtQKFKҩWYұWOêFӫDÿҩWWăQJNKҧQăQJ
JLӳQѭӟFYjGLQKGѭӥQJQKѭQJYӅOkXGjLÿҩWFyWKӇEӏQpQ FKһW9uWKӃÿLӅXFҫQWKLӃW
OjWuPUDQJXӗQ YұWOLӋXY{FѫÿӇOjPQJX\rQOLӋXWUӝQYӟLFiW7UrQFѫVӣWұQGөQJ
ÿѭӧFQJXӗQQJX\rQOLӋXVҹQFyFӫDÿӏDSKѭѫQJYjQKӳQJÿһFWtQKFӫDFKúng làm làm
YұWOLӋXWUӝQYӟLFiWÿӇOjPQӅQ*UHHQ.
2.3.1.1 Khoáng Diatomite
DiDWRPLWHFzQFyWrQJӑLOj.LHVHOJKUOjPӝWORҥLÿiWUҫPWtFKYӟLWKjQKSKҫQ
JӗPFiF NKXQJ[ѭѫQJWҧRGLDWRPH YjFyQKLӅXӭQJGөQJYjRF{QJQJKLӋSQKӡ YjR
WtQK[ӕSFDRYjEӅQQKLӋW YjFiFÿһFWtQKTXtJLiNKiF+DGMDU'LDWRPLWHFy
PjXWKD\ ÿәL Wӯ WUҳQJ [iP YjQJ ÿӃQ ÿӓ W\ WKXӝF YjR WKjQK SKҫQ FiF R[LGH FKӭD
trong chúng.
'LDWRPLWHFy WtQK FiFK QKLӋW NK{QJ FKi\ NK{QJ KzD WDQ WURQJ QѭӟF YjEӅn
WURQJNK{QJNKt'RÿyFK~QJÿѭӧFVӱGөQJU{QJUmLOjPFKҩWWUӧOӑFFKҩWPDQJ[~F
WiFYjFKҩWKҩSSKө.RUXQLF<XDQĈmFyQKLӅXF{QJWUuQKQJKLrQFӭX

NKҧQăQJӭQJGөQJ'LDWRPLWHWUrQWKӃ JLӟL%UHHVH2QHP.
7ҥL9LӋW1DPQJXӗQ'LDWRPLWHFyWUӳOѭӧQJWULӋXWҩQ1JX\ӉQ7Kӏ7KDQK
+X\ӅQWURQJÿyFyNKXYӵFPӓWҥLKX\ӋQ7X\$Q3K~<rQYӟLWUӳOѭӧQJGӵ
EiRNKRҧQJWULӋXWҩQ&iFӭQJGөQJFӫD'LDWRPLWH3K~<rQÿmÿѭӧFQJKLrQFӭXYj
iS GөQJ WKӱ QJKLӋP OjP EӝW WUӧ OӑF WURQJ F{QJ QJKLӋS UѭӧX ELD QѭӟF JLҧL NKiW
1JX\ӉQ7Kӏ7KDQK+X\ӅQ0ӝWVӕF{QJWUuQKNKiFÿmQJKLrQFӭXVӱGөQJÿӇ
VҧQ [XҩW YұW OLӋX QKҽ YұW OLӋX FKӏX QKLӋW 3KҥP &ҭP 1DP  %rQ FҥQK ÿy
12
'LDWRPLWHFzQÿѭӧFQJKLrQFӭXVӱGөQJOjPFiFFKҩWKҩSWKөFKҩWPDQJSKөJLDFKR
F{QJQJKLӋS[LPăQJ7UҫQ7KDQK7XҩQ.
BҧQJ 7KjQKSKҫQKyDKӑFPүXGLDtomite Phú Yên
NKӕLOѭӧQJ SiO
2
Al
2
O
3
Fe
2
O
3
CaO MgO SO
3
.ӃWTXҧ 71,0 14,0 4,2 2,2 0,8 0,2
(1JX͛Q&KLFͭFWLrXFKX̱QÿRO˱ͥQJFK̭WO˱ͫQJPhú Yên, 2010)
.ӃWTXҧEҧQJFKRWKҩ\KjPOѭӧQJGLQKGѭӥQJWURQJGLDWRPLWH khá caoÿһFELӋW&D
FKLӃPNKӕLOѭӧQJ
ĈLӅXQj\FKӭQJWӓUҵQJQJXӗQQJX\rQOLӋX3K~<rQOjORҥLGLDWRPLWH FyWKjQKSKҫQ
NKRiQJFKӫ\ӃXYӟLF{QJWKӭF6L2
2
.nH
2
O.
BӅ PһWGLDWRPLWHÿѭӧFFKROjFyFiFQKyP2+WURQJ silanol (Si-2+YjFiFFҫXQӕL
oxygen trong siloxan (-Si-O-Si-ÿk\FKtQKOjFác tâm KҩSWKө.
2.3.1.2 Khoáng Scoria ÿiED]DQEӑW
7KHR%ӝ7jL1JX\rQ0{L7UѭӡQJÿá ED]DQEӑWOjVҧQSKҭPFӫDQ~LOӱD
SKXQWUjRFKӍ FyWUrQ YQJ7k\1JX\rQ Yj PӝWVӕtW WҥLWӍQK ĈӗQJ1DL7X\QKLrQ
QJXӗQÿiQj\WұSWUXQJQKLӅXӣNKXYӵF[m&Kѭ0¶JDKX\ӋQ&Kѭ0¶JDYjKX\ӋQ
.URQJ1DWӍQKĈҳF/ҳFĈk\OjORҥLÿiFyOӛQKӓYӟLÿһFÿLӇPQKҽQKѭQJOҥLFyÿӝ
EӅQFѫKӑFFDRFiFKkPYjFiFKQKLӋWWӕW/RҥLÿiQj\GQJOjPJҥFKӕSOiWFiFKkP,
FiFKQKLӋWÿӇ[k\GӵQJQKjFӱDYjFiFF{QJWUuQK[k\GӵQJNKiFUҩWWӕW.
/jORҥLPDFPDED]DQÿLӇQ KuQKFyFҩXWҥR[ӕSQKLӅXOӛUӛQJQKҽYjGӉEӏSKi
Kӫ\+jPOѭӧQJFiFFKҩWNLӅPWURQJÿiFDR ULrQJ&D2 Yj0Q2[ҩS[Ӎ 20 %. Quá
WUuQKSKiKӫ\ÿiJLҧLSKyQJQKLӅX&DYj0J
&ҩXWU~FOӛ UӛQJJL~SWKRiQJNKtJҩSKjQJ WUăPOҫQVRYӟLEӅPһWNӃWFҩXWK{QJ
WKѭӡQJFyYDLWUzQJăQFKһQVӵWKRiWKѫLQѭӟFJLӳҭPFKRÿҩWFyWKӇWUӝQYjRÿҩW
QKѭFKҩWSKөJLD9jQyOjPӝWJLiWKӇWUӗQJFk\OêWѭӣQJ
7ҥLEuQKÿӏQKÿiED]DQEӑW phâQEӕӣÿӝFDRWӯ PÿӃQJҫQ m. Bazan
bӑWYjED]DQtWEӑWFyPjX[iP[iP[DQKSKRQJKyDFyPjXYjQJYjQJQkXÿӓ, tùy
WKHRPӭFÿӝSKRQJKyD%D]DQFKXDEӏSKRQJKyDUҳQGzQED]DQSKRQJKyDPӅPEӣ
FҩXWҥREӑWOӛUӛQJ
13
%ҧQJ .ӃWTXҧSKkQWtFKÿiED]DQӣ9ƭQK7KҥQK%uQKĈӏQK
7KjQKSKҫQ SiO
2
Al
2
O
3
FeO CaO K
2
O MgO Fe
2
O
3
Na
2
O
7ӍOӋ 49.23 14.77 8.30 8.22 0.19 5.50 7.85 2.34
(1JX͛Q6ͧNKRDK͕FYjF{QJQJK͏%uQKĈ͓QK 1997)
.ӃWTXҧEҧQJFKRWKҩ\KjPOѭӧQJGLQKGѭӥQJFyWURQJED]DQEӑWUҩWFDRĈһFELӋW
KjPOѭӧQJ&(&WURQJÿiQj\Uҩt cao.
.ӃWTXҧSKkQWtFKSKҭXGLӋQWҥLĈӏQK4XiQĈӗQJ1DLFҥQKPLӋQJQ~LOӱDFy
ÿiOӝÿҫX0үXÿҩWFyOүQWӯ %- 80 ÿiEӑW
%ҧQJ2.3 7KjQKSKҫQKyDKӑFFӫDÿiED]DQEӑWӣĈӗQJ1DL
7ҫQJÿҩWFP 7әQJVӕ
SiO
2
Fe
2
O
3
Al
2
O
3
MgO CaO P
2
O
5
TiO
2
MnO
0-20 29,17 10,25 6,80 1,07 2,83 1,34 - 0,25
20-70 36,21 9,00 10,62
1,00 2,70 0,15 - 0,19
(1JX͛Q: 7U̯Q9ăQ&KtQK
.ӃWTXҧEҧQJFKRWKҩ\KjPOѭӧQJGLQKGѭӥQJWURQJÿiNKiFDR7URQJÿy&D2
FKLӃP0JFKLӃP
2.3.1.3 Khoáng Limonite
LiPRQLWH Oj PӝWTXһQJ EDR JӗP WURQJ PӝWKӛQ KӧS FӫD VҳW (III) QJұPQѭӟF
hydroxit-oxide. Công WKӭFFKXQJOj)H22+.nH
2
2PһFGÿLӅXQj\OjNK{QJKRjQ
WRjQ FKtQK [iF QKѭ OLPRQLWH WKѭӡQJ Fy FKӭD PӝW OѭӧQJ NKiF QKDX FӫD R[LW VR YӟL
hydroxide.
&QJYӟLKHPDWLW QyÿmÿѭӧFNKDLWKiFQKѭTXһQJÿӇVҧQ[XҩWVҳW Limonite có màu
VұPYj màu vàng-nâu. 1yOjPӝWFKҩWY{ÿӏQKKuQK UҩWSKәELӃQPһFGFyWKӇJһS khó
NKăQÿӇWuPWKҩ\NKLNKDLWKiFYӟLKHPDWLWYjTXһQJERJ Limonite kK{QJEDRJLӡOj
NӃWWLQKWKjQKWLQKWKӇYƭP{QKѭQJFyWKӇFy ӣGҥQJ VӧLKRһFFҩXWU~FYL mô. 0jXVҳF
khác nhau Wӯ màu YjQJÿӃQQkXĈk\là cách ÿӇ SKkQELӋWQyYӟL hematit (PjXÿӓ),
KRһFYӟL magnetite PjXÿHQ. Ĉ{LNKLÿѭӧFJӑLOjKHPDWLWPjXQkXKRһFTXһQJVҳW
màu nâu. 1yÿѭӧFÿһWWrQWӯ WLӃQJ+\/ҥS FyQJKƭDOj ÿӗQJFӓiPFKӍWӟLVӵ[XҩWKLӋQ
FӫDQyOjTXһQJÿҫPOҫ\WURQJFiFÿӗQJFӓYjÿҫPOҫ\ ĈӝFӭQJFyWKӇWKD\ÿәL 4 ±
14
5.5. 7UӑQJ OѭӧQJ ULrQJ WKD\ ÿәL Wӯ . ÿӃQ .3 1JXӗQ %iFK NKRD WRjQ WKѭ Pӣ
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limonite).
+LӋQQD\6kQ*ROI7KӫĈӭFVӱGөQJQJXӗQNKRiQJQj\WҥLKӗĈҥL9LrQWKXӝF
6kQ*ROI7KӫĈӭF
2.3.2 1KӳQJQJKLrQFӭXYӅKӛQKӧSÿҩW
7URQJQKӳQJQăPJҫQÿk\JLӟLFKX\rQP{QQJjQKJROIÿmFkQQKҳFÿӃQQKӳQJ
WtQKFKҩWFӫDQKӳQJFKҩWOLӋXÿӇ[k\GӵQJ*UHHQ&iFWtQKFKҩWOêKӑFEDRJӗPWӕFÿӝ
WKҩPFDRWKRiQJNKtNKҧQăQJWUDRÿәLFDWLRQFDRNKҧQăQJJLӳQѭӟFYjGLQKGѭӥQJ
WӕW*UHHQOjQѫLFKӏXVӵJLүPÿҥSUҩWOӟQ9uWKӃWURQJYLӋF[k\GӵQJWUҳFGLӋQ*UHHQ
QJѭӡLWDVӱGөQJFiWÿӇFKӕQJOҥLVӵJLүPÿҥS UҩWWӕW7X\QKLrQFiWFyNKҧQăQJJLӳ
QѭӟFYjWUDRÿәLFDWLRQNpPWӕFÿӝWKҩPQKDQK&-H. Ok và ctv., 2001). Vì Yұ\ ÿӇ
NKҳF SKөF QKѭӧF ÿLӇP FӫD cát, FҫQ SKҧL tìm ra các YұW OLӋX ÿӇ SKӕL WUӝQ YӟL cát ÿӇ làm
QӅQ cho Green.
2.3.1.2 1JKLrQFӭXWURQJQѭӟF
Trong ngKLrQFӭX³.K̫RViWP͡WV͙K͟QKͫSÿ̭WYQJU͍F͗JUHHQ´ FӫD1JX\ӉQĈӭF
'NJQJYj1JX\ӉQ7Kӏ.LP7KRD (1995) ÿmWKtQJKLӋPQJKLӋPWKӭF
%ҧQJ &iFQJKLӋPWKӭFFӫD1JX\ӉQĈӭF'NJQJ và 1JX\ӉQ7Kӏ.LP7KRD (1995)
7KjQKSKҫQ NT1 NT2 NT3
NT4 NT5
ĈҩWQJX\rQWKә 10 0 0 0 0
Cát 40 50 50 80 100
Than bùn 20 30 25
5 0
7URWUҩX 25 15 20
15 0
3KkQKӳXFѫ 5 5 5
0 0
(1JX͛Q1JX\͍QĈͱF'NJQJYj 1JX\͍Q7K͓.LP7KRD
.ӃWTXҧ17 ÿҥWVLQKWUѭӣQJFDRQKҩWYjQJѭӡLWDNӃWOXұQUҵQJFKҩWKӳXFѫWӍOӋFDR
trong tKjQKSKҫQVRLOPL[NK{QJPDQJOҥL NӃWTXҧWӕLѭX YӅVLQKWUѭӣQJPjSKҧL NӃW
KӧSKjLKzDYӟLFiWWX\QKLrQWӕFÿӝWKҩPFӫDQyNKiQKDQKJLӳҭPNpP&zQFiF
QJKLӋPWKӭF FKӭD QKLӅX KӳXFѫWKuQJѭӧF OҥL17 OjQJKLӋPWKӭF WULӇQ YӑQJQKҩW
7X\QKLrQFҫQNKҳFSKөFQKӳQJQKѭӧFÿLӇPQyLWUrQYjKӑÿmÿӅQJKӏF{QJWKӭFVDX
70 % Cát, 10 % than bùn, 10 % tURWUҩX, 10 % SKkQKӳXFѫ
15
2.3.3 1KӳQJQJKLrQFӭXQJRjLQѭӟF
Trong thí QJKLӋP FӫD C-H. Ok và ctv (2001), ÿm WKӵF KLӋQ thí QJKLӋP YӟL EӕQ
QJKLӋP WKӭF California (100 % cát), USGA (90 % cát, 10 % than bùn), California-P
(82 % cát, 15 % ÿi Wә ong, 3 % humat), California-Z (85 % cát, 15 % zeolite). .ӃW TXҧ
là QJKLӋP WKӭF California-P và California-Z có màu VҳF và FKҩW OѭӧQJ WKҧP Fӓ WӕW KѫQ
so YӟL QJKLӋP WKӭF còn Oҥi. Tính WKҩP và WUӑQJ OѭӧQJ UӉ FӫD QJKLӋP WKӭF California-Z
ÿҥW cao QKҩW so YӟL ba QJKLӋP WKӭF còn OҥL Hàm OѭӧQJ dinh GѭӥQJ trong ÿҩW QKѭ CEC,
Ca, Mg ӣ QJKLӋP WKӭF
California-P ÿҥW cao QKҩW Hàm OѭӧQJ dinh GѭӥQJ ÿҥP lân ÿҥW
cao QKҩW ӣ QJKLӋP WKӭF California-Z. .ӃW TXҧ cho WKҩ\ hai QJKLӋP WKӭF California-P
và California-Z có GҩX KLӋX WӕW cho Vӵ sinh WUѭӣQJ FӫD Fӓ
7KHRQJKLrQFӭX FӫD0DUYLQWKuWKDQ EQFKLӃPWӕLÿDOj % trong
KӛQKӧSFzQÿӕLYӟLWKjQKSKҫQVpWWKuWӯ - 8 OjWӕW7UѭӡQJKӧSOӟQKѫQWKu
ÿҩWGӉEӏQpQĈӕLYӟLWKӏWFiWUҩWPӏQWKuWtQKFKҩWFӫDVpWQrQFNJQJJLҧPKjPOѭӧQJ
Qj\7\YjRWKjQKSKҫQFiFKҥWNKiFQKDXPjFyWӍOӋKӛQKӧSNKiFQKDX+ӑÿmÿѭD
UDF{QJWKӭFNKҳFSKөFÿѭӧFQKѭӧFÿLӇPFӫDFiWĈyOjFiFKӛQKӧS+H): HH1 (85
% cát thô, 15 % than bùn), HH2 (35 % tKӏW, 15 % than bùn, 50 % cát thô), HH3 (10 %
spWQһQJ, 15 % than bùn, 75 % cát thô9ӟLFiWWK{FyNtFKWKѭӟc (0,2-PPFiWPӏQ
YjWKӏW002 ± 0,2 mm), sét (< 0,002 mm).
Wayne Crawley và David Zabcik (1985) ÿm nghiên FӭX VӱGөQJÿiWUkQFKkX
SHUOLWHÿӇOjP KӛQ KӧSÿҩW. Ӣ ÿk\ tác JLҧ Vӱ GөQJ cát trung bình WUӝQ YӟL ÿi trân
châu. Khi thêm ÿi trân châu vào cát thì tính WKҩP
rút JLҧP ÿL, WăQJ NKҧ QăQJ JLӳ QѭӟF
và FKҩW dinh GѭӥQJ JLҧP dung WUӑQJ
16
%ҧQJ5: <rXFҫXYӅWtQKFKҩWFӫDKӛQKӧSÿҩW
7tQKFKҩW <rXFҫX
'XQJWUӑQJ 1,20-1,60 g/cm
3

ĈӝUӛQJ 40-55%
.KҧQăQJJLӳQѭӟF 12-25%
7ӕFÿӝWKҩP 2-10 inches/h
7KӏW 5%
Sét 3%
(USGA, 1973)
7\YjRWKjQKSKҫQVpWFyWURQJFiWPjFyFyWӍOӋKӛQKӧSÿҩW khác nhau. 6ӱ GөQJ cát
trung bình YӟL 20 % ÿi trân châu FNJQJ có NKҧ QăQJ JLӳ QѭӟF khá. Trong Vӕ ba cát WKӱ
QJKLӋP FKӍ có cát trung bình YӟL 1,5 % và 3,0 % ÿҩW sét và cát ÿҩW sét thô YӟL 1.5 %
ÿiS ӭQJ ÿѭӧF các NKX\ӃQ cáo FӫD USGA cho bùn và ÿҩW sét. Các ORҥL cát có sét FKLӃP
1,5-4,5 % và 20 % ÿi trân châu theo WKӇ tích ÿiS ӭQJ WҩW Fҧ các yêu FҫX USGA YӅ YұW
lý. Cát PӏQ KRһF thô FNJQJ có WKӇ ÿiS ӭQJ WҩW Fҧ các tiêu FKXҭQ này. .ӃW TXҧ FӫD nghiên
FӭX này FKӭQJ
minh UҵQJ ÿi trân châu có OӧL YӅ ÿһF tính YұW lý FӫD các lRҥL ÿҩW quan
WUӑQJ ÿӕL YӟL YLӋF xây GӵQJ vùng UӉ FӫD Green. 0ӝW ѭX ÿLӇP khác FӫD ÿi trân châu
không JLӕQJ QKѭ YұW FKҩW FKҩW KӳX Fѫ khác, ÿi trân châu WUѫ trong KӛQ KӧS ÿҩW và do
ÿy không thay ÿәL ÿiQJ NӇ theo WKӡL gian.

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