Tải bản đầy đủ

Quy trình vận hành tua bin thủy lực potx

 
MỤC LỤC
 !!"
 
#$%&'%()*&%+,-
!./0123 45678
95: 8#;5: #<6=>?@A8
B5: 8#;5: #<6=>?4C D8
3=>?8#;1E?FGA8
HIG4=08
J3=>? @A8
K3 @A3?<LFM8
"3  N?8
O3 12?8
!P3 @AA13Q CA=R 8
!! FG4=8 S?<@ @R 
PHẦN II. PHẠM VI ÁP DỤNG
TUV@L@ @A@6C=4 : W9PBXQ
YQH!P :@R   Z [@A84C D@
D??=\U
  <?0F@ 3]V

   ^<D?UVU30?U
T
PHẦN III. TÀI LIỆU LIÊN QUAN
!  ]/0_=R?[`@A@50[=a?8S5FG
A@=R?[`@A18N0:?L: 8  5@b=R?[`
c1d
B1/FGA@A@=R
 9!"
 
#$%e%f,*
CHÝÕNG I
GIỚI THIỆU CHUNG
I. GIỚI THIỆU VỀ TUABIN THỦY LỰC
0/W3 48FMW9PBXQYQH!P32 Z?
=g 4C[2?MU1h?iB1 S?47VZ 
!9Pjk8l?  F]@R32 3SQ01
 ;M@ 30? ]iFS?58 ]i@ ]imh?i
&LFM=g  >iL: nop#%q*S?U
:?[^1 1 Kj1
II. THÔNG SỐ KỸ THUẬT
!i1
Q:r
6
s J!8K
QN0r

s  HJ8P
Q:Mr

s HB8O
9S?47
QS?47VZ rZ?@R

s !998Hjk
QS?47R7rZ?@RtJP8Hs !B98JHBjk
B==g?=R Uu0

@#

9!8
B
4
&=\?FN6u S? H!PP
H&=\?FN32  !!PP
J: iU
Q&VZ !9Hv?1w
Qh?: 9JPv?1w
KLUu0 LFh?h
x
y1N1
"L 0w=R >@#

Q98K
O47 z
Q/@# O8PH{
Q/tJP8H@#t!B98JHBjk O8J{
!PjSu UN 9"HPP9
 B!"
 
!!53|?a !PHP
!90i=\?3?
x
 =R? !HP8B
!B}=R?3
Q:4~ .?_ !9
Q0/[^_ •XJ
Qi50@[^_
• 50_ JP
P

•  i?[y?_ JH
P

Qi50@4~ .?_
• 50_ JP
P

•  i?[y?_ JH
P

QjZ [^
x
=\?rNyMs J!H
QjZ [^ HKH
QjZ [^6rNyMs JHP
Q==g?=R _ !H8"
B

!}=R?[=R
Q:4~ .?_ !P
Q0/[^_ •XJ
Qi50@[^_
• 50_ HH
P

•  i?[y?_ JP
P

Qi50@4~ .?_
• 50_ JH
P

•  i?[y?_ KP
P

QjZ [^
x
=\?rNyMs BKH
QjZ [^ B!H
QjZ [^6rNyMs BH
Q==g?=R  K8"
B

Qi=R ^@0  9"
P

!H}a
Q:4~ .? !9
Q0/[^ •XJ
Qi50@[^
• 50 HH
P

•  i?[y? JP
P

Qi50@4~ .?
• 50 JP
P

•  i?[y? JH
P

QjZ [^
x
=\?rNyMs HOP
 !"
 
QjZ [^rNyMs HP
QjZ [^6rNyMs JP
Q==g?=R  J
B

!JZ =R m30?h?60c
Qj6  !H8"O
Qj !H8!O
!K€32
Q•1  €32  P89H‚P8Bj1
Q==g?ƒ„ !P8"
B
?\
!"#
Q: i1 9P{r9Hv?1ws
Q•1 1 P8HH‚P8Kj1
Q•1 <?3S03 !Bj1
!OIM?.F~0 N f!PP
III. CÁC BỘ PHẬN CẤU THÀNH TUABIN
III.1. Bánh xe công tác
!…6u S? =g ]F]iF:8/0y  i1A=g 
w l?g1 7†*•3!Bj0r=„?=„?0/XjXKB 71XQJjs@R
@A ;=g?N7!B{ 3S@{Fu8=g c131@ N6 /
 ]/0‡
9IR1: 6u S? @R32 5503LSuU[=R
LF@ d?L7@550 ;M0@]6u S? i
 [ˆ[?‡
JA6u S? 550 01~1  S?@ 4C Dƒ/
S?3=\?FS? ^?3=R U!HP
0
@FS? ^?5Z?47‡
K€32 6u S? =g ‰g1@R6u S? ‡
O…6u S? @@[=R=g ]F]550F6u S? .
=g 03Fƒ300183|?=g? 6u S? @32  ;M
=g a3@[=R‡
!PIu>?D~1[=R6u S? @~13 / ; S:?65
l2 N 03\32 @6u S? Fƒ3001F ^]‡
III.2. Nắp tuabin
!c1 ;iLM V=g 7 5   @1 >7 5   ]i
@Ad?L7‡
Bc1=g c1@Rv? €FN6u S? Š‡
IM3Fu>?D  v? €FNŠ@i? 6u S? 
S?U: :d>:rPs@V3N:6Z?6?U=\?FN‹v?‡
HI05?3:??Dc1@6u S? =g ?51l?:??5
16:?:?65'??51FS? ;7FŒ@]=0d    ]0F M
3V/ ]==g?65‡
J/@V3N32 6Uc1=g :3Ni €32 ‡
 H!"
 
K ^: ? 71FN=g :3NM ? 71FN]:?6530? ]im
h?i‡
"c1=g :3N  / S3„@  v? €FN[m? 0 
=R?=R  •?=  Ld/ S3„ @L Ž‡
Oc1 ;=\r!9s^:l?~1FS??Ž[m?M0=\?1
 _
Q…:rPs^:?D   =R?@6u S? ‡
QrP"s^:=g :3NL3=\?FN?Dc1@6u
S? ‡
!P=R •3ŽU €32 =g @L:?„=R  /
l?=\?:? 5d>0/ : h?60c‡
!90=R 4 :=g  l?„@Al?c1 :V
3c18i„@ @i„[1E?5„@A@=g 
LFMi?\   5]Z &i? „„@  F;LFM0/
FS?7=R ‡
:?0=R c1 ;F5.?0=R ?71^‰?=g?
=R •U  v? €FNr €s32 >  LF@A677
FS??A1=R 
III.3. Vành đế có vành dưới
!] ;F] 7@=g  ? 71 m?@Ri@[=R ;M]
=g ‡
9[=RF]l?S?@R@]@=g  3L1^ ^]
M0[aU?]?[=R ;  7/ l?~1FS??ŽŒ@0   
=R?=R 8  / [ˆ[?S3„:@R< =R?=R ‡
III.4. Các vành chắn zích zắc tĩnh (đệm chèn bánh xe công tác)
jii?h@ c•N •c Šl?~1FS??Ž ;M]=g 
c1@c d>c1@@[=R @=g ]F]L1^@
;M]@L1N3Uc1FS?150[a0ic18
6u S? @3001‡
 @ c•N •c Š 01~16u S? [ M[| 32 30?F
FR1:dN  32 =g  Fƒ3001
III.5. Các Jng đệm chèn kín cánh hướng nước
 @3@[=R  =R?=R  ;  v? €FNd Œ
@0   =R?M?5:4•3Ž=R F   =R?=R =g ;?/‡
 50[=a?@]  v? €FN=g  FS? ^
07 Zi1A0 ‡
: i•3ŽU   =R?550ƒ„!PP4/?3V i=R V
Z 
III.6. Ống xả
'?650/:?Fz8d30?:?65=g :1l?iR1~1[
!J8:]10/Fzi0/:]1<0/
x
 DA‡
 J!"
 
#^3  S:?6581N‰g1@R@[=R8=g  ]/0l?~1FS?
?Ž#^~1FS??Ž=g F~0[HPP@L1N[=R @6u S? ‡
CFM3 ;
x
 DA@R L 0"PP@ L3i?JPP8 ;5
L=g :3N/0/ S  S:?65‡
I?4 S? =g  ? 71M12 @2 S? FM3850[=a?@4C
D6u S? I?4 S? 0?h480i?a m?@R3?
]V0 N g1M[ˆ[?c1d‡
:?=\?:?8  ^0@  12FF M0=\?@?/  
[0i?14730?:?657 5  ^:1 8=\?:? •?=:?
=\?:?=g  ]/0y~1FS??ŽV3N  ^015 ;z
x
| =„?
Z?@RS
x
=g 4C[2?30?  C?S
x
  ]/0
%%%K:?0 /@=\?:?
:?0 /=g c1dM0 /=R 30?:?65@=\?:?1 
‰]Z =R /=
x
=\?:?0 / ;F5.?0 /
0i=R 30?i‰30?\?rPBs?\‡
…30?:?658 ;:3Ni:=R ƒ| ~1>1^717 :?
65M=R @ /3?:=g c1di=R c3 l?~1
c  cM?. 5  53 R|@0=\?:?0 /=R c3 l?
~1=g  :Vl?S?8@ ;M0[a=g  @0 /@=\?:?
l?~1FS??ŽM0=R y:?65@L?=R> 0T!98P @
0/@Š8@Al? ;3g \[^ >4 0T!B8OP
…„[^[i? m?@R  :?L V1  0F]:@R4u @0003ML
FM  @‡
&M0 /=R 30?:?65@h?60c ‹6:??=R
 ;:3N  :?[`=R ‘PP@  ‹0FNj‹:?65=g 
/1/=R U@144  C@/=
III.8. Buồng xoắn, stato buồng xoắn và ống nối
03h?60c=g  1^8h?60c=g  995‡
403h?60c@0/:?:=g ]F]M V?=g 7 5  
5  ;M6730?  LF@A.6 V‡
’1^ : h?60c=g :3N  =\?:?M0=R •3Ž>c1
‡
I€u0h?60c CFM3
x
• ;=\?FN"PP ;5L8
=g cS?y?0@=g l?1“?@RLd30? h?
60c‡
j‹ ;ii  ^0>@V3N:==g 6 V30?C?S

x
M0==g?=R l?1=„?11ku3QIuu[ ^0ku3Q
Iuu[=g 4C[2? 0@ ?447 30?4:UT@A

%%%O=R?=R
  =R?=R @@L Ž=g ]F]M V?   @
SuC?=g N0ySu0=g 3S
x
   =R?=R 
30?UTC?S
x
8 •?=  Su7FŒ ;M67F
@A‡
&M?5:M•3Ž=R U =R?=R 15 . Ž ”Au0
 K!"
 
=\?]16w F =R?>@V3N;?00‡
  =R?=R  ;6=R?;?/y@V3Ni>R7]@V3N:
iFS?5‡
7 5  /  @L Ž@   =R?=R =g :3N30?
i150@8=g c1d3c1@@[=R8  /  ;Mc1`l?@A
S3„@  v? €FN ;Mc1`l? 04‰?g1„ 7LFM
ML Ž   =R?=R =g ]F]M[ˆ[? 0@ FM350[=a?8
4C D8c1d8 Ž@0[a0i‡
 v? €FN=g :3NFS? ŽM50@  / S3„


?. d  @A3c`30?=R –   ] „FN‡
j‹ =R?=R 0d  „ 7F] ;=g c1di S?c 
TM1N 50@50@] =R?;7h?i@R   
=R?F ‡
„ 7[`i? ;F5.?50@M =R?=R FS?V=ƒ?30?
3=\?g1 ;@A/F—?D =R??;?‡
4u @00030/i?F~1 ;F5.?1:g1M/031 R7
^]M0    =R?F1 [^71730?LF@A

x
=\?@4 :’‹ :T4u @0003 ;i1A?5 7^
:4u @0003=g ]F] ;ML Ž L[  ^‡
 4u @0003=g 3?V  ]VF; „FNl :V c  c  
=R?=R >@V3N;? ]VF;4u @0003=g c13@L Ž
;M@Ai?l?6 
j‹6 ;‹657:@R  12F:?@@FM?c  1F]
FM3@65FS?FN30?6‡
30??]? ;  ]Vd4˜[m?M50[=a?84C D@0
]VL Žl?1.?[i?
%%%!P32 @  i1A?~1:32
32 =g  ]/0l?  3€LF:~1g1F9Pj ;  d
N 3@[=R[m?M?~1:l?S?
%%%!!}=R?
}=R?=g c1d>1^3 m? c1j‹‰=R?4b V
?=g 4U@ 2  32 ]: ih?: R7 
‡
}=R?=g S3„l?[^u0FM^0 =a?Z @L Ž
==g?[^84u .?‰=R?=g 1g1F@ ;F5.?L Ž3?
™@V3N y?4u .?‡
}=R?=g c1d40 04[ M“?Z? 32 l
2 N  . Ž80[a‰a‰803\@3001 ;M 
=g ‡
…30?‰=R? ;il?=R FM?:? i ;M
0c1FS?5=>?]  4u .?‰=R?0d   =\?:?=R 
7 5  ^: 71@65=R @R  :?60c i=g c1
d1N?0M Z[^@:3N40 0=R •3Ž/  @V3N7:FS?|@0‰
=R?0d M Z[^‡
}=R?=g :3N  i1AMc1d  F]@ 5]i‰
=R?i3Ld 4u .?F?5FS?=g @=gUJH
0

 "!"
 
i[^FS?=g @=gUHH
0
‡
30?|3=\?g1@A ‰8=R FS?=g <A1@0
:?[^S3„@FS? ;=g?[^/0|UZ 0d ‰7[0•3Ž[^8
4: „0d 3[^y7FŒi1A0‡
  5]Z [^ •?= 5]=R 30?[^=g  ? 71M1
N 50@ i?50@
}=R?@:?[^S3„=g ]F]M‰U@R: ih?: 
01~1R7F   =R?=R >30?.rPHs1wFS??<3=
ƒ?‡
}=R?@:?[^S3„=g ]F]M‰ ;M[y?y ]i
@A
x
=\?0d h?: FS??<3=ƒ?F=R @`=g 
? 71‡
…11S3„N g1F@A>: i7115=g  wšd ‡
f2? 2 Ž0U43 ]1Z [^‰=R?=g c1d ;?0u0
N@ L 0‡
R2 N | 4/ [^VFŒ8:?[^S3„=g 3?VirP!si
| [^ :V@rP9s^::? ;@F;@c1V1mg1M7:@R
| [^<[i?…M Z[^=g ]F]M7:@R  :? ? 71@
65[^  :?7:=g VFN30? ]i@A
x
=\? 
‰‡
5]FS?]1M=g :3N/‰=R?M?4i5032 
R7 
%%%!9& €32 
& €32 0/=R?<8Ld~1FS??Ž8 ;M]
€32 l?@ = €32 4C D@0@   ] 
€32  ;F5.?][ˆ[?FS? ^150[a32 ‡
 i1A :V? €32 =g  ]/0y‰?g1
#Su8  i1A]16w @R €32 =g  ]/0y@A :?
4‡
& €32 =g  ? 71=R .=g | 4/ @R1 M?.
?y4/84ƒ0d @A/F  ;M|@0 €‡
=R •3Ž=g ?0@=R?=R •3Ž@0:?0=R ‡
=R > €32 =g  ? 71>rP9si|  ] FM
 3?3b8i@ i[1E?j‹i| =g  ? 71=R yrP9s?h
? 71i A1==g?=R =g L Ž>@F
III.13. Nạp khí
 ;3?V=\?:?M/1FS?FN 06u S? F‰
@A05@30?  LF@AF M/=g ?R/550 
4[0i? S?47@[0i?14730?:?65
 O!"
 
CHÝÕNG II
CÁC QUI ÐỊNH VỀ AN TOÀN
Điều 1.I50[=a?  ]Vz  Ž 01~1D??=\.
U0/0@L4C D@@Az 8.| 00i?3=R F
@ @R  ]V
Điều 2.Ž 01~1@0h?60c:?658F.„ /h?60c:?65
@ ;  110 ^]IS? 01~1> C@ CA=R ;?
  C@S?8 C•F?=\123 i S?  =F01] S? 
Điều 3. Ž 01~1@0h?60c:?65F ;N79?=\@ ;T
i S@LFM384C D?=\?40d ?=\ Ž3 ]1
;Ti0N7A %%%
Điều 4.&M?. d  3=\?g1?M 0?=\8 ^15d  M
0 ^]F4C D#5 c?h:?i?LFM@
?5147:?jo@LFS?] S?@ FS?

ƒ;?> =R?
Điều 5.I]   S?@ 4C D4u @0003@  =\?:?[^
jo0d  „ 7U =R?15/ C@ CA=R @0 /=\?:?
1 
Điều 6.I?@ 0d [y?[1E?7Z?   „ 7
U =R?=_@L Ž8?l?83L0d  U?l?
 !P!"
 
CHÝÕNG III
VẬN HÀNH TUABIN
I. ĐIỀU KIỆN VẬN HÀNH TUABIN
&LK#/@@A15<u0d N@A  ]
/0
&L"IS? 01~1@AF_
!;D?@A18]?h@D?=g?F 5=>?]UT
@ 
x
=\? ‡
9i[^@i4~ .?  ‰.? 0„?3V 01~1r6u1^
S?4:FGAs‡
B•1 =R  €32 V70d ƒ„1  01~1‡
•147[^30?
x
jo/6:?[=RHP30d Z [^30?
x
 Z
71„Z [^4 :KHP‡
H&i5032 ‰=R?.? 0U?3V 01~1PB‡
J&i3???32 .? 0U?3V 01~1P!
&LO7F>i?F_
!;7FŒ50@0;=ƒ??y?40/i? ]V‡
9…iL Ž=ƒ?FS?

F5.?i?50@h?: F45
125‡
B32 3d 7LFMy6;?8>@ CA=R ‡
=ƒ?i30?  „[^1 0d i1A;?i?
 „[^;‡
H•1 =R  €32 V70d ƒ„1  01~1‡
J7=g?[^FS?550 ”@A‡
K=ƒ?@1 <FS?‡
"=ƒ?:?10d   ?: 1?<?
Điều 10.Ž=g @AF:?LFMi?550F5
.?_
!fy?@F>i?‰/ ‹@y6‡
9‰@ ‰V>7 5   ]i‡
I‰ S?478‰FS? ;=g??A 2 ‡
HIS?@=gU  3V4:?R/h?:  01~1 F4512
5‡
Ji?/ ]i>R7  =R?=R F‰
i=R _
II. KHỞI ĐỘNG LẦN ĐẦU HOẶC SAU SỬA CHỮA LỚN
Điều 11.IF>i?^^i   ‰15=g ?4i  
d b30?F.?: i‰8FS? 01~1 ;4‰ii?i
?4F: i ‰/=g ?3VVZ 8i   ‰15=g ?
/‹!0d 91w30?C?\^@‹!H1w30?C?\]1u0@‹BP
1w30?i?\ 0]Fi‰‰V=R ]  i  ‰
15=g  ? 712 30?UTF>i?^F>i? /C?^
 !!!"
 
4bF]w 4F   ‰/=g i‰V‡
 [y?‰l?I: i ‰?5l?9P{: i
VZ 8]1‰l? 0]F‰[y?0084;
R=g ?53y1^ w=   /?2 4_
!*44‰i   ‰‡
9bd N: i30?4:\?[y?‡
BIM34[0i?Z [^  ‰‡
 FM30i8d FM3  i1AU ;Vƒ?™00d 
=ƒ?FS?@FM343>@L   i1
Ðiều 12. Chuẩn bị cho vận hành tuabin lần ðầu hoặc sau sửa
chữa lR nhý sau:
!7 5  @3  =\?:?[^8=R @FS?FNw?1=„?Z 
@AI]U5C?1  7 5=\?:?/ ^7 5  =\?
:?FS?Vc ?b@.0  N V/\‡
9IM33/?> 7 5  =\?:?0=R •3Ž30?UT
@A‡
BIM3Fu>?D   =R?FL@  ^ :  =R?
@Rh?60c‡
IM3FS?

?=\8[2? 2h?L8@A30?F@ h?60c
:?658 01~1;? C@S?8 C•‡
HIM30/i?   0/@:@0h?60c@:?65‡
J3[^a^7 5  ‰8  i1A Mi?‡
KIM3  ]V0=\?=@0@ ‡
"IM36] d7 5   ]8d   i1AU8  dN 
  :?[^8FN8=R FS?V•3Ž‡
Od]  h@AF 3c18FM3„w=R c1‡
!PIM30/i? 4C D‡
!!&==R @0 €32 8FM3iFN‡
!9IM3@ C?   ]V :F;4u3@0003‡
!BC;?> =R?30?h?60cFS8FM3\?;?>
4u @0008:U?Di> =R?@T 4u3@0003N7>
.M‡
!]/1=R @0h?60c:?65‡
!HF/1=R 15FM3•3Ž0i
II. VẬN HÀNH BẰNG TAY VÀ TỰ ĐỘNG TUABIN
&L!Bz 15@ > ]iL Ži?  M
L: 4? ]il? Ž khi thử nghiệm lần ðầu, xử lý sự cố tổ
máy hoặc khi thử nghiệm theo chýõng trình.
&L!I>i?C?FS?5^^44C DR‰=g 
 l?/L: jn9P
Ðiều 15. &:@R  ‰a@‰=R?FS? 01~1 ;4‰i
?ii   ‰?F: i‰/=g : iVZ 8i 
 ‰15=g ?/‹!H1w30?C?\^@‹BP1w4i?\^
 !9!"
 
 0]Fi  ‰‰V
Ðiều 16. Nhiệt ðộ của các ổ phải ðýợc giám sát kỹ lýỡng
khi nhiệt ðộ secmãng và nhiệt ðộ dầu tiến ðến gần mức báo
tín hiệu. Nếu có sự tãng ðột ngột nhiệt ðộ trong các ổ hoặc có
một secmãng nóng cục bộ, hoặc có sự biến ðộng không bình
thýờng của mức dầu trong các ổ thì phải dừng máy và tiến
hành kiểm tra, tìm nguyên nhân ðể xử lý.
Ðiều 17.15›L Ž==g?=R FV1\F ;=g??5
i?i==g?8c ?bi0d i[^.? 0„i  FS?

x
=\?
Ðiều 18. /?2 FM3@ FŒFM3  ‰=g Nu0?\u0
 5?4
Q}a
Stt Các hạng mục kiểm tra 1000h 4000h 8000h Ghi chú
1 &i0–  4u .?
2 7=g?[^S3„
3 …i
4 IM34050 ‰a
Q}=R?
Stt Các hạng mục kiểm tra 1000h 4000h 8000h Ghi chú
1 &i0–  4~ .?
2 7=g?[^S3„
3 …i
4 Iu>4~ .?‰=R?3
5 &03>   ‰=R?
@R7
6 IM34050 ‰=R?
f7œ• Ž  /?2 4b=g FM38\?L67 0y?/?2  ;
MF mi 
x
3/? ] I\?@A‰R
„"PPP?\
x
  /?2 FM3 ]@F]0/ FM34b=g 4c16]1>

Điều 19.’^4:UVZ Fi  ‰.‰VrF05?B?\4
FF>i?s8‹?\i^15U4l?c=\?  ]V@0/   
S?4:4_
!i[^@4u Q.?  ‰‡
9&i5032 30?1/@ 01~1‡
B&i3???[| @ƒ‰=R?30?1/@ 01~1‡
•147[=Rc18 €32 8h?60c8:?65
H@ :   i1A €32 ‡
J
x
3/?@  „w=R c1‡
K
x
3/?0=R 1^ 53c1
 !B!"
 
Điều 20.‰15=g [y?F” 71[050@ i?0d [0
<@@A0 30?  3=\?g14_
9 Z [^30?‰a8  ‰=R?@
x
jo71„Z
01~1‡
BI ;F;8?|C8C30?1‡
i  4u Q.?‰a8  ‰=R? ‰.? 0UZ UV‡
J: iU‰@=gU3V4:h?:  01~1‡
KI653/0i? ^15[y?
Điều 21.F[y?8FM3
!
x
3/?:?=R  €32 i?7y=R  D ‡
9
x
3/?
x
=\?    „ 7U =R?@  ]V123g
30?h?‡
Điều 22.I‰[y?4 :8 ^FM3
!: i‰FS?@=gU?3V 01~1‡
9IS? ;•?Ž=R 7=\?>   „ 7c18 €32 8  =\?
:?=R 8FN:@0c1‡
B F>i?/ Ž=g 1~1FN.6 V@6C=?<4 :‡
B]4 : ;45125FF>i?/15]0i3?
i50@u0[„i4~ .?  ‰=FF>i?^^r6uL!!s
IV. BẢO VỆ TUABIN
&L9B 3=\?g1`] ;N 500d  i?[y?‰
!;N 50F_
Qi[^‰a.? 0]HH
P

Qi[^‰=R?3.? 0]JP
P

Qi[^‰=R?[=R.? 0]HH
P

Qi4~ .?‰a.? 0]JP
P

Qi4~ .?‰=R?3.? 0]JP
P

Qi4~ .?=R?[=R.? 0]JH
P

QjZ [^‰a 0
x
=\?]JPHOP
QjZ [^‰=R?3 0
x
=\?]JHPJ!H
QjZ [^‰=R?[=R 0
x
=\?]BHBKH
QjZ =R c1 0
x
=\?71]BPP9PP!PP
Q;=R 30?[^‰a8‰=R?38‰=R?[=R
QjZ [^M65joU 0
x
=\?
Q 1 i| L:
9;N 508[y?84; c c^  @[A1yF_
Q=ƒ?i6C=‚@  iL:
Q=ƒ?i6C=‚[1E? iL:
Q=ƒ?]V Ž0: i
QjZ [^M65joU71
Q1 
x
[^jo
B;N 508[y?8/1@A‚4 : CA=R 84
 !!"
 
; c c^  @[A1yF_
Qi[^‰a.? 0]JP
P

Qi[^‰=R?3.? 0]JH
P

Qi[^‰=R?[=R.? 0]JP
P

Qi4~ .?‰a.? 0]JH
P

Qi4~ .?‰=R?3.? 0]JH
P

Qi4~ .?=R?[=R.? 0]KP
P

Q&Z : c =R?
QjZ [^‰a?571]HP
QjZ [^‰=R?3?571]HKH
QjZ [^‰=R?[=R?571]B!H
QjZ =R c1U 0]HP
Q&i3?? DA138? DA1[=R8c1.? 0
QIu>‰=R?38‰=R?[=R8‰a.? 0
Q&i5032 ‰.? 0
QjZ [^jo?571
QjZ [^jo?5U71r ;9 5] m? i?s
Q21ž?[^L:
;N 508[y?8/1@A‚4 : CA=R 8 •?
w @R c c^  @[A1yF_
Q: i‰]!KHv?1wrN „s
Q: i‰rNs
 !H!"
 
CHÝÕNG IV
CÁC SỰ CỐ VÀ BIỆN PHÁP XỬ LÝ
Điều 25.jZ =R c1.? 0_
1. Hiện tượng
NZ =R c1.? 0 i?
2. Nguyên nhân
…2 c180d 2   dN  :?=R 8FN c@0c1‡
& €32 V=ƒ?‡
 c =\? 5&h?\„w=R c1FS?@ i?‡
3. Biện pháp xử lư
IM3 /„w=R c1r]„FS? /i?s
o ^L Ž S?47 0]F=g?=R  €32 •3ƒ7

x
1FS?=\? 5‡
]Z =R FS??5 ^[y?M6Cš‡
Điều 26. : c =R?=R VZ_
1. Hiện tượng
;NZ :
2. Nguyên nhân
=ƒ? 5]Z : c0d / N0 4‡
30?UTLFM;? =R?8 =R?VF—[0 ;@A/0d  :
c@ <?Z‡
3. Xử lư
u0[„UT[y?008=š3l?/ 14bFS?i??5
3y
SA1‰MFM3@6C=
Điều 27: i[^‰a8‰=R?18‰=R?.? 0
1. Hiện tượng:
i[^  ‰.? 0
2. Nguyên nhân:
j70d ?5==g?=R  0  ‰
47  i   ‰F~r[0c?b8•3Ž=R s
7=g?[^FS?5500d  5] i?4
3. Xử lư:
IM3==g?=R 8  @^@0^3  ‰8]?5==g?
x

>  @86w 3C  i| =R 
pC?=g   i8Fc 12  ‹•3Ž
7`[^FM38FM3 5]
[=\?6u0[„i[^  ‰8]i.? 0?^]3V4: i?
 !J!"
 
50@80&Li6[y?M6Cš
Điều 28:i4u .?‰a8‰=R?18‰=R?.? 0
1. Hiện tượng:
i4u .?  ‰.? 0
2. Nguyên nhân:
j70d ?5==g?=R   ‰[0V?—=\?:?8@V;?8
=\?:?=R V6
x
0d M
•1 =R V?571[0?—i| =R FGA
30?[^  ‰ ;=R [0:?V•8Z [^  ‰?571
[Iu>   ~ .?FS?h?L
3. Xử lư:
.?==g?=R 84w 3C?=g   i| 83C?=g   i8
Fc 12  ‹•3Ž
IM3Z [^  ‰8]Z [^?571153„?<@
x
  
Fc 12 
04i  4~ .?M?
x
3/?Fu>=\?6u0[„
i4~ .?  ‰8]i.? 0?^]3V4: i? 50@80&L
i6[y?M6Cš
Điều 29:&i3?? DA138[=R@c1.? 0 i?[y?

1. Hiện tượng:
‰i?[y?u0T4 : „
/Ÿj…!P*PPB0i3?.? 0
;N<4 :
2. Nguyên nhân:
f0[0i? S?47
 ?B11FS? <l?
&i5032 R
3. Xử lư:
u0[„UT[y?00
][0?<!_?53y4 : 01~1F>i?/‰
][0?<9_FM3 ”A
x
3/?‰8]FS?1=ƒ?
¡ 01~1F>i?/‰8?4UT?5
[][0?<B_ SA1‰M6C=
Điều 30:&i5032   ‰_‰a8‰=R?18‰=R?.? 0 
i?[y?
1. Hiện tượng:
‰i?[y?u0T4 : „
/Ÿj…!P*PPB0i3?.? 0
;N<4 :
2. Nguyên nhân:
f0‰@ @Rž?B1FS? <l?R‡@ ?0@m? 0
1~1
 !K!"
 
Iu>  4u .?.? 0
3. Xử lư:
u0[„UT[y?00
*/  S?4:i  ‰/\M4 :
SA1‰801<6=>?4C D6C=
Điều 31:jZ =R c1.?U 00N
1. Hiện tượng:
;N 50Z =R .? 0
2. Nguyên nhân:
=ƒ? €32 Z =R c1.? 0
 =\? 50=R c1Vc 8  „0=R c1=
ƒ?0d FS?@ i?
3. Xử lư:

x
|  6C= ‹c=\?0=R  58FS12 0d  /„0
=R l?
u0[„ =R c18]@`]12 .?8i?  „[i?8h?
\01<6=>?4C D/ C1/=
SA1‰MFM34C D
[I‰.[y?=? =„ /=\?:?1 =R @`•U €32
01~1= €32 4C D@0@ 
 !"!"

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