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FRAM® high performance - oil filter adapter kit

Video Cards
Video Cards
CS431 Class Presentation
CS431 Class Presentation
Ashish Bhat (02007025)
Ashish Bhat (02007025)
Nilesh Meshram (02007027)
Nilesh Meshram (02007027)
Introduction
Introduction

Interface between computer and a display device
Interface between computer and a display device

Unless a computer has graphics capability built into
Unless a computer has graphics capability built into
the motherboard, the video card is required.
the motherboard, the video card is required.

The CPU, working in conjunction with software
The CPU, working in conjunction with software

applications, sends information about the image to
applications, sends information about the image to
the video card. The video card decides how to use
the video card. The video card decides how to use
the pixels on the screen to create the image. It
the pixels on the screen to create the image. It
then sends that information to the monitor through
then sends that information to the monitor through
output interface.
output interface.
The Evolution of Video Cards
The Evolution of Video Cards

IBM introduced the first video card in 1981 called a
IBM introduced the first video card in 1981 called a
Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA), which
Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA), which
provided text-only displays of green or white text
provided text-only displays of green or white text
on a black screen.
on a black screen.

Presently, the minimum standard for new video
Presently, the minimum standard for new video
cards is Video Graphics Array (VGA), which allows
cards is Video Graphics Array (VGA), which allows
256 colors.
256 colors.

With high-performance standards like Quantum
With high-performance standards like Quantum
Extended Graphics Array (QXGA), video cards can
Extended Graphics Array (QXGA), video cards can
display millions of colors at resolutions of up to
display millions of colors at resolutions of up to
2040 x 1536 pixels.
2040 x 1536 pixels.
Components in a Video Card
Components in a Video Card

Graphics Controller / Graphic Processing
Graphics Controller / Graphic Processing
Unit (GPU)
Unit (GPU)

Video Memory (RAM)
Video Memory (RAM)

Digital-to-analog Converter (DAC)
Digital-to-analog Converter (DAC)

Attribute Controller
Attribute Controller

Output Interface - RGB, Composite, DVI
Output Interface - RGB, Composite, DVI

BUS Interface
BUS Interface

BIOS
BIOS
Components in a Video Card
Components in a Video Card
Video Card - GPU
Video Card - GPU

Similar to CPU but designed specifically to
Similar to CPU but designed specifically to
perform complex mathematical and
perform complex mathematical and
geometric calculations necessary for
geometric calculations necessary for
graphics rendering
graphics rendering

Less congestion on the system bus
Less congestion on the system bus

Reduction in the workload of CPU
Reduction in the workload of CPU
Video Card - GPU
Video Card - GPU

Operations: bitmap transfers, painting,
Operations: bitmap transfers, painting,
window resizing and repositioning, line
window resizing and repositioning, line
drawing, font scaling and polygon drawing
drawing, font scaling and polygon drawing
etc.
etc.

Some GPUs have image enhancement
Some GPUs have image enhancement
algorithms built-in
algorithms built-in

e.g. 3D edge smoothening
e.g. 3D edge smoothening
Video Card - GPU
Video Card - GPU

Some of the latest
Some of the latest
GPUs have more
GPUs have more
transistors than
transistors than
average CPU and
average CPU and
produce a lot of heat.
produce a lot of heat.
Heat-sinking and fan
Heat-sinking and fan
cooling are required
cooling are required
Video Card - Memory
Video Card - Memory

Video Memory (RAM) is used for:
Video Memory (RAM) is used for:

Frame Buffering: holding completed imaged until
Frame Buffering: holding completed imaged until
its time to display them
its time to display them

As the GPU creates images, the image
As the GPU creates images, the image
information is stored in this video memory frame
information is stored in this video memory frame
buffer as a digital bitmap
buffer as a digital bitmap

Total amount of video memory installed may not
Total amount of video memory installed may not
be needed for a particular resolution, the extra
be needed for a particular resolution, the extra
memory often used for caching information for
memory often used for caching information for
the graphics processor
the graphics processor


for example, the caching of commonly used
for example, the caching of commonly used
graphical items, such as text fonts and icons
graphical items, such as text fonts and icons

Unified memory architecture: Use of portion of
Unified memory architecture: Use of portion of
system memory as frame buffer
system memory as frame buffer
- Cost reduction
- Cost reduction
- Inferior graphics performance
- Inferior graphics performance

The greater number of colors, or higher the
The greater number of colors, or higher the
resolution, the more video memory will be required.
resolution, the more video memory will be required.

However, since it is a shared resource reducing one
However, since it is a shared resource reducing one
will allow an increase in the other
will allow an increase in the other
Video Card - Memory
Video Card - Memory
Video Card - DAC
Video Card - DAC

RAM connects directly to DAC
RAM connects directly to DAC

known as RAMDAC
known as RAMDAC

Used to convert the digital image information stored
Used to convert the digital image information stored
in video memory into analog signals that a monitor
in video memory into analog signals that a monitor
can use
can use

The range of refresh rates decided by:
The range of refresh rates decided by:
- The rate at which the RAMDAC converts the
- The rate at which the RAMDAC converts the
information
information
- The design of the graphics processor
- The design of the graphics processor

Multiple RAMDAC
Multiple RAMDAC

Resolution
Resolution
- specified in terms of a row by column figure
- specified in terms of a row by column figure
- the maximum number of displayable pixels
- the maximum number of displayable pixels
- determined by the beam size and dot pitch
- determined by the beam size and dot pitch
- refers to the sharpness, or detail of the visual image
- refers to the sharpness, or detail of the visual image

Color Depth
Color Depth
determined by the intensity of three beams of light (Red, Green
determined by the intensity of three beams of light (Red, Green
and Blue) and the amount of information stored about a pixel
and Blue) and the amount of information stored about a pixel

Different Modes
Different Modes
8 Bit – 256 Color Mode
8 Bit – 256 Color Mode
16 Bit – High Color mode
16 Bit – High Color mode
24 Bit – True Color Mode
24 Bit – True Color Mode
Video Cards - Resolution and
Video Cards - Resolution and
Color depth
Color depth
Video Card - Attribute Controller
Video Card - Attribute Controller

Contains the Color Look-up-table
Contains the Color Look-up-table
(CLUT) which determines which
(CLUT) which determines which
color will be displayed for a
color will be displayed for a
given pixel value in the video
given pixel value in the video
memory
memory

Used when the display mode is
Used when the display mode is
not true color (24bit or 48bit).
not true color (24bit or 48bit).
In such cases the most used
In such cases the most used
colors are stored in this CLUT
colors are stored in this CLUT

Dithering
Dithering
- uses two colors to create the
- uses two colors to create the
appearance of a third
appearance of a third


- gives a smoother appearance
- gives a smoother appearance
to abrupt transitions
to abrupt transitions
example color palette
Video Cards – Resolution
Video Cards – Resolution
and Colors
and Colors
16.7 million1600x1200Ultra XGAUXGA
16.7 million1280x1024Super Extended
Graphics Array
SXGA
16.7 million1024x768Extended Graphics Array XGA1990
16 from 262,144
256
640x480
320x200
Video Graphics
Array
VGA1987
16 from 64640x350 Enhanced Graphics
Adapter
EGA1984
None
16
640x200
160x200
Color Graphics
Adapter
CGA1981
No. of colorsResolutionDescriptionStandardDa
te
Output Interface - RGB
Output Interface - RGB

Most CRT monitors require signal in analog
Most CRT monitors require signal in analog
form. This interface is known as RGB
form. This interface is known as RGB
interface
interface

This interface has three separate lines for
This interface has three separate lines for
the red, green and blue color signals, and
the red, green and blue color signals, and
two lines for horizontal and vertical sync
two lines for horizontal and vertical sync
signals
signals

CRT controller in the video card generates
CRT controller in the video card generates
horizontal and vertical sync signals
horizontal and vertical sync signals
Output Interface - Composite
Output Interface - Composite

Composite video interface is used in
Composite video interface is used in
Television
Television

First RGB data is converted into
First RGB data is converted into
chrominance (color) and luminescence
chrominance (color) and luminescence
(intensity) signals and then both are time
(intensity) signals and then both are time
multiplexed with horizontal and vertical sync
multiplexed with horizontal and vertical sync
signals to give a single composite video
signals to give a single composite video
signal
signal
Output Interface - DVI
Output Interface - DVI

LCD Monitors work in
LCD Monitors work in
digital mode and require
digital mode and require
display data in digital
display data in digital
form
form

RAMDAC is thus
RAMDAC is thus
bypassed and data is
bypassed and data is
sent directly in digital
sent directly in digital
form. This interface is
form. This interface is
known as DVI (Digital
known as DVI (Digital
Video Interface)
Video Interface)
Output interface requirement
for different monitors
Video Card - BUS Interface
Video Card - BUS Interface

ISA Interface (Obsolete)
ISA Interface (Obsolete)

PCI Interface (Obsolete)
PCI Interface (Obsolete)

AGP Interface
AGP Interface

PCI Express Interface
PCI Express Interface
AGP Interface
AGP Interface

AGP = Accelerated Graphics Port
AGP = Accelerated Graphics Port

Single dedicated Point-to-point Connect
Single dedicated Point-to-point Connect

Pipelined transfers
Pipelined transfers

Video RAM Sharing
Video RAM Sharing

Being replaced by new PCI Express
Being replaced by new PCI Express
Video Card - BIOS
Video Card - BIOS

Initialization of hardware setting during
Initialization of hardware setting during
boot-up
boot-up

Provides a set of standard routines to
Provides a set of standard routines to
control and use the video card
control and use the video card

e.g. change display mode, gotoxy,
e.g. change display mode, gotoxy,
change color, write text etc.
change color, write text etc.

traditionally video cards were built according to
traditionally video cards were built according to
certain standards (CGA, VGA, SVGA etc.) and
certain standards (CGA, VGA, SVGA etc.) and
provided the same functionality through these
provided the same functionality through these
standard routines.
standard routines.
Video Card Interfacing
Video Card Interfacing

Older video cards provide a set of standard
Older video cards provide a set of standard
routines accessed through BIOS
routines accessed through BIOS

Display Drivers
Display Drivers
Video Card Interfacing in
Video Card Interfacing in
Windows
Windows
User Applications
OpenGL API DirectDraw APIWindows GDI
Display Driver OpenGL Driver DirectDraw Driver
Video Card
References
References

http://www.howstuffworks.com
http://www.howstuffworks.com

http://www.pctechguide.com/
http://www.pctechguide.com/

http://www.epanorama.net
http://www.epanorama.net
Thank you!
Thank you!
Video Card – Types of
Video Card – Types of
Memory
Memory

Standard DRAM – Used in earlier system
Standard DRAM – Used in earlier system

Video memory implementation on graphics
Video memory implementation on graphics
board
board
- VRAM
- VRAM
- WRAM
- WRAM
- EDO
- EDO
- SDRAM
- SDRAM
- DDRRAM
- DDRRAM
- RDRAM
- RDRAM

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