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c++ programming program design including data structcures

C++ PROGRAMMING:
PROGRAM DESIGN INCLUDING DATA STRUCTURES
F IFTH EDITION
D.S. MALIK
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C++ Programming: Program Design
Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
D.S. Malik
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PREFACE xxv
1. An Overview of Computers and Programming Languages 1
2. Basic Elements of C++ 27
3. Input/Output 117
4. Control Structures I (Selection) 175
5. Control Structures II (Repetition) 247
6. User-Defined Functions I 319
7. User-Defined Functions II 361
8. User-Defined Simple Data Types, Namespaces,
and the
string
Type 433
9. Arrays and Strings 485
10. Records (
struct
s) 563
11. Classes and Data Abstraction 601
12. Inheritance and Composition 675
13. Pointers, Classes, Virtual Functions, Abstract Classes, and Lists 745
14. Overloading and Templates 827
15. Exception Handling 919
16. Recursion 959
17. Linked Lists 991
18. Stacks and Queues 1083
BRIEF CONTENTS
19. Searching and Sorting Algorithms 1183
20. Binary Trees 1265
21. Graphs 1321
22. Standard Template Library (STL) 1361
APPENDIX A Reserved Words 1477
APPENDIX B Operator Precedence 1479
APPENDIX C Character Sets 1481
APPENDIX D Operator Overloading 1485
APPENDIX E Additional C++ Topics 1487
APPENDIX F Header Files 1509
APPENDIX G Memory Size on a System and Random
Number Generator 1519
APPENDIX H References 1521
APPENDIX I Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 1523
INDEX 1555
iv | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface xxv
AN OVERVIEW OF COMPUTERS AND PROGRAMMING
LANGUAGES 1
Introduction 2
A Brief Overview of the History of Computers 2
Elements of a Computer System 3
Hardware 4
Central Processing Unit and Main Memory 4
Input /Output Devices 5
Software 6
The Language of a Computer 6
The Evolution of Programming Languages 8
Processing a C++ Program 10
Programming with the Problem Analysis–Coding–Execution Cycle 12
Programming Methodologies 20
Structured Programming 20
Object-Oriented Programming 20
ANSI/ISO Standard C++ 22
Quick Review 22
Exercises 23
BASIC ELEMENTS OF C++ 27
A C++ Program 28
The Basics of a C++ Program 31
Comments 32
Special Symbols 32
1
2
Reserved Words (Keywords) 33
Identifiers 33
Whitespaces 34
Data Types 35
Simple Data Types 35
Floating-Point Data Types 38
Arithmetic Operators and Operator Precedence 39
Order of Precedence 43
Expressions 44
Mixed Expressions 45
Type Conversion (Casting) 47
string
Type 49
Input 50
Allocating Memory with Constants and Variables 50
Putting Data into Variables 53
Assignment Statement 53
Saving and Using the Value of an Expression 56
Declaring and Initializing Variables 57
Input (Read) Statement 58
Variable Initialization 61
Increment and Decrement Operators 65
Output 67
Preprocessor Directives 75
namespace and Using
cin
and
cout
in a Program 76
Using the
string
Data Type in a Program 76
Creating a C++ Program 77
Debugging: Understanding and Fixing Syntax Errors 80
Program Style and Form 84
Syntax 84
Use of Blanks 85
Use of Semicolons, Brackets, and Commas 85
Semantics 85
Naming Identifiers 85
Prompt Lines 86
Documentation 87
Form and Style 87
More on Assignment Statements 89
Programming Example: Convert Length 91
vi | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
Programming Example: Make Change 94
Quick Review 98
Exercises 100
Programming Exercises 109
INPUT/OUTPUT 117
I/O Streams and Standard I/O Devices 118
cin
and the Extraction Operator
>>
119
Using Predefined Functions in a Program 124
cin
and the
get
Function 127
cin
and the
ignore
Function 128
The
putback
and
peek
Functions 130
The Dot Notation between I/O Stream Variables
and I/O Functions: A Precaution 132
Input Failure 133
The
clear
Function 135
Output and Formatting Output 137
setprecision
Manipulator 137
fixed
Manipulator 138
showpoint
Manipulator 139
setw
142
Additional Output Formatting Tools 144
setfill
Manipulator 144
left
and
right
Manipulators 146
Input/Output an d the
string
Type 148
Debugging: Understanding Logic Errors
and Debugging with cout Statements 149
File Input/Ou tput 152
Programming Example: Movie Tickets Sale and Donation to Charity 156
Programming Example: Student Grade 162
Quick Review 165
Exercises 166
Programming Exercises 170
CONTROL STRUCTURES I (SELECTION) 175
Control Structures 176
Relational Operators 177
Relational Operators and Simple Data Types 178
3
4
Table of Contents | vii
Comparing Characters 179
Relational Operators and the
string
Type 180
Logical (Boolean) O perators and Logical Expressions 182
Order of Precedence 184
int Data Type and Logical (Boolean) Expressions 187
bool Data Type and Logical (Boolean) Expressions 188
Selection: if and if else 188
One-Way Selection 189
Two-Way Selection 191
Compound (Block of) Statements 195
Multiple Selections: Nested if 195
Comparing if else Statements with a Series of if Statements 198
Short-Circuit Evaluation 199
Comparing Floating-Point Numbers for Equality: A Precaution 200
Associativity of Relational Operators: A Precaution 201
Avoiding Bugs by Avoiding Partially Understood
Concepts and Techniques 203
Input Failure and the if Statement 206
Confusion between the Equality Operator (==) and
the Assignment Operator (=) 209
Conditional Operator (
?:
) 211
Program Style and Form (Revisited): Indentation 211
Using Pseudocode to Develop, Test, and Debug a Program 212
switch Structures 215
Avoiding Bugs by Avoiding Partially Understood Concepts
and Techniques (Revisited) 221
Terminating a Program with the
assert
Function 223
Programming Example: Cable Company Billing 225
Quick Review 231
Exercises 232
Programming Exercises 241
CONTROL STRUCTURES II (REPETITION) 247
Why Is Repetition Needed? 248
while Looping (Repetition) Structure 249
Designing while Loops 251
Case 1: Counter-Controlled while Loops 252
Case 2: Sentinel-Controlled while Loops 255
5
viii | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
Case 3: Flag-Controlled while Loops 259
Case 4: EOF-Controlled while Loops 263
eof Function 263
More on Expressions in while Statements 268
Programming Example: Fibonacci Number 269
for Looping ( Repetition) Structure 273
Programming Example: Classifying Numbers 281
do while Looping (Repetition) Structure 284
Choosing the Right Looping Structure 289
break and continue Statements 289
Nested Control Structures 291
Avoiding Bugs by Avoiding Patches 296
Debugging Loops 299
Quick Review 300
Exercises 301
Programming Exercises 313
USER-DEFINED FUNCTIONS I 319
Predefined Functions 320
User-Defined Functions 324
Value-Returning Functions 324
Syntax: Value-Returning Functions 326
Syntax: Formal Parameter List 326
Function Call 326
Syntax: Actual Parameter List 327
return Statement 327
Syntax: return Statement 327
Function Prototype 331
Syntax: Function Prototype 332
Value-Returning Functions: Some Peculiarity 333
More Examples of Value-Returning Functions 335
Flow of Execution 340
Programming Example: Largest Number 341
Programming Example: Cable Company 343
Quick Review 349
Exercises 350
Programming Exercises 356
6
Table of Contents | ix
USER-DEFINED FUNCTIONS II 361
Void Functions 362
Value Parameters 367
Reference Variables as Parameters 368
Calculate Grade 369
Value and Reference Parameters and Memory Allocation 372
Reference Parameters and Value-Return ing Functions 382
Scope of an Identifier 382
Global Variables, Named Constants, and Side Effects 386
Static and Automatic Variables 391
Debugging: Using Drivers and Stubs 392
Function Overloading: An Introduction 395
Functions with Default Parameters 396
Programming Example: Classify Numbers 399
Programming Example: Data Comparison 404
Quick Review 414
Exercises 416
Programming Exercises 424
USER-DEFINED SIMPLE DATA TYPES, NAMESPACES,
AND THE
string
TYPE 433
Enumeration Type 434
Declaring Variables 436
Assignment 436
Operations on Enumeration Types 437
Relational Operators 437
Input /Output of Enumeration Types 438
Functions and Enumeration Types 440
Declaring Variables When Defining the Enumeration Type 442
Anonymous Data Types 442
typedef Statement 443
Programming Example: The Game of Rock, Paper, and Scissors 444
Namespaces 452
string
Type 458
Additional
string
Operations 461
Programming Example: Pig Latin Strings 471
7
8
x | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
Quick Review 475
Exercises 477
Programming Exercises 481
ARRAYS AND STRINGS 485
Arrays 487
Accessing Array Components 488
Processing One-Dimensional Arrays 491
Array Index Out of Bounds 494
Array Initialization During Declaration 495
Partial Initialization of Arrays During Declaration 496
Some Restrictions on Array Processing 496
Arrays as Parameters to Functions 497
Constant Arrays as Formal Parameters 498
Base Address of an Array and Array in Computer Memory 501
Functions Cannot Return a Value of the Type Array 503
Integral Data Type and Array Indices 506
Other Ways to Declare Arrays 507
Searching an Array for a Specific Item 507
C
-Strings (Character Arrays) 510
String Comparison 512
Reading and Writing Strings 514
String Input 514
String Output 515
Specifying Input/Output Files at Execution Time 516
string
Type and Input/Output Files 516
Parallel Arrays 517
Two- and Multidimensional Arrays 518
Accessing Array Components 520
Two-Dimensional Array Initialization During Declaration 521
Two-Dimensional Arrays and Enumeration Types 521
Initialization 524
Print 525
Input 525
Sum by Row 525
Sum by Column 526
Largest Element in Each Row and Each Column 526
Passing Two-Dimensional Arrays as Parameters to Functions 527
9
Table of Contents | xi
Arrays of Strings 530
Arrays of Strings and the
string
Type 530
Arrays of Strings and
C
-Strings (Character Arrays) 530
Another Way to Declare a Two-Dimensional Array 531
Multidimensional Arrays 532
Programming Example: Code Detection 534
Programming Example: Text Processing 540
Quick Review 547
Exercises 548
Programming Exercises 558
RECORDS (
struct
S) 563
Records (structs) 564
Accessing struct Members 566
Assignment 568
Comparison (Relational Operators) 569
Input /Output 570
struct Variables and Functions 570
Arrays versus structs 571
Arrays in structs 572
structs in Arrays 574
structs within a struct 576
Programming Example: Sales Data Analysis 580
Quick Review 594
Exercises 594
Programming Exercises 597
CLASSES AND DATA ABSTRACTION 601
Classes 602
Unified Modeling Language Class Diagrams 606
Variable (Object) Declaration 606
Accessing Class Members 607
Built-in Operations on Classes 608
Assignment Operator and Classes 609
Class Scope 609
Functions and Classes 610
Reference Parameters and Class Objects (Variables) 610
10
11
xii | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
Implementation of Member Functions 611
Accessor and Mutator Functions 616
Order of public and private Members of a Class 619
Constructors 621
Invoking a Constructor 623
Invoking the Default Constructor 623
Invoking a Constructor with Parameters 623
Constructors and Default Parameters 626
Classes and Constructors: A Precaution 626
Arrays of Class Objects (Variables) and Constructors 627
Destructors 629
Data Abstraction, Classes, and Abstract Data Types 630
A struct Versus a class 632
Information Hiding 633
Executable Code 637
Static Members of a Class 643
Programming Example: Candy Machine 649
Quick Review 663
Exercises 665
Programming Exercises 670
INHERITANCE AND COMPOSITION 675
Inheritance 676
Redefining (Overriding) Member Functions
of the Base Class 679
Constructors of Derived and Base Classes 686
Destructors in a Derived Class 694
Multiple Inclusions of a Header File 695
C++ Stream Classes 696
Protected Members of a Class 698
Inheritance as public, protected,orprivate 698
Composition (Aggregation) 702
Object-Oriented D esign ( OOD) and Object-Oriented P rogramming (OOP) 707
Identifying Classes, Objects, and Operations 709
Programming Example: Grade Report 710
Quick Review 731
Exercises 732
Programming Exercises 739
12
Table of Contents | xiii
POINTERS, CLASSES, VIRTUAL FUNCTIONS,
ABSTRACT CLASSES, AND LISTS 745
Pointer Data Type and Pointer Variables 746
Declaring Pointer Variables 746
Address of Operator (&) 747
Dereferencing Operator (*) 748
Classes, Structs, and Pointer Variables 752
Initializing Poi nter Variables 755
Dynamic Variables 755
Operator new 756
Operator delete 757
Operations on Pointer Variables 759
Dynamic Arrays 761
Functions and Pointers 764
Pointers and Function Return Values 764
Dynamic Two-Dimensional Arrays 765
Shallow versus Deep Copy and Pointers 768
Classes and Pointers: Some Peculiarities 770
Destructor 770
Assignment Operator 772
Copy Constructor 773
Inheritance, Pointers, and Virtual Functions 780
Classes and Virtual Destructors 787
Abstract Classes and Pure Virtual Functions 787
Array Based Lists 796
Unordered Lists 803
Ordered Lists 807
Address of Operator and Classes 809
Quick Review 812
Exercises 815
Programming Exercises 822
OVERLOADING AND TEMPLATES 827
Why Opera tor Overloading Is Need ed 828
Operator Overloading 829
Syntax for Operator Functions 830
13
14
xiv | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
Overloading an Operator: Some Restrictions 830
Pointer this 831
Friend Functions of Classes 836
Operator Functions as Member Functions and
Nonmember Functions 839
Overloading Binary Operators 842
Overloading the Stream Insertion (<<) and
Extraction (>>) Operators 848
Overloading the Assignment Operator (=) 853
Overloading Unary Operators 861
Operator Overloading: Member versus Nonmember 867
Classes and Pointer Member Variables (Revisited) 868
Operator Overloading: One Final Word 868
Programming Example:
Clock Type
868
Programming Example: Complex Numbers 877
Overloading the Array Index (Subscript) Operator (
[]
) 882
Programming Example:
newString
884
Function Overloading 890
Templates 891
Function Templates 891
Class Templates 893
Array-Based Lists (Revisited) 896
Quick Review 902
Exercises 905
Programming Exercises 910
EXCEPTION HANDLING 919
Handling Exceptions within a Program 920
C++ Mechanisms of Exception Handling 924
try/catch Block 924
Using C++ Exception Classes 931
Creating Your O wn Exception Classes 935
Rethrowing and Throwing an Exception 941
Exception-Handling Techni ques 946
Terminate the Program 946
Fix the Error and Continue 946
Log the Error and Continue 948
15
Table of Contents | xv
Stack Unwinding 948
Quick Review 952
Exercises 954
Programming Exercises 957
RECURSION 959
Recursive Definitions 960
Direct and Indirect Recursion 963
Infinite Recursion 963
Problem Solving Using Recursion 964
Tower of Hanoi: Analysis 973
Recursion or Iteration? 974
Programming Example: Converting a Number from
Binary to Decimal 975
Programming Example: Converting a Number from
Decimal to Binary 979
Quick Review 982
Exercises 983
Programming Exercises 986
LINKED LISTS 991
Linked Lists 992
Linked Lists: Some Properties 993
Deletion 999
Building a Linked List 1000
Linked List as an ADT 1005
Structure of Linked List Nodes 1006
Member Variables of the class
linkedListType
1006
Linked List Iterators 1007
Print the List 1013
Length of a List 1013
Retrieve the Data of the First Node 1014
Retrieve the Data of the Last Node 1014
Begin and End 1014
Copy the List 1015
Destructor 1016
Copy Constructor 1016
Overloading the Assignment Operator 1017
16
17
xvi | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
Unordered Linked Lists 1017
Search the List 1018
Insert the First Node 1019
Insert the Last Node 1020
Header File of the Unordered Linked List 1025
Ordered Linked Lists 1026
Search the List 1027
Insert a Node 1028
Insert First and Insert Last 1032
Delete a Node 1033
Header File of the Ordered Linked List 1034
Print a Linked List in Reverse Order
(Recursion Revisited) 1037
printListReverse
1039
Doubly Lin ked Lists 1040
Default Constructor 1043
isEmptyList
1043
Destroy the List 1043
Initialize the List 1044
Length of the List 1044
Print the List 1044
Reverse Print the List 1044
Search the List 1045
First and Last Elements 1045
Circular Linked Lists 1051
Programming Example: Video Store 1052
Quick Review 1072
Exercises 1072
Programming Exercises 1077
STACKS AND QUEUES 1083
Stacks 1084
Stack Operations 1086
Implementation of Stacks as Arrays 1088
Initialize Stack 1091
Empty Stack 1092
Full Stack 1092
18
Table of Contents | xvii
Push 1092
Return the Top Element 1094
Pop 1094
Copy Stack 1096
Constructor and Destructor 1096
Copy Constructor 1097
Overloading the Assignment Operator (
=
) 1097
Stack Header File 1098
Programming Example: Highest GPA 1102
Linked Implementation of Stacks 1106
Default Constructor 1109
Empty Stack and Full Stack 1109
Initialize Stack 1110
Push 1110
Return the Top Element 1112
Pop 1112
Copy Stack 1114
Constructors and Destructors 1115
Overloading the Assignment Operator (
=
) 1115
Stack as Derived from the class
unorderedLinkedList
1118
Application of Stacks: Postfix Expressions Calculator 1119
Main Algorithm 1122
Function
evaluateExpression
1122
Function
evaluateOpr
1124
Function
discardExp
1126
Function
printResult
1126
Removing Recursion: Nonrecursive Algorithm to
Print a Linked List Backward 1129
Queues 1133
Queue Operations 1134
Implementation of Queues as Arrays 1136
Linked Implementation of Queues 1145
Queue Derived from the class
unorderedLinkedListType
1150
Application of Queues: Simulation 1151
Designing a Queuing System 1152
Customer 1153
Server 1156
xviii | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
Server List 1159
Waiting Customers Queue 1164
Main Program 1166
Quick Review 1171
Exercises 1172
Programming Exercises 1178
SEARCHING AND SORTING ALGORITHMS 1183
Searching and Sorting Algorithms 1184
Search Algorithms 1184
Sequential Search 1185
Binary Search 1187
Performance of Binary Search 1192
Binary Search Algorithm and t he class
orderedArrayListType
1193
Asymptotic Notation: Big-O Notation 1194
Lower Bound on Comparison-Based Search Algorithms 1202
Sorting Algorithms 1202
Sorting a List: Bubb le Sort 1202
Analysis: Bubble Sort 1206
Bubble S o rt A lgorithm and the class
unorderedArrayListType
1207
Selection Sort: Array-Based Lists 1208
Analysis: Selection Sort 1211
Insertion Sort: Array-Based Lists 1212
Analysis: Insertion Sort 1216
Lower Bound on Comparison-Based Sort Algorithms 1216
Quick Sort: Array-Based Lists 1218
Analysis: Quick Sort 1224
Merge Sort: Linked List-Based Lists 1225
Divide 1227
Merge 1229
Analysis: Merge Sort 1232
Programming Example: Election Results 1235
Quick Review 1256
Exercises 1257
Programming Exercises 1260
19
Table of Contents | xix
BINARY TREES 1265
Binary Trees 1266
Copy Tree 1271
Binary Tree Traversal 1272
Implementing Binary Trees 1276
Binary Search Trees 1285
Binary Search Tree: Analysis 1296
Nonrecursive Binary Tree Traversal Algorithms 1297
Nonrecursive Inorder Traversal 1297
Nonrecursive Preorder Traversal 1299
Nonrecursive Postorder Traversal 1300
Binary Tree Traversal and Functions as Parameters 1301
Programming Example: Video Store (Revisited) 1305
Quick Review 1314
Exercises 1316
Programming Exercises 1318
GRAPHS 1321
Introduction 1322
Graph Definitions and Notations 1323
Graph Representation 1326
Adjacency Matrix 1326
Adjacency Lists 1327
Operations on Graphs 1328
Graphs as ADTs 1329
Graph Trav ersals 1333
Depth First Traversal 1333
Breadth First Traversal 1335
Shortest Path Algorithm 1337
Shortest Path 1339
Minimal Spanning Tree 1345
Quick Review 1355
Exercises 1357
Programming Exercises 1360
20
21
xx | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
STANDARD TEMPLATE LIBRARY (STL) 1361
Components of the STL 1362
Container Types 1363
Sequence Containers 1363
Sequence Container:
vector
1363
Member Functions Common to All Containers 1372
Member Functions Common to Sequence Containers 1374
The
copy
Algorithm 1375
Sequence Container:
deque
1379
Sequence Container:
list
1383
Iterators 1390
Types of Iterators 1390
Stream Iterators 1396
Associative Containers 1396
Associative Containers:
set
and
multiset
1397
Declaring
set
or
multiset
Associative Containers 1397
Item Insertion and Deletion from
set
/
multiset
1399
Container Adapters 1403
Stack 1403
Queue 1405
Containers, Associated Header Files, and Iterator Support 1406
Algorithms 1407
STL Algorithm Classification 1408
Function Objects 1410
Insert Iterator 1416
STL Algorithms 1418
The Functions
fill
and
fill_n
1418
The Functions
generate
and
generate_n
1420
The Functions
find
,
find_if
,
find_end
, and
find_first_of
1422
The Functions
remove
,
remove_if
,
remove_copy
, and
remove_copy_if
1427
The Functions
replace
,
replace_if
,
replace_copy
, and
replace_copy_if
1430
The Functions
swap
,
iter_swap
, and
swap_ranges
1434
The Functions
search
,
search_n
,
sort
,and
binary_search
1437
The Functions
adjacent_find
,
merge
, and
inplace_merge
1441
22
Table of Contents | xxi
The Functions
reverse
,
reverse_copy
,
rotate
, and
rotate_copy
1445
The Functions
count
,
count_if
,
max
,
max_element
,
min
,
min_element
,and
random_shuffle
1448
The Functions
for_each
and
transform
1452
The Functions
includes
,
set_intersection
,
set_union
,
set_difference
,and
set_symmetric_difference
1455
The Functions
accumulate
,
adjacent_difference
,
inner_product
,and
partial_sum
1463
Quick Review 1468
Exercises 1472
Programming Exercises 1475
APPENDIX A: RESERVED WORDS 1477
APPENDIX B: OPERATOR PRECEDENCE 1479
APPENDIX C: CHARACTER SETS 1481
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) 1481
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) 1482
APPENDIX D: OPERATOR OVERLOADING 1485
APPENDIX E: ADDITIONAL C++ TOPICS 1487
Binary (Base 2) Representation of a Nonnegative Integer 1487
Converting a Base 10 Numbe r to a Binary Number
(Base 2) 1487
Converting a Binary Number (Base 2) to Base 10 1489
Converting a Binary Number (Base 2) to Octal (Base 8)
and Hexadecimal (Base 16) 1490
More on Fi le Input/Output 1492
Binary Files 1492
Random File Access 1498
Naming Conventions of Header Files in ANSI/ISO
Standard C++ and Standard C++ 1506
xxii | C++ Programming: Program Design Including Data Structures, Fifth Edition
APPENDIX F: HEADER FILES 1509
Header File
cassert
(
assert.h
) 1509
Header File
cctype
(
ctype.h
) 1510
Header File
cfloat
(
float.h
) 1511
Header File
climits
(
limits.h
) 1512
Header File
cmath
(
math.h
) 1514
Header File
cstddef
(
stddef.h
) 1515
Header File
cstring
(
string.h
) 1515
APPENDIX G: MEMORY SIZE ON A SYSTEM
AND RANDOM NUMBER GENERATOR 1519
Random Number Generator 1520
APPENDIX H: REFERENCES 1521
APPENDIX I: ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED
EXERCISES 1523
Chapter 1 1523
Chapter 2 1526
Chapter 3 1528
Chapter 4 1529
Chapter 5 1531
Chapter 6 1533
Chapter 7 1534
Chapter 8 1535
Chapter 9 1536
Chapter 10 1538
Chapter 11 1539
Chapter 12 1541
Chapter 13 1543
Chapter 14 1544
Chapter 15 1545
Table of Contents | xxiii

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