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Building blocks of matter a supplement to the macmillan encyclopedia of physics john s rigden

BUILDING
BLOCKS OF
MATTER
BBoM-halfttl.4/16/03 5/8/03 5:47 PM Page i
EDITORIAL BOARD
Editor in Chief
John S. Rigden
American Institute of Physics
Editors
Jonathan Bagger
Johns Hopkins University
Roger H. Stuewer
University of Minnesota
BUILDING
BLOCKS OF
MATTER
A Supplement to the
MACMILLAN
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHYSICS
John S. Rigden

Editor in Chief
BBoM-ttl pg.4/16/03 5/8/03 5:58 PM Page 1
Building Blocks of Matter: A Supplement to the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Physics
John S. Rigden, Editor in Chief
©2003 by Macmillan Reference USA.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Building blocks of matter : a supplement to the Macmillan encyclopedia
of physics / edited by John S. Rigden.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-02-865703-9 (hardcover : alk. paper)
1. Particles (Nuclear physics) I. Rigden, John S. II. Macmillan
encyclopedia of physics.
QC793.2 .B85 2003
539.7’2—dc21
2002013396
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
CONTENTS
v
Preface vii
Introduction ix
Reader’s Guide xiii
List of Articles xvii
List of Contributors xxiii
Common Abbreviations and Acronyms xxix
Building Blocks of Matter 1
Time Line 503
Glossary 509
Index 515
EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF
vi
Deirdre Graves, Brigham Narins (Project Editors)
Shawn Beall (Editorial Support)
Patti Brecht, Joseph Pomerance (Copy Editors)
Carol Roberts (Indexer)
Robyn Young (Project Manager, Imaging and
Multimedia Content)
Pam Galbreath (Art Director)
GGS Information Services (Typesetter)
Mary Beth Trimper (Composition Manager)
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Rhonda Williams (Buyer)
Macmillan Reference USA
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Hélène G. Potter (Director of New Product Development)
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PREFACE
vii
The concepts and ideas of elementary particle physics
are abstract, and they are typically expressed in the
language of mathematics. However, the goal of ele-
mentary particle physics is very simple, and all the ef-
forts of elementary particle physicists are directed
toward that simple goal: to identify the basic build-
ing blocks of matter and to understand how they in-
teract to produce the material world we observe.
This encyclopedia contains articles intended for
a broad audience of general readers and is designed
to edify and give readers an appreciation for one of
the most active and productive areas of physics
throughout the twentieth century and to the present
time. On the one hand, most of the articles have
been written in ordinary language and provide a
solid base in particle physics concepts and history for
those who are new to the field. On the other hand,
some topics in particle physics are difficult to express
in everyday words, and in the articles on such topics,
symbols appear and even an occasional equation.
Even these articles, however, are written so that the
reader with little physics background can capture a
general sense of the topic covered.
Several features of the encyclopedia are de-
signed to help the general reader navigate the lan-
guage of physics and mathematics included in the
articles on the more complex topics. A glossary in
the back of the book provides definitions for terms
that may be unknown to the reader, both in the field
of physics and in related sciences. A list of common
abbreviations and acronyms at the beginning of the
book is included to aid readers unfamiliar with those
used in the book. Numerous tables, figures, illustra-
tions, and photographs supplement the information
contained within the articles and provide visual tools
to better understand the material presented.
Entries are arranged alphabetically and include
extensive cross-references to refer the reader to ad-
ditional discussions of related topics. In each arti-
cle, a bibliography directs the reader to books,
articles, and Web sites that provide additional
sources of information. The articles themselves fo-
cus on particular topics that, taken together, make
up the intellectual framework called elementary par-
ticle physics. Articles such as those on accelerators,
quarks, leptons, antimatter, and particle identifica-
tion provide a working base for the study of particle
physics. Articles such as those on quantum chro-
modynamics, neutrino oscillations, electroweak sym-
metry breaking, and string theory bring readers to
subjects that fill the conversations of contemporary
particle physicists. Finally, articles such as those on
the cosmological constant and dark energy, super-
symmetry, and unified theories discuss the key top-
ics replete with many exciting questions left to be
answered.
Articles also detail the history of particle physics,
including the discovery of specific particles, such as
the antiproton and the electron. In addition to the
historical articles, a time line is included to provide
an overview of the development of the field of par-
ticle physics. This time line of research and devel-
opment in what is now called particle physics extends
back almost three millennia. The time line demon-
strates the commanding grip that the desire to iden-
tify the basic building blocks of matter has had on
the minds of past and present scientists. Biographi-
cal articles of physicists who have made seminal con-
tributions to our understanding of the material world
complete the encyclopedia’s coverage of the history
of particle physics. The selection of physicists for the
biographies was based on the desire to provide a his-
torical background for the topics presented in this
encyclopedia, and so no living physicist was included.
Since experimentation is a vital part of particle
physics, detailed articles discuss the technologies
used to discover particles, including current accel-
erator types and subsystems. Articles also profile the
international laboratories that house these acceler-
ators, describing experiments, both historic and
current, conducted at these labs. Articles on case
studies are included to provide the reader with
more in-depth information as to how these tech-
nologies contribute to the past and continuing search
for particles.
Particle physics both affects and is affected by
other sciences as well as by the political and philo-
sophical environment. Articles discuss the interac-
tion of particle physics and cosmology, astrophysics,
philosophy, culture, and metaphysics. Also included
are articles describing the spin-off technologies cre-
ated in the search for particles as well as the fund-
ing of this research.
A reader’s guide in the beginning of the ency-
clopedia arranges the topics into broad categories
and thereby helps organize the array of individual
entries into a comprehensive field of study. Addi-
tionally, the article on elementary particle physics
provides an overview of the field and its current
questions.
The authors of the articles contained in this en-
cyclopedia work in the top particle physics laborato-
ries and are professors at renowned colleges and
universities. Not only does this encyclopedia provide
a comprehensive coverage of the field of particle
physics, but it also brings together articles from the
top members of the physics and scientific community.
This collection of articles would not have been
possible without the effort of those who contributed,
and I thank each of the authors. Jonathan Rosner,
University of Chicago, has responded to personal re-
quests I made of him, and I thank him. Also, I am
grateful to both editors, Jonathan Bagger, Johns
Hopkins University, and Roger H. Stuewer, Univer-
sity of Minnesota, for their work and advice. Lastly,
the Macmillan editor, Deirdre Graves, has been de-
voted in her assistance throughout the project. We,
the editors, thank her.
John S. Rigden
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
viii
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
ix
Physicists distinguish between classical and modern
physics. The classical era began in the Scientific Rev-
olution of the seventeenth century and extended
throughout the eighteenth and most of the nine-
teenth centuries. By then there were rumblings
among some prominent physicists that their subject
was complete, that no more basic physics remained
to be discovered. Then, in 1895, Wilhelm Conrad
Röntgen discovered X rays, and abruptly, although
perhaps unknowingly, the modern era of physics be-
gan. During the following year Henri Becquerel dis-
covered radioactivity, and in 1897 the work of several
physicists culminated in the discovery of the electron,
which is generally credited to J. J. Thomson. With
the first subatomic particle, the electron, to account
for, physicists knew that a new era was under way.
The idea of basic building blocks of matter is at
least 2,600 years old. In the sixth century
B
.
C
.
E
.
Thales proposed that all things reduced to water,
and, coming out of the Greek-Roman eras and for
centuries to come, the four basic elements were
thought to be earth, water, fire, and air. The atomic
hypothesis, originating in the fifth century
B
.
C
.
E
., lin-
gered in the background for centuries until experi-
mental support, through the work of eighteenth- and
nineteenth-century chemists, brought atoms to the
fore as the basic building blocks of matter. By the
early years of the nineteenth century, quantitative
measurements had established that hydrogen was the
least massive of the chemical elements, and in 1815
William Prout proposed that hydrogen was the build-
ing block of all the chemical elements. Prout’s idea
had supporters through the nineteenth century, but
it was finally discredited with the discovery of isotopes
early in the twentieth century.
One of the major themes of twentieth-century
physics, a spectacular period in the history of physics,
has been the continuation, although greatly intensi-
fied, of the ancient quest to identify and understand
the fundamental constituents of matter. The elec-
tron, discovered in 1897, was the first elementary par-
ticle, and, after a century that saw “elementary”
particles come and go with great profusion, the elec-
tron was and remains truly elementary.
What makes a particle elementary? Simply put,
it contains no parts. The electron has no hidden con-
stituents. The electron is elementary. The proton,
long considered to be an elementary particle, does
have parts—three quarks. The proton is not ele-
mentary. There are currently twelve elementary par-
ticles that physicists believe make up the observable
matter throughout the universe: six quarks—up,
down, charm, strange, top, and bottom—and six
leptons—electron, electron neutrino, muon, muon
neutrino, tau, and tau neutrino—all of which fit
nicely into three groups, called generations, each
consisting of two quarks and two leptons. The first
generation consists of the four lightest particles—the
up and down quarks and the electron and the elec-
tron neutrino—which are the particles responsible
for ordinary matter as we currently know it. The com-
position of dark matter remains a mystery. The par-
ticles of the second and third generations are
successively more massive, and these heavier parti-
cles are believed to have played roles during the mo-
ments following the Big Bang. The twelve elementary
particles make up the Standard Model.
The electron and proton were discovered by ex-
perimental set-ups built on a small table. By contrast,
quarks were discovered by means of vast accelera-
tors with dimensions measured in miles and with
subsystems that dwarfed the physicists walking among
them. The century’s trend toward larger and larger
accelerators was necessitated by the need for higher
and higher energies. In turn, higher energies were
required to probe the innards of particles such as
the proton as well as to create new particles with sub-
stantial masses such as the W and Z as well as the
top quark.
The objective of elementary particle physics is
twofold: to establish the identity of all the elemen-
tary particles of nature and to determine the means
by which the elementary particles interact so as to
give rise to our material world. Four basic interac-
tions, or forces, have been identified: gravitational,
electromagnetic, weak, and strong. Each of these
four forces is transmitted between particles by the
exchange of a force-carrying particle; the photon
transmits the electromagnetic force, W and Z parti-
cles the weak force, and gluons the strong force. The
graviton, which has not been established experi-
mentally, is assumed to transmit the gravitational
force. With the twelve “matter” particles and the four
“interaction” particles, the behavior of all the ob-
served matter in the universe can be described.
The ability to describe ordinary matter in terms
of a few basic entities is a triumph of contemporary
physics. In this remarkable process, however, physi-
cists have moved toward a new threshold that portends
stunning insights into the physical world—insights
whose outlines can be observed, but only dimly. As is
always true, good science raises profound questions.
Is space three-dimensional or are there hidden di-
mensions hovering within our intellectual and exper-
imental reach? Dark matter is a reality, but what is it?
Dark matter pulls our universe together, but dark en-
ergy pushes it apart. What is dark energy? Will the ex-
pansive effect of dark energy override the contractive
effect of dark matter? Why do the elementary parti-
cles have their particular masses? Will the Higgs bo-
son bring understanding to this question? Gravitation
remains to be unified with the other basic interactions.
What will be required to accomplish this unification?
The answers to such questions may transform the con-
ceptual landscape of physics and, in the process, fun-
damentally alter the way humans view their world.
During the past two decades, nature’s extremes
have been linked. At one extreme are the elemen-
tary particles with their infinitesimal sizes and masses;
at the other extreme is the universe with its incom-
prehensibly immense size and mass. The detailed
knowledge of elementary particles accumulated over
the past century has illuminated events immediately
following the Big Bang and has provided a reason-
able explanation of how the universe evolved from
the zero-of-time to its current state fifteen billion
years later. The physics of elementary particles has
joined hands with cosmology, and together they have
brought knowledge and understanding to a level that
could not have been imagined when the electron was
first observed in 1897. Of course, many questions,
major questions, await answers; and many details, sig-
nificant details, await elaboration. Good science
begets good questions.
At a practical level, particle physics has dramat-
ically changed contemporary culture. Many of the
electronic methods that drive modern societies and
many of the computer powers that are now om-
nipresent were developed to meet the stringent de-
mands of detecting and following events in the
unseen domain where the elementary particles blink
in and out of existence. The international character
of elementary physics, with team members located in
laboratories around the globe, required new and ef-
ficient ways of communication. The World Wide Web
was invented by elementary particle physicists at
CERN, the accelerator laboratory in Switzerland, to
exchange information quickly and accurately. Many
other contributions to society have their origins in
accelerator laboratories.
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
x
INTRODUCTION
Particle physics has had a profound influence on
scientific explanation. For much of the twentieth
century, explanations have been sought by reducing
complex systems to their simplest parts. Although no
one can deny the fruitfulness of this approach and
the great appeal of its explanations, it remains an
open question whether the simple parts can meet the
challenges ahead. Do new phenomena emerge with
complexity that cannot be understood in terms of
the basic interactions between nature’s simplest par-
ticles? Indeed, all material systems consist of ele-
mentary particles, but as systems move up the ladder
of complexity, are there threshold rungs that break
the explanatory line of logic back down to the par-
ticles? Only further scientific experimentation will
provide the answer.
John S. Rigden
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xi
INTRODUCTION
READER’S GUIDE
xiii
Accelerator Laboratories
Beijing Accelerator Laboratory
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics)
Cornell Newman Laboratory for Elementary Parti-
cle Physics
DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Labora-
tory)
Fermilab
Japanese High-Energy Accelerator Research Orga-
nization, KEK
SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center)
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Accelerator Subsystems and Technologies
Beam Transport
Cooling, Particle
Detectors
Extraction Systems
Injector System
Accelerator Types
Accelerators, Colliding Beams: Electron-Positron
Accelerators, Colliding Beams: Electron-Proton
Accelerators, Colliding Beams: Hadron
Accelerators, Early
Accelerators, Fixed-target: Electron
Accelerators, Fixed-target: Proton
B Factory
Cyclotron
Z Factory
Astrophysics and Cosmology
Astrophysics
Big Bang
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
Cosmic Rays
Cosmic Strings, Domain Walls
Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy
Cosmology
Dark Matter
Hubble Constant
Inflation
Neutrino, Solar
Quark-Gluon Plasma
Universe
Basic Interactions
Basic Interactions and Fundamental Forces
Planck Scale
Biographies
Anderson, Carl D.
Chadwick, James
Dirac, Paul
Einstein, Albert
Fermi, Enrico
Feynman, Richard
Kendall, Henry
Lawrence, Ernest Orlando
Noether, Emmy
Pauli, Wolfgang
Reines, Frederick
Rutherford, Ernest
Salam, Abdus
Schwinger, Julian
Thomson, Joseph John
Tomonaga, Sin-itiro
Wigner, Eugene
Wilson, Robert R.
Wu, Chien-Shiung
Yukawa, Hideki
Case Studies
Case Study: Gravitational Wave Detection, LIGO
Case Study: LHC Collider Detectors, ATLAS and
CMS
Case Study: Long Baseline Neutrino Detectors,
K2K, MINOS, and OPERA
Case Study: Super-Kamiokande and the Discovery
of Neutrino Oscillations
Detectors
Detectors and Subsystems
Detectors, Astrophysical
Detectors, Collider
Detectors, Fixed-target
Detectors, Particle
Supernovae
Experiments as Case Studies
Experiment: Discovery of the Tau Neutrino
Experiment: Discovery of the Top Quark
Experiment: gϪ2 Measurement of the Muon
Experiment: Search for the Higgs Boson
Historical Articles
Antiproton, Discovery of
Eightfold Way
Electron, Discovery of
Muon, Discovery of
Neutrino, Discovery of
Neutron, Discovery of
Positron, Discovery of
Quarks, Discovery of
Radioactivity, Discovery of
SSC
Particle Physics
Computing
Particle Identification
Particle Physics, Elementary
Outlook
Particle Physics and Culture
Benefits of Particle Physics to Society
Culture and Particle Physics
Funding of Particle Physics
Influence on Science
International Nature of Particle Physics
Metaphysics
Philosophy and Particle Physics
Particles
Atom
Axion
Boson, Gauge
Boson, Higgs
Charmonium
Hadron, Heavy
J/

Lepton
Neutrino
Quarks
Resonances
Physical Concepts
Antimatter
Broken Symmetry
Conservation Laws
Energy
Energy, Center-of-Mass
Energy, Rest
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xiv
READER’S GUIDE
Feynman Diagrams
Higgs Phenomenon
Momentum
Particle
Quantum Statistics
Physical Processes
Annihilation and Creation
Asymptotic Freedom
Electroweak Phase Transition
Jets and Fragmentation
Neutrino Oscillations
Parity, Nonconservation of
Phase Transitions
Quantum Tunneling
Radiation, Cherenkov
Radiation, Synchrotron
Radioactivity
Renormalization
Scattering
Virtual Processes
Physical Theories
Gauge Theory
Grand Unification
Lattice Gauge Theory
Quantum Chromodynamics
Quantum Electrodynamics
Quantum Field Theory
Quantum Mechanics
Relativity
Standard Model
String Theory
Technicolor
Unified Theories
Symmetries
CKM Matrix
CP Symmetry Violation
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Family
Flavor Symmetry
SU(3)
Supersymmetry
Symmetry Principles
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xv
READER’S GUIDE
LIST OF ARTICLES
xvii
A
Accelerator
Gerald F. Dugan
Accelerators, Colliding Beams:
Electron-Positron
Raphael Littauer
David Rice
Accelerators, Colliding Beams:
Electron-Proton
David H. Saxon
Accelerators, Colliding Beams: Hadron
Gordon Fraser
Accelerators, Early
Robert W. Seidel
Accelerators, Fixed-target: Electron
William K. Brooks Jr.
Accelerators, Fixed-target: Proton
John Marriner
Anderson, Carl D.
William H. Pickering
Annihilation and Creation
Lewis Ryder
Antimatter
Dwight E. Neuenschwander
Antiproton, Discovery of
Elizabeth Paris
Astrophysics
Virginia Trimble
Asymptotic Freedom
George Sterman
Atom
Guy T. Emery
Axion
Pierre Sikivie
B
B Factory
Natalie Roe
Basic Interactions and Fundamental Forces
Roberto Peccei
Beam Transport
Michael J. Syphers
Beijing Accelerator Laboratory
Frederick A. Harris
Zhipeng Zheng
Benefits of Particle Physics to Society
Frank Wilczek
Big Bang
Joseph I. Silk
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Roger K. Ulrich
Boson, Gauge
Sally Dawson
Boson, Higgs
Howard E. Haber
Broken Symmetry
John F. Donoghue
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Robert P. Crease
Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
Alexander N. Skrinsky
C
Case Study: Gravitational Wave Detection,
LIGO
Neil Ashby
Case Study: LHC Collider Detectors, ATLAS
and CMS
Howard A. Gordon
Case Study: Long Baseline Neutrino Detectors,
K2K, MINOS, and OPERA
Stanley G. Wojcicki
Case Study: Super-Kamiokande and the
Discovery of Neutrino Oscillations
Henry W. Sobel
CERN (European Laboratory for Particle
Physics)
Maurice Jacob
Chadwick, James
Roger H. Stuewer
Charmonium
Mark J. Oreglia
CKM Matrix
JoAnne Hewett
Computing
Bebo White
Conservation Laws
Kenneth W. Ford
Cooling, Particle
John Marriner
Cornell Laboratory for Elementary Particle
Physics
Karl Berkelman
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
Suzanne T. Staggs
Cosmic Rays
C. Jake Waddington
Cosmic Strings, Domain Walls
Stephen G. Naculich
Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy
Lawrence M. Krauss
Cosmology
Helge Kragh
CP Symmetry Violation
Jonathan L. Rosner
Culture and Particle Physics
John Polkinghorne
Cyclotron
Benjamin Bayman
D
Dark Matter
Keith Olive
DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
Laboratory)
Paul Söding
Detectors
Stephen Pordes
Detectors and Subsystems
Paul Grannis
Detectors, Astrophysical
Steven Ritz
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xviii
LIST OF ARTICLES
Detectors, Collider
David Hitlin
Detectors, Fixed-target
Kevin McFarland
Detectors, Particle
L. Donald Isenhower
Devices, Accelerating
William A. Barletta
Dirac, Paul
Helge Kragh
E
Eightfold Way
Jonathan L. Rosner
Einstein, Albert
Michel Janssen
Electron, Discovery of
Isobel Falconer
Electroweak Phase Transition
Peter Arnold
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
R. Sekhar Chivukula
Elizabeth H. Simmons
Energy
William E. Evenson
Energy, Center-of-Mass
William E. Evenson
Energy, Rest
William E. Evenson
Experiment: Discovery of the Tau Neutrino
Byron G. Lundberg
Regina Rameika
Experiment: Discovery of the Top Quark
Meenakshi Narain
Experiment: g
ϪϪ
2 Measurement of
the Muon
B. Lee Roberts
Experiment: Search for the Higgs Boson
David Rainwater
Extraction Systems
John Marriner
F
Family
Pierre Ramond
Fermi, Enrico
Albert Wattenberg
Fermilab
Adrienne W. Kolb
Feynman Diagrams
Lewis Ryder
Feynman, Richard
Silvan S. Schweber
Flavor Symmetry
Benjamin Grinstein
Funding of Particle Physics
Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky
G
Gauge Theory
Vernon Barger
Charles Goebel
Grand Unification
Vernon Barger
Graham Kribs
H
Hadron, Heavy
Adam F. Falk
Higgs Phenomenon
Christopher T. Hill
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xix
LIST OF ARTICLES
Hubble Constant
Wendy L. Freedman
I
Inflation
Neil G. Turok
Influence on Science
David H. Saxon
Injector System
Donald Hartill
International Nature of Particle Physics
Maurice Jacob
J
J/

Helen Quinn
Japanese High-Energy Accelerator Research
Organization, KEK
Kazuo Abe
Jets and Fragmentation
George Sterman
K
Kendall, Henry
Lee Grodzins
L
Lattice Gauge Theory
G. Peter Lepage
Lawrence, Ernest Orlando
Gordon J. Aubrecht II
Lepton
Janet Conrad
M
Metaphysics
John Polkinghorne
Momentum
Lawrence A. Coleman
Muon, Discovery of
Robert H. March
N
Neutrino
Chung W. Kim
Neutrino Oscillations
Francis Halzen
M.C. Gonzalez-Garcia
Neutrino, Discovery of
Laurie M. Brown
Neutrino, Solar
Wick C. Haxton
Neutron, Discovery of
Roger H. Stuewer
Noether, Emmy
Nina Byers
O
Outlook
Bruce Winstein
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xx
LIST OF ARTICLES
P
Parity, Nonconservation of
Lewis Ryder
Particle
Michael Dine
Particle Identification
David H. Saxon
Particle Physics, Elementary
Kenneth J. Heller
Pauli, Wolfgang
Laurie M. Brown
Phase Transitions
Marcelo Gleiser
Philosophy and Particle Physics
Michael L. G. Redhead
Planck Scale
Jonathan Bagger
Positron, Discovery of
Xavier Roqué
Q
Quantum Chromodynamics
George Sterman
Quantum Electrodynamics
William J. Marciano
Quantum Field Theory
Ramamurti Shankar
Quantum Mechanics
Daniel F. Styer
Quantum Statistics
Frank Wilczek
Quantum Tunneling
Lawrence A. Coleman
Quark-Gluon Plasma
Krishna Rajagopal
Quarks
Alvin V. Tollestrup
Quarks, Discovery of
Harry J. Lipkin
R
Radiation, Cherenkov
Blair N. Ratcliff
Radiation, Synchrotron
Katharina Baur
Radioactivity
Benjamin Bayman
Radioactivity, Discovery of
Lawrence Badash
Reines, Frederick
Robert G. Arns
Relativity
Richard H. Price
Renormalization
John F. Donoghue
Resonances
Gabor Domokos
Rutherford, Ernest
Lawrence Badash
S
Salam, Abdus
T. W. B. Kibble
Scattering
JoAnne Hewett
Schwinger, Julian
Silvan S. Schweber
SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center)
Helen Quinn
SSC
Edmund J. N. Wilson
Standard Model
Sally Dawson
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xxi
LIST OF ARTICLES
String Theory
Joseph Polchinski
SU(3)
Elizabeth Jenkins
Supernovae
Robert P. Kirshner
Supersymmetry
Jonathan L. Feng
Symmetry Principles
Michael Dine
T
Technicolor
John Terning
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator
Facility
Lawrence S. Cardman
Thomson, Joseph John
Isobel Falconer
Tomonaga, Sin-itiro
Laurie M. Brown
U
Unified Theories
David Gross
Universe
Terry P. Walker
V
Virtual Processes
Robert Garisto
Rashmi Ray
W, X
Wigner, Eugene
Erich Vogt
Wilson, Robert R.
Albert Silverman
Boyce D. McDaniel
Wu, Chien-Shiung
Noemie Benczer Koller
Y
Yukawa, Hideki
Laurie M. Brown
Z
Z Factory
Nan Phinney
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xxii
LIST OF ARTICLES
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
xxiii
Kazuo Abe
Japanese High-Energy Accelerator Research
Organization
Japanese High-Energy Accelerator
Research Organization, KEK
Peter Arnold
University of Virginia, Charlottesville
Electroweak Phase Transition
Robert G. Arns
University of Vermont, Burlington
Reines, Frederick
Neil Ashby
University of Colorado, Boulder
Case Study: Gravitational Wave Detection,
LIGO
Gordon J. Aubrecht II
Ohio State University
Lawrence, Ernest Orlando
Lawrence Badash
University of California, Santa Barbara
Radioactivity, Discovery of
Rutherford, Ernest
Jonathan Bagger
Johns Hopkins University
Planck Scale
Vernon Barger
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Gauge Theory
Grand Unification
William A. Barletta
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Devices, Accelerating
Katharina Baur
Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory
Radiation, Synchrotron
Benjamin Bayman
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Cyclotron
Radioactivity
Karl Berkelman
Cornell University
Cornell Laboratory for Elementary Particle
Physics
William K. Brooks Jr.
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
Accelerators, Fixed-Target: Electron
Laurie M. Brown
Northwestern University
Neutrino, Discovery of
Pauli, Wolfgang
Tomonaga, Sin-itiro
Yukawa, Hideki
Nina Byers
University of California, Los Angeles
Noether, Emmy
Lawrence S. Cardman
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and
University of Virginia
Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator
Facility
R. Sekhar Chivukula
Boston University
Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Lawrence A. Coleman
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
Momentum
Quantum Tunneling
Janet Conrad
Columbia University
Lepton
Robert P. Crease
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Sally Dawson
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Boson, Gauge
Standard Model
Michael Dine
University of California, Santa Cruz
Particle
Symmetry Principles
Gabor Domokos
Johns Hopkins University
Resonances
John F. Donoghue
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
Broken Symmetry
Renormalization
Gerald F. Dugan
Cornell University
Accelerator
Guy T. Emery
Bowdoin College
Atom
William E. Evenson
Brigham Young University
Energy
Energy, Center-of-Mass
Energy, Rest
Isobel Falconer
Open University, UK
Electron, Discovery of
Thomson, Joseph John
Adam F. Falk
Johns Hopkins University
Hadron, Heavy
Jonathan L. Feng
University of California, Irvine
Supersymmetry
Kenneth W. Ford
American Institute of Physics (retired)
Conservation Laws
Gordon Fraser
Accelerators, Colliding Beams: Hadron
Wendy L. Freedman
Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA
Hubble Constant
Robert Garisto
Physical Review Letters
Virtual Processes
Marcelo Gleiser
Dartmouth College
Phase Transitions
Charles Goebel
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Gauge Theory
M.C. Gonzalez-Garcia
European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN)
Neutrino Oscillations
Howard A. Gordon
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Case Study: LHC Collider Detectors,
ATLAS and CMS
Paul Grannis
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Detectors and Subsystems
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xxiv
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Benjamin Grinstein
University of California, San Diego
Flavor Symmetry
Lee Grodzins
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Kendall, Henry
David Gross
University of California, Santa Barbara
Unified Theories
Howard E. Haber
University of California, Santa Cruz
Boson, Higgs
Francis Halzen
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Neutrino Oscillations
Frederick A. Harris
University of Hawaii, Honolulu
Beijing Accelerator Laboratory
Donald Hartill
Cornell University
Injector System
Wick C. Haxton
University of Washington, Seattle
Neutrino, Solar
Kenneth J. Heller
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Particle Physics, Elementary
JoAnne Hewett
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
CKM Matrix
Scattering
Christopher T. Hill
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Higgs Phenomenon
David Hitlin
California Institute of Technology
Detectors, Collider
L. Donald Isenhower
Abilene Christian University
Detectors, Particle
Maurice Jacob
European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN)
CERN (European Laboratory for Particle
Physics)
International Nature of Particle Physics
Michel Janssen
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Einstein, Albert
Elizabeth Jenkins
University of California, San Diego
SU(3)
T. W. B. Kibble
Imperial College, London
Salam, Abdus
Chung W. Kim
Johns Hopkins University and Korea Institute for
Advanced Study, Seoul, Korea
Neutrino
Robert P. Kirshner
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,
Cambridge, MA
Supernovae
Adrienne W. Kolb
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Fermilab
Noemie Benczer Koller
Rutgers University
Wu, Chien-Shiung
Helge Kragh
University of Aarhus, Denmark
Cosmology
Dirac, Paul
Lawrence M. Krauss
Case Western Reserve University
Cosmological Constant and Dark Energy
Graham Kribs
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Grand Unification
G. Peter Lepage
Cornell University
Lattice Gauge Theory
Harry J. Lipkin
Weismann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Quarks, Discovery of
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xxv
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
Raphael Littauer
Cornell University
Accelerators, Colliding Beams: Electron-
Positron
Byron G. Lundberg
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Experiment: Discovery of the Tau
Neutrino
Robert H. March
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Muon, Discovery of
William J. Marciano
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Quantum Electrodynamics
John Marriner
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Accelerators, Fixed-Target: Proton
Cooling, Particle
Extraction Systems
Boyce D. McDaniel
Cornell University
Wilson, Robert R.
Kevin McFarland
University of Rochester
Detectors, Fixed-Target
Stephen G. Naculich
Bowdoin College
Cosmic Strings, Domain Walls
Meenakshi Narain
Boston University
Experiment: Discovery of the Top Quark
Dwight E. Neuenschwander
Southern Nazarene University
Antimatter
Keith Olive
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis
Dark Matter
Mark J. Oreglia
University of Chicago
Charmonium
Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky
Stanford University
Funding of Particle Physics
Elizabeth Paris
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Antiproton, Discovery of
Roberto Peccei
University of California, Los Angeles
Basic Interactions and Fundamental Forces
Nan Phinney
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
Z Factory
William H. Pickering
California Institute of Technology (emeritus)
Anderson, Carl D.
Joseph Polchinski
University of California, Santa Barbara
String Theory
John Polkinghorne
Queens College, Cambridge, UK
Culture and Particle Physics
Metaphysics
Stephen Pordes
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Detectors
Richard H. Price
University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Relativity
Helen Quinn
Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
J/

SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator
Center)
David Rainwater
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Experiment: Search for the Higgs Boson
Krishna Rajagopal
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Quark-Gluon Plasma
Regina Rameika
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Experiment: Discovery of the Tau
Neutrino
Pierre Ramond
University of Florida, Gainesville
Family
BUILDING BLOCKS OF MATTER
xxvi
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

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