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cac bai luan mau bam sat chuong trinh tieng anh 12 thpt bai luan mau tn thpt qg 2016

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CÁC BÀI LUẬN MẪU BÁM SÁT CHƯƠNG TRÌNH TIẾNG ANH 12 THPT
Unit 1: HOME LIFE
1. Topic 1: In a paragraph of about 140 words, write about your family rules. (Viết về quy tắc gia đình
bạn)
Topic sentences: Every family has its own rules and mine also has a few, which each member has to obey.
-Supporting idea 1: we are not allowed to watch TV
-Supporting idea 2: my parents don’t permit us to use the family motorbike
-Supporting idea 3: the family members share the household chores.
- Supporting idea 4: we have to talk to the parents before making an important decision
-Concluding sentence: our rules can help my family members get along better
Every family has its own rules and mine also has a few, which each member has to obey. First, every
evening my younger brother and I aren’t allowed to watch any programs on TV until we have finished our
homework. There are some exceptions on the occasions of important celebrations when all members watch the
same program. Second, since we are not old enough to drive an automobile, our parents do not permit us to use
the family motorbike. Another rule is that all the family members have to do the share of the household chores.
My mother takes responsibility of running the house. My father helps her clean the house and mend things. My
main responsibility is washing the dishes and looking after my younger brother. In other words, everyone in my

family is responsible for doing the housework. Lastly , my brother and I have to talk to our parents before
making an important decision . Whenever problems come up, the whole family must discuss frankly to find the
best solution. In short, it is those rules that help my family members get along better and make us a close-knit
family.
2. Topic 2: In about 140 words, write a paragraph about your family. (Viết về gia đình bạn)
Outline:
Topic sentence : I am very happy to be born into a very close-knit family
Supporting idea 1:
+ The number of people in the family.
+ The age / job / character …of each family member
Supporting idea 2:
+ rules in the family
Conclusion :Feeling about family.
Bài mẫu 1:
I am very happy to be born into a very close-knit family. There are four members in my family, my
parents, my little sister and I. My mother is 45 years old. She works as a nurse in a big hospital. She is a caring
person. My father is a teacher. He works in a school near our house. He seems to be strict, but we all know he
loves us very much. Although my parents are very busy at work, they always try their best to spend time with
us. My little sister is 5 years old. She is a very lovely child. In family, we often share the household chores. My
father is willing to help my mother with the housework. I take responsibility for cooking and doing the washing
up. There are some rules in my family. My parents allow us to watch TV after we have finished our homework.
We have to show respect to the old, obey our parents. My family is very close-knit and supportive of one
another. I always feel happy and secure in my family. It is a base from which I can go into the world with
confidence.
Bài mẫu 2:
My family consists of four people. They are my parents, my sister and me. My father is an engineer
working for a government office. My mother is a housewife. My sister is a primary school teacher, and I am a
high school student. We get up at 6 o’clock every morning. My mother is the first one to get up and prepare
breakfast for all. After breakfast, my father and my sister go to work, my mother does the housework and I go
to school. We have lunch at noon and dinner at 7 p.m. In the evening after dinner, we sit together in the livingroom talking or watching television for about an hour. Then my sister and I go to our own rooms to prepare the
lessons for the coming week. My family is a very happy one. We love each other very much and expect to live
together under the same roof forever.
UNIT 2: CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Topic: Marriage should be based on love? (Hôn nhân nên được dựa vào tình yêu?)
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-Topic sentence: Marriage should be based on love
- Supporting ideas: - love last long
- have lovely children
- make society good.
- Conclusion: happy marriage creates a romantic life
Bài mẫu:
In my opinion , marriage should be based on love for some following reasons. First of all, living with a
person you love is wonderful. When there is love between a man and a woman, they will feel very happy.
Secondly, the love basing on love can last long, even forever. When they love each other, they will share
difficulties in life and sympathize with each other in many situations. Besides, lovers often have lovely
children who are intelligent and friendly. Because of being born in good families, these children are looked after
and educated properly. Moreover, happy families make a good society. These members in these families will
become useful citizens. Finally, happy marriage creates a romantic life, which is full of sweetness and affection.
For these reasons, everyone should get married with their lovers.
UNIT 3: WAYS OF SOCIALISING.
Topic: Should students be banned from using cell phones at school? In about 140 words, explain your
choice. (Học sinh nên bị cấm sử dụng điện thoại ở trường?)
* Outline
Topic sentence: In my opinion, students should not be allowed to use cell phones at school for three reasons.
Supporting ideas:
- distract students’ learning process
- waste time
- do harm to students’ health.
Conclusion: should be discouraged from using.
Bài mẫu:
In my opinion, students should not be allowed to use cell phones at school for three reasons. First, mobile
phone may distract students’ learning. During the lesson, students are sometimes busy replying messages,
receiving phone calls, surfing on the internet rather than paying attention to the teacher’s explanation. Second,
most students now waste a large amount of time using their mobile phones. A recent survey has shown that a
student owning such a device spends an average of an hour during lessons chatting and playing games a day.
Last but not least, mobile phones are likely to do harm to students’ health. Using too much cell phone is
scientifically proved to cause such diseases as short- sightedness, heart-attack and reduce face - to face
communication which builds up necessary social skills. In conclusion, despite various benefits of mobile phones
in our modern lives, students especially young ones should totally be discouraged from using them at school.
UNIT 4: SCHOOL EDCATION SYSTEM
1. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the formal education system in Vietnam. (Viết về hệ
thống giáo dục chính quy ở Việt Nam)
Outline:
* Topic sentence: The Vietnamese system of education has some of the following characteristics.
* Supporting ideas:
- Levels of education: + primary education
+ lower secondary education
+ upper secondary education
- The academic year: 35 weeks (9 months, from September to May)
- School terms:
+ 2 terms: term 1 (September – December), term 2 (January – May)
+ two end-term tests after each term
- Free education: primary education
- compulsory education:
primary education and lower secondary education
* Conclusion: Generally, the education system in Vietnam remains stable despite changes in detail.
Bài mẫu:
The Vietnamese system of education has some of the following characteristics. To begin with, the
education system consists of three levels, namely primary education, lower secondary education, and upper
secondary education. As can be seen, the academic year lasts 35 weeks; that is to say, it has 9 months. Each
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school year is divided into two terms followed by an end-term test at the end of each one. The first term is from
September to December and the second term begins in January and finishes in May. It is the Vietnamese policy
that students who go to primary school do not have to pay any tuition fee. It is also stated that primary and
lower secondary education is of compulsion so that all students from six to fourteen years old will be literate.
Generally, some typical features of the education system in Vietnam remain stable despite changes in
detail.
2. Homework: Compulsory or not? (Bài tập về nhà: bắt buộc hay là không bắt buộc)
In my opinion, homework is beneficial to students in many ways.
- an extension of the classroom
- may keep sts occupied
- learn how to work independently and to overcome themselves
For all the reasons above, I would say homework should be compulsory.
Bài mẫu:
In my opinion, homework is beneficial to students in many ways. Firstly, homework is an extension of
the classroom, which allows a student to continue learning and to cement the things they learn within.
Homework promotes understanding to information that students might have found confusing. Without it,
students would only see materials once and therefore, not truly learn it. In addition, doing homework may keep
them occupied, preventing them from freedom or giving them less time to indulge in video games. Last but
not least, while struggling with homework without the help of teachers or parents, students learn how to work
independently and to overcome themselves. They also get a chance to better their skills such as critical thinking
or time management. For all the reasons above, I would say homework should be compulsory.
UNIT 5: HIGHER EDUCATION
Topic: Should students go on higher education after leaving school? Why or why not? Write a
paragraph of about 140 words to support your idea. (Học sinh nên học đại học sau khi rời trường? Tại
sao/Tại sao không?)
* We should go on higher education because of three following reasons:
- Knowledge
- Good future job
- Experience in life
Bài mẫu:
To me, higher education is necessary for the following reasons. Firstly, the most obvious benefit of going
to college after high school is that it provides us with the opportunity to educate ourselves further and at a
higher level in the field of our choice. With access to libraries, documents and professors, We will have chance
to widen our knowledge and become professional in our chosen field. Secondly, higher education also means
higher opportunity of getting a good job with well – paid salary. As technology advances, higher-paying jobs
that were once available to high school graduates now require some form of higher education. With so many
people competing for jobs in today's job market, employers are likely to look at candidates with more training
and education. Last but not least, higher education helps us to have more precious experience in life. Going to
college after high school teaches us invaluable lessons outside of the classroom as well. Exposure to new peer
groups, cultures and social situations provides plenty of opportunities to expand our social circle and experience
new things. All of these experiences allow us to grow well and evolve from teenagers into true adults. To sum
up, I strongly agree that for the benefit of ourselves as well as the benefit of the whole society, students after
leaving high school should go on higher education.
UNIT 6: FUTURE JOBS
Writing about the job you would like to do in the future.(Viết về công việc bạn muốn làm trong

Topic:
tương lai)
Bài mẫu:
Journalist seems to be the kind of job I would like to choose after I leave from the university. I like this
work because of some following reasons. First of all, journalist is well- paid job. The better you write, the
higher your salary is. In some ways, you need a lot of writing skills so that your journal is persuasive to the
people. Secondly, working as a journalist gives me many opportunities of improving my persuading skill and
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ability to converting ideas into words. There is no denial that this job requires different skills, but if you need
these requirements, you will be more and more professional. Thirdly, this job would give you the chances to
travel all over the world. You can get a lot of useful information about all aspects in the life. You can go
anywhere you like. Lastly, this is simply my hobby. I will try my best to make my dream of being a journalist
come true in the future.
UNIT 8: LIFE IN THE FUTURE
1. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the world in which you would like to live in the year
2020. (Viết về thế giới bạn muốn sống vào năm 2020)
Outline:
- Topic sentence: An ideal world
- Supporting ideas:
+ peaceful world.
+ employment
+ the environment
+ the people
- Conclusion sentence: Everyone joins hand to build an ideal world
Bài mẫu:
The ideal world in which I would like to live is a peaceful one. There will be no war or conflicts among
countries. People will not have to live under the threat of terrorism but they live together in peace. There is no
one who is unemployed, and there is a good healthy standard of living for all. I would like to live in a clean
healthy environment which is less noise and less pollution. There are larger and larger parks where children can
play and endangered animals can be protected. But my main desire is to see people who are less materialistic,
less selfish, less violent and more loving than they are now. In conclusion, everyone must join hands to build
such an ideal world.
2. Topic sentence: I’d like to live in a civilized world in the year 2020
Outline: - high living standard
- clean and healthy environment
- people: less materialistic, more honest
- long life
Bài mẫu:
I’d like to live in a civilized world in the year 2020. There is no beggars, no street children and no poor
people. Everybody has a job to do and enjoys high living standard. In 2020 we won’t have to remind each other
about the protection of the environment. We can live in a clean and healthy environment with a lot of green
trees and open space for entertainment. One more important thing is that people are less materialistic, less
selfish, less unfeeling and more honest than now. We don’t need to be worried about being deceived or robbed
when going into the street. Everyone wants to have long life so I would like to see more people living to the age
of 100. To make the dream of an ideal world become true, I think right now all of us should join hands in an
attempt to build a better world where all human beings can co-exist happily.
UNIT 10: ENDANGERED SPECIES
1. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about measures for protecting endangered animals. (Viết về các
biện pháp bảo vệ các động vật đang bị lâm nguy)
Bài mẫu 1:
Nowadays a number of animals are on the verge of extinction because of human beings’ interference.
Therefore, measures should be taken to protect endangered animals. Firstly, it is vital to raise people’s
awareness about the importance of animals and ecosystem. Conference, forum and seminars and the like about
the roles of animals in biodiversity should be regularly organized because a lot of people do not know much
about the need to protect rare animals. Moreover, the national curriculum should include the subject about how
to protect the environment so that children will be aware of saving wild animals still young. Secondly, each
nation should enforce strict laws to prevent people from poaching and hunting animals illegally. People should
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be discouraged from buying and using fashionable wildlife products. In addition, illegal traders must be
financially punished or put into prison, depending on the extent of their commitment. Last not least, wildlife
habitat reserves should be established in all nations all over the world in order that endangered animals have
chances to survive and perish well. In conclusion, protecting endangered animals is not only the task of one
person but also the task of all people in the world.
Bài mẫu 2:
There are a number of measures that should be taken to protect endangered animals. First, people should
organize different activities like organizing international conferences or seminars to raise people’s awareness of
the urgent needs to protect these animals. At the same time, they should appeal for governmental agencies in the
world to contribute to the programmes of protecting and preserving plants and animals that are on the verge of
extinction. In addition, people should make a great contribution to the fund of preserving the earth’s valuable
natural resouces for the future generations. More importantly, governments should enact laws to ban activities
that can damage or destroy the nature. If these measures are taken, our planet will become a more peaceful and
beautiful place for all kinds of beings to live in.
UNIT 11: BOOKS
1. Write a paragraph of about 140 words about the book you like best. (Viết về cuốn sách bạn thích nhất)
- name, kind of the book
-author, main character(s)
- plot, content
- reason(s) you like it best
Bài mẫu:
Of all the books I have read, “Harry Porter” is the one I like best. It is a famous fiction novel written
by J.K Rowling. It is one of the best – selling book and has been translated into many languages. The book is
about the adventures against a magician to help other people of a boy called Harry Porter - the main character.
His parents are dead and he is trained to be a wizard in a wizard school. Harry Porter is brave, witty and very
kind to other people. Personally, I find the book extremely interesting and useful. It helps me know how to live
better and to behave well. Whenever I read it, I feel fully relaxed. I would like to recommend this book to
anyone who likes fiction novels. I am sure they will enjoy it very much.
2. Write about the kind of book you like best. (Viết về loại sách bạn thích nhất)
I am usually in habit of reading books. Addition to books that offer me much useful information, I also
like comic book. I am in fond of it for some following reasons. To begin with, Comic books bring me a great
deal of relaxation. One of them is Doremon story, which tells many funny short stories about 2 main characters,
Doremon and Nobita,Who are close friends. The author of that comic creats so many amusing situations among
characters that I can"t help laughing. It"s actually a hard-to-put-down book. It attracts not only children but also
adults as me. Another good point of it I want to mention about is creative imagination. I mean children need to
have imaginative mindset, which helps them be more active in life. By and large, comic book is worth reading
after hard work. It is nice for
UNIT 12: WATER SPORTS
1. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about a water sport you like most.(Viết về môn thể thao dưới
nước bạn thích nhất)
Outline:
- Topic sentence: Swimming
- Supporting ideas:
+ beautiful body
+ a cheap way to have a good health
- Conclusion : Swimming is the best choice
Bài mẫu:
Of all sports, swimming is the one I like best for the following reasons. On the one hand, it is an integral
part of all water sports. By swimming, I mean the sport in which players perform the act of moving through the
water by using the arm, legs, and body in motion. Thus, it helps me to have a beautiful body. On the other hand,
swimming is a cheap way to keep my health good, I don’t have to spend much money buying equipments, only
a suit is enough for me to do it. In addition, I can find somewhere to swim easily such as a pool, a lake or a river
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because the place where I live has all those. To sum up, different people like different sports. For me, swimming
is the best choice.
UNIT 13: THE 22nd SEA GAMES
1. In about 140 words, write a paragraph about your favorite sport. .(Viết về môn thể thao yêu thích của
bạn)
OUTLINE:
- Topic sentence:
Of all the sports, I like football best because of some following reasons.
- Supporting idea 1:
+ It is interesting and easy to play:
+ only need a ball, a pair of shoes and a small yard.
+ feel comfortable when I play it.
+ usually play when I have free time or after I have finished my homework.
- Supporting idea 2:
+ meet different people and make friends with them
+ have more experience in playing football.
- Supporting idea 3:
+ run a lot, which makes my heart healthy
+ make my muscles stronger
- Concluding sentences:
Generally, football is really my favorite sport and I always play it in my free time.
Bài mẫu:
I enjoy playing a lot of different sports, but the one which I like best is football because of some
following reasons. First of all, it is very interesting and easy to play. We only need a ball, a pair of shoes and a
small yard. I started to play it when I was six years old. I often feel comfortable when I play it. I usually play it
when I have free time or after I have finished my homework. Secondly, It helps me make more new friends. I
have chances to meet different people and make friends with them when playing football. Therefore, I can have
more experience in playing football. Moreover, playing football makes me healthier. I have to run a lot, which
makes my heart and my muscles stronger. Generally, football is really my favorite sport and I always play it in
my free time.
UNIT 14: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
1. Imagine you were offered a job with one of the international organizations.Which one would you like to
work for? Write a paragraph about 140 words, expressing the reason why you choose the organization.
Outline:
Topic sentence: I would like to work for WHO because of the following reasons
Supporting ideas:
+ Using English at work
+ Having high salary
+ Traveling around the world
+ Having chance to take care of people's health
Concluding sentence:
In conclusion, WHO would be a suitable organization for me to devote my time and abilities.
Bài mẫu:
If I were offered a chance to work for an international organization, WHO would be my first choice for
some reasons. Firstly, English is one of my favorite subjects at school. It would be a great circumstance to use
my English at work to communicate with people from different English-speaking countries in the world. I also
can travel to many countries and learn many things about what nature looks like and how people around the
world live. Secondly, high salary is another factor that fascinates me to work for this organization. For example,
I might earn an amount of $3000 per month, which brings me a better living condition in the future. Last but not
least, I always want to become a doctor, then working for WHO gives me an opportunity to take care of people's
health. In conclusion, WHO would be a suitable organization for me to devote my time and abilities.
UNIT 15: WOMEN IN SOCIETY
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1. Write a paragraph of 140 words about the following statement: Married women should go to work or
not?(Phụ nữ đã kết hôn nên hay không nên đi làm?)
Topic sentence: In my opinion, married women should go to work for some following reasons.
Supporting sentences:
- too boring to be housewives all there lives
- financially dependent and have no decisions or power.
- waste education and knowledge gained before married
Concluding sentence: In conclusion, women should go to work after marriage.
Bài mẫu:
In my opinion, married women should go to work for some following reasons.
Firstly, it is too boring to be housewives all their lives because they have to do the same things every day and
lose contact with their friends and social activities. Moreover, housework can be tiring and too stressful with no
name tasks. Secondly, women will not be dependent on their husbands' finance and they can give decisions if
they go to work and have much money. Their families and husbands will appreciate their opinions . In addition,
if women don't go to work, they will waste their education and knowledge they gained before marriage. This
makes women lose the right to control most positions of employment and power in society. In conclusion,
women should go to work after marriage to get significant legal rights and have equal opportunities as men.
I. CÁC CHỦ ĐIỂM VIẾT MỞ RỘNG:
Topic 1: In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the benefits of watching movies. Write your
paragraph on your answer sheet. (Viết về lợi ích của việc xem phim)
The following prompts might help you.
-entertaining
-improving vocabulary
-providing information
Bài mẫu:
Watching movies has many benefits and helps us a lot in our life nowadays. Firstly, watching movies helps
us entertain. Movies help us feel relaxed after stressful lessons at school or after a hard-working day.When you
feel exhausted, you can watch funny films on television to get happier. Watching movies brings happiness and
warmth with our family. Secondly, watching films helps us improve our vocabulary. We can watch films with
English subtitles on the channels such as HBO, Cinemax, AXN and Star movies to broaden our vocabulary in
every field of the life. Besides, we can make our vocabulary richer by watching documentary films or historical
ones. Thirdly, watching movies frequently provides us with useful information. Through films, we can know
more about the life of all the people in every part of Vietnam. In addition, we can also know more about
cultures, customs and religions of many different countries all over the world so that we can know what is good
or bad to behave better after we watch these films, especially films about educational or moral ones. In
conclusion, from my point of view, we should watch movies everyday because it is the easiest and cheapest way
of getting knowledge, information and entertainment.
Topic 2: In about 140 words, write a paragraph about the kind of job you would like to do after you
finish your education. (Trong khoảng 140 từ, viết đoạn văn về công việc bạn muốn làm sau khi học xong )
Having a job nowadays is very important to everyone. By the end of this month, I will have left my high
school, so I also would like to choose a suitable job for myself.
Unlike other students, I live in a poor village in the remote and mountainous area where there is always the
lack of everything such as schools, teachers, electricity and water, the living conditions are low and children do
not go to school regularly. Now I am a student and I am going to leave my school to attend a university, so I
hope to make my home village more developed and bring knowledge to the children. Besides, I love teaching
and I love children and want to give comfort and care to them. Therefore, I would like to work as a teacher.
Working as a teacher would be a fascinating and challenging job because I would have a chance to bring
education to difficult places with poor children and living conditions. That’s the reason why I have applied to
Hanoi National University of Education to meet my dream.
Topic 3: Write about your hobby (Viết về sở thích của bạn).
Of all the interesting hobbies, I like reading books most because of the following reasons.
Firstly, reading books helps me to widen my knowledge about the world. For example, science books provide
me with a lot of information of every field of our life. Besides, enjoying books gives me the chance to become
more patient. Especially, my ability to express words fluently is better and better. Therefore, I will be confident
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of communicating with others. In short, reading books is my main hobby and I will make best use of its
advantages to have a happy lifestyle.
Topic 4: Write an essay to discuss the benefits of doing exercise. (Viết bài luận bàn về lợi ích của việc tập
thể dục)
Health is considered to be the most valuable thing one possesses. Improving health is always a prior task
in one’s daily routine. And the simplest, cheapest, but the most effective way to better one’s health is doing
regular exercise.
One advantage of doing exercise is to reduce stress. People who exercise are likely to feel more relaxed,
healthier, and of course happier. Doing regular exercise helps the body produce happy chemicals that make the
exercisers reduce the worries about life and work as well as forget the boredom and unhappiness.
Another benefit exercising brings us is that we will feel more energetic to face and overcome our daily
difficulties. Doing exercise helps us reduce the possibilities of being ill, protects us from some fatal diseases as
heart disease, cancers and diabetes. Regular exercisers are believed to have healthier, happier and longer lives.
The other good thing is that doing exercise helps us feel more self-confident. We know exactly what we can do
or what abilities, talents we have. We will think positively, do confidently, and lead an optimistic life if we
practice exercising regularly. Controlling our weight effectively is another value. Perspiration occurs when we
exercise, which helps our bodies get rid of bad things inside. Fats are burnt during our practicing exercise,
which helps us to keep fit.
To sum up, doing exercise enables people to have good body-buildings, keep fit and brings exercisers
many benefits. Sparing time doing exercise will ensure us a longer, healthier and happier life.
Topic 5: Your favourite sport (Môn thể thao yêu thích của bạn)
I like swimming. It is my favorite sport, for I know that it is healthy as well as a good chance for a
person to exercise his or her body.
Last Sunday morning, as the weather was fine, I went to Ha Long with my family. It took us about two
hours by car to arrive at our destination, and I felt very excited about it. When our car reached the top of the
cliff overlooking the Bay, I admired the golden sand of the long beach, the blue sky and water, and the splendid
country surroundings which looked like an artist’s painting. We put on our bathing-suits and ran into the water.
It was a very happy swim for me. We played ball, challenged each other in swimming a certain distance. Of
course, I was always beaten by my bigger brothers but I was satisfied with my good effort. When we felt tired,
we lay down on the beach to rest and to have some sunbath. At about noon, we returned to our tent and had
lunch. About 3 p.m. we went once more into the water and swam till 5 p.m. Finally, we got ready to start for
home. Everyone was delighted to have spent such a wonderful swim. I really enjoyed swimming very much.
Especially, I admire the athlete Nguyen Thi Anh Vien, who won a lot of gold medals at the 28th Sea Games and
I want to become a famous one like her in the future.
II. VIẾT LẠI CÂU: (0.5đ)
Structure 1: This/ It is + superlative + noun + S + have/has+ ever + Vp2
= S + have/has+ never + Vp2 such a/ an + adj + noun+ before
1. This is the most interesting novel I’ve ever read.
I have never read such an interesting novel before.
Structure 2: S1 + Aux not+ V + as+ adj/adv + as + S2
= S2 + Aux + V + comparative of adj/adv + than+ S1
2. I can’t cook as well as my mother can.
My mother can cook better than I can.
Structure 3: S + did not + Vo + until + time/ S + V(past)
= It was not until + time/ S + V(past)+ that + S + V(2/ed)
= Not until + + time/ S + V(past), Aux + S + Vo
3. The noise next door did not stop until after midnight.
It was not until after midnight that the noise next door stopped.
Structure 4: If + S + V(present simple), S + can + Vo
= Should + S + Vo , S + can + Vo
4. You can ring this number whenever there is any difficulty.
Should there be any difficulty, you can ring this number.
Structure 5: S + denied/ admitted + V-ing/ Having + Vp2
5. “I didn’t break the vase of flowers,” the boy said.
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The boy denied having taken the vase of flowers.
Structure 6: S + started/began + V-ing… + time + ago/ in + year (past)
= S + have/ has + Vp2 …+ for + time/ since + year (past)
6. My father started working in this company 10 years ago.
My father has worked in this company for 10 years.
Structure 7: If + S + had + Vp2 , S + would/could (not) + have + Vp2
= Had + S + Vp2 , S + would/could + have + Vp2
Without + noun, S + would/could (not) + have + Vp2
= If it hadn’t been for + noun, S + would/could (not) + have + Vp2
= If + S + had + Vp2 , S + would/could (not) + have + Vp2
= Had + S + Vp2 , S + would/could (not) + have + Vp2
7. Without his help, I could not have finished my work.
If he hadn’t helped me, I could not have finished my work.
Had he not helped me, I could not have finished my work.
If it hadn’t been for his help, I could not have finished my work.
Structure 8: S1+ V(2/ed) + as soon as + S2 + V(2/ed)
= No sooner + had+ S2 + Vp2 + than + S1 + V(2/ed): vừa mới……..thì…..
Hardly/ Scarcely + had+ S2 + Vp2 + when + S1 + V(2/ed): vừa mới……..thì…..
8. It started to rain as soon as I went into the house.
No sooner had I gone into the house than it started to rain
Practice 1: Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as
the sentence before it.
1. I only recognized him when he came into the light.
 Not until he came into the light did I recognize him.
2. “What time does the film start, Peter?”

I asked Peter what time the film started.
3. It was a mistake for you to buy that car.
 You shouldn’t have bought that car.
4. “Sorry, I’m late.” said the boy to the teacher.
The boy apologized to the teacher for being late.
5. It's the first time I've been to a flower shop.
→ I haven’t been to a flower shop before.
Practice 2:
1. We didn't have a holiday until last summer.
→ It was not until last summer that we had a holiday.
2. If you hadn’t helped me, I wouldn’t have known how to solve it.
→ Had you not helped me, I wouldn’t have known how to solve it.
3. The demand was so great that they had to reprint the book immediately.
→ So great was the demand that they had to reprint the book immediately.
4. Hai finally managed to get a job
 Hai finally succeeded in getting a job.
5. People believe that the Chinese invented paper in 105 A.D.
→Paper is believed to have been invented by the Chinese in 105 A.D
Practice 3:
1. The film was so interesting that I couldn’t go to bed.
 It was such an interesting film that I couldn’t go to bed
2. We got lost because we didn't have a map.
 If we had had a map, we wouldn’t have got lost.
3. I would prefer you to deliver the sofa on Friday.
 I would rather you delivered the sofa on Friday.
4. The bridge was so low that the bus couldn't go under it.
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 It was such a low bridge that bus couldn't go under it.
5. It was a mistake of mine to park outside the police station.
 I shouldn’t have parked outside the police station.
Practice 4:
1. If you run a lot, you'll become healthy.
 The more you run, the healthier you’ll become.
2. Barbara is the best tennis-player in the club.
No one in the club plays tennis better than Barbara.
3. The furniture was so expensive that I didn’t buy it.
The furniture was too expensive for me to buy.
4. The robbers made the bank manager hand over on the money.
The bank manager was made to hand over on the money by the robbers.
5. He left school and then joined the army.
After he had left school, he joined the army.
Practice 5:
1. Somebody stole his watch yesterday.
His watch was stolen yesterday.
2. The last time she had a swim was five years ago.
She hasn't swum for five years.
3. They’ll have to change the date of the meeting again.
The date of the meeting will have to be changed again.
4. The garage is going to repair the car for us next week.
We are going to have the car repaired next week.
5. Would you mind not smoking in my house?
I’d rather you didn’t smoke in my house.
Practice 6:
1. We couldn’t drive because of the fog.
The fog prevented us from driving.
2. Although his leg was broken, he managed to get out of the car.
In spite of his broken leg, he managed to get out of the car.
3. The cake was so hard that I couldn’t eat it.
It was such a hard cake that I couldn’t eat it.
4. We didn’t go on holiday because we did not have enough money
If we had had enough money, we would have gone on holiday.
5. I can’t cook as well as my mother does.
My mother can cook better than me/ I can.
Practice 7:
1. The children couldn’t go swimming because the sea was rough.
=> The sea was too rough for the children to go swimming.
2. The mechanic serviced my car last week
=> I had my car serviced by the mechanic last week
3. I’m always nervous when I travel by air.
=> Travelling by air always makes me nervous.
4. He couldn’t afford to buy the car.
=> The car was too expensive for him to buy.
5. “Why don’t you put your luggage under the seat?” he asked
=> He suggested putting my luggage under the seat.
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Practice 8:
1. Although he had a good salary, he was unhappy in his job.
In spite of having a good salary, he was unhappy in his job.
2. They haven’t cleaned the streets this week.
The streets haven’t been cleaned this week.
3. Apples are usually cheaper than oranges.
Apples are not as expensive as oranges
4. I advise you to put your money in the bank.
You’d better put your money in the bank.
5. That restaurant is so dirty that no one wants to eat there.
It is such a dirty restaurant that no one wants to eat there.
Practice 9:
1. It’s a pity I didn’t take my doctor’s advice.
I wish I had taken my doctor’s advice.
2. “Don’t forget to phone the office,” she told him.
She reminded him to phone the office.
3. We spent 5 hours getting to London.
It took us 5 hours to get to London.
4. I haven’t eaten this kind of food before.
=> This is the first time I have eaten this kind of food.
5. She started working as a secretary five years ago.
=> She has worked as a secretary for five years.

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