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LESSON 1 – January 27th, 2016
A. Complete the blanks with the verbs go, come, reach or get.
...better...a decision...to terms with...into trouble...dark...to sleep...rid of...ready
...the sack...in handy...revenge...red...an agreement...lost....the job...on sb’s nerves
...off sb's back...down to business...over the top...even with
B. Complete the sentences w ith the collocations / expressions in the list below.
Use each one only once.
in somebody's shoes - on top of - in search of - on the safe side –
in charge of - in trouble with
1. Mr Johnson is ..........................the company’s marketing department.
2. People who systematically cheat the tax system will one day be... …………the
Tax Department.
3. The doctor insisted that I should be given a thorough check-up just to be…………
4. The children wandered around the neighbourhood.......................... their lost dog.
5. Nobody would want to be…………....., not with all those debts he has to pay off.
6.After weeks of hard work, Kevin was confident he was finally…….... the situation.
C. Phrasal Verbs. Read the sentences on the left and replace the phrasal verbs

with their similar words or phrases in the list below.
stop by, visit - inherit - find by chance - regain consciousness be taken ill with - think of and suggest
I. COME.
1. While cleaning the basement, I came across something I thought I had lost years
ago.
2. Joe came into a lot of money, which changed his life completely.
3. Why doesn’t Julie come round to our place anymore?
4. The scientists took months to come up with a solution to their problem.
5. Richard came down with a bad cold the day before his exams.
6. It took the woman a few minutes to come round / to after she had fainted.
II. GO.
move / travel around, visit - match - explode - start sth - continue doing turn sour, start to decay - examine / discuss in detail - suffer - happen
1. They decided to go ahead with their trip despite the bad weather conditions.
2. Once you have finished cleaning, you can go on with your job.
3. The doctor wanted to go over the test results with his patient.
4. That tie goes with your suit nicely.
5. Luckily no one was injured when the bomb went off.
6. While visiting Rome, we went round all the major archaeological sites.
7. The child went through a lot before recovering completely.
8. The milk went off after only an hour in the scorching heat.
9. What’s going on in there? Open the door!
III. BE

leave – support, in favour of – end – be ready to –
be shown / performed – do (usually sth wrong)
1. What's on this weekend at the theatre?
2. We were promised that the hard times would be over soon.
3. I was about to leave home when some unexpected visitors arrived.
4. I'm for the mayor's plan to relocate the town hall.
5. What are the boys up to? Don’t tell me they’re ruining the garden again!
6. I must be off now. My parents are expecting me for dinner.
D. Grammar Revision (Tenses).
Read the text below and complete each blank w ith one word. All missing words
are auxiliary verbs (is, was, have, has, had, do, does, did, etc.).
My life (1).......... improved a lot since last year. You see, before that I (2)..........
been working in the same job for five years and I (3)............beginning to feel rather
bored. I (4).............getting ready to apply for another job when one day my boss
called me into her office. "Our company (5)............ planning to expand overseas,"
she said. "We (6)........... thinking of starting with Spain, therefore we will (7).............
needing some of our best employees to support our new branch there. (8)............ you

think you would be interested in a transfer?" Naturally I accepted, although at the
time I (9)........... not know that they (10)........... also going to promote me to assistant
manager. By the end of this month, I will have (11)........... living in Madrid for a
year. You can't imagine how exciting my life (12)........... become.
E. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple, Past Progressive, Present
Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Progressive and complete the boxes w ith the
time words below. Use each time word only once.
for – while – yet – still – when – ago – already – since
Q1. .............. Mary................... (have) a bath yesterday evening, I was in the kitchen.
I ....................(cook) her favourite dish because I ................... (want) to surprise her.
…………….she................(come) into the kitchen, she couldn't believe her eyes!
Q2. Jim: Mum, I...................(look) for my black belt .............. the past hour and I
.......... .......... (not find) it. ..................you ................. (see) it anywhere?
Mother: No, but I think you...................(lend) it to your brother about a week..........
Jim:Oh,you're right.He.......................(not give) it back to me.I bet he................
(wear) it all week. Where is he now, Mum?
Mother: I'm afraid Mark .......... ...........(leave). He ............... (get) up about an hour
before you.................. (do).
Q3. I .....................(work) on this project ........... this morning but I................. (not
finish) it.............. . What am I going to tell my boss?
F. READING 1. Read the text below and think of the word which best fits each
space. Use only one word in each space.
MONEY
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There is no doubt that money, in the form that we know it today. (1).............what
keeps modern economic life functioning. Yet, throughout history, money, in
whatever form, has provided people (2)............... the ability to buy (3).................sell
goods.
Thousands of years (4)................. , civilisations (5)................. to rely on the barter
system as a way of exchanging goods. Within this system a person had to exchange
one thing for another. This meant that the two parties involved had to (6).............. an
agreement as to what they thought their products were worth. Items such (7)............
wheat, tobacco and livestock have all been used as money at one time or another. It
was not until much later that humans came up (8)........... the idea of money in the
form of metal coins. So why (9)............ the barter system come to an end? The
answer is simple. Coins were much easier to handle and carry around. Since then, the
use of coins has become widespread. It has made commerce simpler and has given
countries an opportunity (10)...............development by doing business with other
countries further afield, which they (11)............... never done business with before.
In recent years, paper money has become more common all over the world, as it is
easier to use. It (12)............... not be long, however, before plastic cards take over
completely, replacing coins and paper money.
READING 2. A Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best
fits each space.
FINDING EMPLOYMENT
My first (1).....was as a sales (2)........at a large department store. I wanted to work
part-time, because I was still studying (3)........ university and I was only (4) ..........to
work a few nights a week.
I came (5) .......the advertisement in the local newspaper. I remember the interview
as though (6).........were yesterday. The personnel manager sat behind a large desk.
He asked me various questions which surprised me because all I wanted was to work
in sales. An hour later, I was told that I had got the job and was given a contract to
go (7)............ . I was to be trained for ten days before I took my post. Also, as a
member of (8)........... I was entitled to some benefits, including discounts.
When I eventually started, I was responsible (9)............the toy section. I really
enjoyed it there and I loved demonstrating the different toys. I was surprised at how
friendly my (10)........were, too. They made working there fun even when we had to
(11) ..........customers who (12).............on our nerves. On the whole, working there
was a great experience which I will never forget.
1. A. occupation
B. job
C. work
D. employment
2. A. employee
B. attendant
C. officer
D. assistant
3. A. in
B. on
C. at
D. for
4. A. excellent
B. able
C. proud
D. experienced
5. A. across
B. into
C. on
D. round
6. A. it
B. I
C. that
D. there

7. A. on
B. over
C. ahead
D. with
8. A. staff
B. crew
C. team
D. party
9. A. of
B. at
C. with
D. for
10. A. assistants
B. staff
C. colleagues D. employees
11. A. control
B. deal with
C. manage
D. cooperate
12. A. came
B. went
C. got
D. were
G. TRANSFORMATION. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar
meaning to the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use
between two and five words, including the word given.
1. We last went abroad a long time ago.
not
We...................... a long time.
2. When did they start living in the suburbs?
have
How in the suburbs?
3. It's the first time she has ever had problems with the authorities.
trouble
She................................................ with the authorities before.
4. When Carl was young, he went to a holiday camp every summer.
used
When Carl was young, he............................ . a holiday camp every summer.
5. After the earthquake, the government supplied food and medicine to the homeless.
provided
After the earthquake, the government......................................food and medicine.
6. Lucy hasn't visited me since February.
was
The last..........................................................in February.
7. How long has he had this car?
bought
How long..........................................................this car?
8. I haven't caught a cold for ages.
down
I last..........ages ago.
H. WORD FORMS. Complete the text below with the correct form of the words
in capitals.
AN UNUSUAL OUTING
Last week I made a (1)..... to my cousin Alex, offering to
take him to an (2)....... park. He was very excited because it
was his (3) ......... place. However, from the moment I picked
him up, he was very (4) ............which surprised me since his
behaviour was (5)......... very different. At one point, while
waiting to get on a ride, he disappeared. (6)........, the manager,
who was very (7).........found him an hour later amongst a
crowd. Apparently, Alex had seen a famous basketball player
and wanted his autograph. He (8)....... to me immediately but I
2

1. SUGGEST
2. AMUSE
3. FAVOUR
4. NOISE
5. NORMAL
6. LUCK
7. HELP
8. APOLOGY
9. ANGER


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1. A member of a political ............. gave a speech in the town centre last night.
2. The teaching……........ at our school have formed a basketball team.
3. The search............ had no luck in finding the missing child.
4. The ship's........... served drinks as the ship set sail.
E.
aim – goal – intention – challenge –success –ambition
1. The Maths problem was a(n)............... and took me over an hour to solve.
2. The.............of environmental organisations is to stop environmental destruction.
3. People with ……….will always try to achieve their……
4. Their first album was a great……… and sold two million copies worldwide.
5. I have no .............of changing my plans for tonight.
F.
achieve – fulfil – cope – deal – face – succeed
1. John .............. in convincing his boss to give him the day off.
2. He doesn’t ............ with crisis situations very well.
3. Despite his health problems, Joe ............ his ambition to play in the local football
team.
4. The Johnstons are............financial difficulties after Mrs Johnston lost her job.
5. Kim put a lot of work into her project and................excellent results.
6. During his career as a teacher, he has.............with students from different
backgrounds.
G.
manage – run – operate – undertake
1. You have to read the instructions carefully before you...................he photocopying
machine.
2. Brett couldn't find experienced staff so he ……….......his business on his own for
a few months.
3. Kate was supposed to.................. the training of the new staff.
4. The company is ………..........by two people who share the responsibilities.
H.
skills – qualities – qualifications – experience
1. To get the job you must have three years’ in telecommunications and the
necessary………........ one of which is a university degree.
2. Leadership.............quired by a Prime Minister, as well as communication …….…
3. Learning to windsurf was a fantastic............. !
READING. Read the text below and complete each blank with one word. All
the missing words are relative pronouns or adverbs.
Marilyn Monroe, (1)...............was one of the world’s most famous film stars, was
born in 1926. Marilyn, (2)...............real name was Norma Jean Baker, had a
miserable childhood. She grew up in Los Angeles, (3)................she spent most of her
early years in foster homes. That’s (4) ...............she still felt lonely even when she
became famous. She worked as a model and also played minor roles in various films
before making “Niagara”, the film (5)...............made her very popular. In 1954 she
married Joe di Maggio, with (6)..............she entertained American troops fighting in
Korea. She went on to make many films, some of (7)...............were very successful

was so (9).......... at him that we left. It was then that I made the 10. DECIDE
(10)......... never to take Alex out again.

1...................2............................3...........................4......................5........................
6...................7..............................8..........................9. ....................10. ......................

LESSON 2 (January 28th, 2016)
WORDS OF CAREERS. Use the correct form of the words in the boxes to
complete the sentences in each group A-H below. You may use some of the
words more than once. In some cases, more than one word may be correct.
A.
job – occupation – work – employment – profession
1. People in the medical ...................work long hours.
2. In order to get a(n) ..............as a computer analyst, you need a degree in computer
science.
3. Betty has been out of.............since January.
4. ............... agencies help people find work in their field.
5. I was asked to write my present.................on the application form.
B.
task – course – duty
1. They were set the.............. of cleaning the room after the meeting.
2. It is a nurse's.................to make the patients feel comfortable.
3. Her marks are quite high, so she can choose between a medical or a
law................at university.
C.
employer – employee – colleague – assistant – clerk – officer –
attendant
1. The shop............... helped me choose a jumper that suited me.
2. The car park............. is responsible for parking customers’ cars.
3. All.............. are expected to be at work by 8.30. Our ............ insists on it.
4. Jill worked as a(n) ..............for a law firm before entering politics.
5. All my................ at the office are friendly.
6. Bob is a senior..............in the armed forces.
D.
party – crew – staff
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such as “Some Like it Hot”, “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” and “Bus Stop”. Her film
career ended tragically in 1962, (8) ...........she died at the age of thirty six.
GRAMMAR. Choose A, B, C or D to complete the following sentences.
1………..Celia was driving to the airport, she realised that she had left her passport
at home
A. As soon as
B. As
C. During
D. Until
2. I will have finished studying........the film starts.
A. until
B. while
C. by the time D. once
3 The audience started clapping......the singer came on stage.
A. by the time
B. the moment
C. while
D. just
4. Peter won’t leave........he has finished all his work.
A. until
B. by
C. just as
D. when
5. I haven’t heard from him .......we finished school.
A before
B. as soon as
C. after
D. since
6. Jane was working as a journalist......she was writing her first book.
A. during
B. while
C. just as
D. once
7. My mother used to cry ........she heard this song.
A by the time
B. the moment that
C. whenever D. until
8. The police officer returned my driving licence....... he had checked it.
A. just as
B. until
C. while
D. after
9. She burst out laughing...... she saw the clown.
A. as soon as
B. since
C. until
D. while
10. ....... we got back to the hotel, it was already dark.
A. The moment that
B. As soon as
C. By the time D. Once
READING 1.
The Caribbean Pirates
Have you ever seen a picture of a human skull and crossed bones?
Today, it’s used to show that something is poisonous. But 18th century Caribbean
sailors never wanted to see it. It meant they were faced with pirates! But where did
those pirates come from?
After Columbus discovered the Caribbean islands in 1492. Many Europeans went
there in search of wealth and to establish colonies. The strongest power was Spain,
but people from other countries settled there, too. Among them were some French
people who lived on Hispaniola Island, one of the Caribbean islands. (1) They
hunted pigs and cattle on the island, and sold the dried meat to passing ships. (2) So,
the Spanish chased them from Hispaniola, but this made them hate the Spanish. (3)
They went to another island and joined British and Dutch sailors. Soon, they became
pirates who attacked the Spanish! (4)
Meanwhile, countries like England found that using pirates was a cheap and
effective way to attack their rival, Spain. So they hired pirates to attack the Spanish
ships and colonies. However, as the pirates got stronger, they became hard to

control, and they even caused unwanted wars. As time went by, European countries
built their navies to protect their colonies, and (A) ..................... .
There aren't any pirates in the Caribbean today. But you can see them in books,
movies, and cartoons. You can also see them in the logo of a baseball team: the
Pittsburgh Pirates!
1. What is the best title for the passage?
A. The History of Piracy in the Caribbean
B. Columbus' Discovery of the New World
C. The Hard Lives of Sailors in the Caribbean
D. The Caribbean Islands: A Place You Must Visit
2. Why didn't the Caribbean sailors in the 18th century want to see the skull and
crossbones? .................................................................................
3. Where would the following sentence best fit?
' But they also attacked and stole the ships!'
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
4. What is the best choice for blank (A)?
A. fought for freedom
B. made piracy illegal
C. joined the Spanish navy
D. went back to their hometown
5. The underlined part tells us that pirates ..........
A. existed only in our imaginations
B. have become famous entertainers
C. are used in many works of fiction D.are popular because of their friendly image
6. What is NOT true about the Caribbean pirates?
A. They originated from French people who lived on Hispaninla Island.
B. They once hunted pigs and cattle on Hispaniola Island.
C. They consisted of only French settlers.
D. England used them to attack Spanish ships.
READING 2. Read the passage and do the exercises that follows.
Green Packaging
Manufacturers are currently competing with each other to produce a form of green
packaging. Packaging is an important part of marketing these days, but much of it is
a threat to the environment. There are two reasons for this. The production of such
packaging uses up a great deal of energy, and the cartons, wrappers, etc, are often
difficult to dispose of when they become waste material.
People in most countries have become aware of the damage which modern living is
doing to the environment, and many of them are concerning themselves with the
conservation of the environment for future generations. Thus, both politicians and
scientists are now looking at the issues of energy-saving and waste disposal with a
view to making them more environmentally-friendly.
As far as packaging is concerned, it is vital that it is either recyclable or
biodegradable. For example, instead of throwing out newspapers and glass bottles
with their household rubbish, people in several countries are being encouraged to put
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these in special containers to allow the material to be recycled. Some household
waste, such as vegetable peelings, is naturally biodegradable and so decomposes
gradually until it disappears.
Man-made goods are not so easily disposed of. Goods and packaging made of
plastic create waste material that is particularly difficult to get rid of. This means that
huge landfill sites have to be dug out so as to bury the plastic waste underground,
possibly causing problems for future generations.
Just as much of a problem is industrial waste, since the effluent from factories often
contains chemicals which can lead to the pollution of water supplies. Waste from
factories has to be monitored carefully in order to avoid this.
Technological advances using nuclear power have added to the waste problem. The
disposal of nuclear waste causes particular concern because it is radioactive and so
possibly dangerous to life.
The high standard of living, which the people of many countries now enjoy, has
resulted in a huge increase in waste material. This could have a terrible effect on the
ecology of the planet. There is no doubt that urgent action must be taken to save our
environment from possible disaster.
(1) Match each word in Column A with its meaning in Column B.
(2) Match each word in Column C with its opposite meaning in Column D.
A
B
C
D
1. currently
a. supply of power
9. difficult
i. solutions
2. environment b. products
10. future
j. easy
3. energy
c. used again
11. throwing out k. discouraged
4. dispose of
d. surroundings
12. encouraged
l. taken away from
5. recycled
e. is not there anymore 13. problems
m. suffer from
6. disappears
f. harmful
14. often
n. past
7. goods
g. now
15. added to
o. collecting
8. dangerous
h. remove
16. enjoy
p. seldom

scientists are now looking at the issues of energy-saving and waste disposal with a
view to making them more environmentally-friendly.
As far as packaging is concerned, it is vital that it is either recyclable or
biodegradable. For example, instead of throwing out newspapers and glass bottles
with their household rubbish, people in several countries are being encouraged to
put these in special containers to allow the material to be recycled. Some household
waste, such as vegetable peelings, is naturally biodegradable and so decomposes
gradually until it disappears.
Man-made goods are not so easily disposed of. Goods and packaging made of
plastic create waste material that is particularly difficult to get rid of. This means that
huge landfill sites have to be dug out so as to bury the plastic waste underground,
possibly causing problems for future generations. Just as much of a problem is
industrial waste, since the effluent [chất thải lỏng] from factories often contains
chemicals which can lead to the pollution of water supplies. Waste from factories
has to be monitored carefully in order to avoid this. Technological advances using
nuclear power have added to the waste problem. The disposal of nuclear waste
causes particular concern because it is radioactive and so possibly dangerous to life.
The high standard of living, which the people of many countries now enjoy, has
resulted in a huge increase in waste material. This could have a terrible effect on the
ecology of the planet. There is no doubt that urgent action must be taken to save our
environment from possible disaster.
A. Choose the most appropriate word, provided in italics, to complete each of
the sentences.
packaging - waste material - pollution - disaster
1. Most modem cities face heavy.......................
2. The....................... caused by the floods led to much suffering.
3. Most things that we buy will have a lot o f.......................
4. ....................... is difficult and expensive to get rid of.
B. Say whether each of the sentences below is True (T) or False (F).
1. …..The environment suffers when there is heavy packaging of the things we buy.
2. …..Politicians and scientists are not giving any attention to the problems of the
environment.
3. …..Newspapers and glass bottles can be recycled.
4. …..It is difficult to get rid of plastic goods.
5. …..Rich countries take care to cut down on waste.
C. Answer these questions in full sentences.
1. What are the two reasons that packaging is harmful to the environment?
2. Which groups of people are looking at the issues of the environment?
3. What are the important qualities for packaging to be green?
READING 2. Read the text below and decide which answer A, B, C or D best
fits each space.
A NIGHT AT THE THEATRE

LESSON 3 – February 2nd, 2016
READING 1. Read this passage again and do the exercises that follows.
GREEN PACKAGING
Manufacturers are currently competing with each other to produce a form of green
packaging. Packaging is an important part of marketing these days, but much of it is
a threat to the environment. There are two reasons for this. The production of such
packaging uses up a great deal of energy, and the cartons, wrappers, etc, are often
difficult to dispose of when they become waste material.
People in most countries have become aware of the damage which modern living is
doing to the environment, and many of them are concerning themselves with the
conservation of the environment for future generations. Thus, both politicians and
5


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Going to the theatre brings back happy memories, as it (1)........ me of my very first
performance on stage, (2)........ was thirty years ago. Parts of that particular night are
so vivid that I can still picture myself as though it were yesterday. The excitement
amongst the actors, the (3).......applause and the party after the opening night are
memories which will remain with me for (4)....... . I don’t know how we managed to
do so well. The rehearsals were far from satisfactory because we thought that we
could just have two rehearsals a week (5)......... in fact we needed more. The
background (6)....... to the last act weren’t ready until an hour before the beginning
of the play despite the set builder’s best (7)........ .The director was not satisfied
(8)....... anything and he didn’t even want to show up on the first night. Admittedly, I
wouldn’t have wanted to either. (9)........the night finally arrived, we were all a bit
worried. I remember (10)........ through the curtain ten minutes before the start and
being amazed (11).......the (12)........of a full house. Finally, it was time for the
curtain to go up. In the end, we proved the director wrong and everything went like
clockwork.
1. A. recognises
B. reminds
C. recalls
D. memorises
2. A. which
B. when
C. where
D. who
3. A. onlookers’
B. viewers’
C. audience's D. spectators’
4. A. life
B. ages
C. a while
D. time
5. A. where
B. when
C. which
D. whenever
6. A. images
B. visions
C. scenes
D. sights
7. A. attempts
B. efforts
C. trials
D. tries
8. A. by
B. in
C. at
D. with
9. A. When
B. After
C. While
D. Until
10. A. glancing
B. noticing
C. staring
D. watching
11. A. in
B. at
C. on
D. for
12. A. view
B. vision
C. sight
D. image
GRAMMAR. Choose the correct answer.
1. The Smiths built a huge house........the outskirts of the town.
A. in
B. on
C. at
D. to
2. Once they........we'll talk to them about it.
A. came
B. will come C. come
D. are coming
3. The man........ in the front row is Mrs Davidson's nephew.
A. who is sitting
B. where is sitting
C. who sitting
D. that sitting
4. "....... now on, you won't be allowed to use your mobile phones at school!" the
headmaster warned the students.
A. By
B. For
C. At
D. From
5. My grandmother knitted me a jum per......... are too long.
A. which the sleeves
B. that the sleeves
C. the sleeves of that
D. the sleeves of which

6. The electricity will be reconnected........ the bill.
A. when you will pay
B. when you pay
C. when you are paying
D. during you pay
7. There are people who manage to get......... on very little money.
A. with
B. over
C. round
D. by
8. The hotel........... we stayed was perfect.
A. in where
B. in which
C. which
D. that
9. The students le ft........... they finished the test.
A. as soon as
B. as
C. while
D. until
10. "What did you do on Saturday?" ~ "We visited the town....our grandfather grew
up.
A. which
B. that
C. where
D. when
11. ... I post that letter for you on my way to the office?
A. Do
B. Shall
C. Would
D. Will
12. He felt he’d really let his team ... when he missed the penalty.
A. out
B. in
C. down
D. off
13. He’ll never pass his driving test ... he takes some lessons.
A. unless
B. if only
C. provided
D. if
14. Opposite our house is a nice park ... there are trees and flowers
A. which
B. where
C. whose
D. that
15. If you want to help, perhaps you could ... the table for dinner.
A. put
B. lay
C. spread
D. place
16. He thinks we’ve invited too many guests, but I say the more the ...
A. nicer
B. happier
C. merrier
D. greater
17. John has taken ... swimming as he wants to keep fit.
A. up
B. on
C. in
D. off
18. You smell awful! It’s about time you ... a bath.
A. have
B. will have
C. had
D. to have
19. Lack of funds prevented him ... with his studies.
A. to continue
B. with continuing
C. continue
D. from continuing
20. Is she a friend of ... ?
A. yours
B. you
C. your
D. you’re
WRITING. Rewrite the sentences using the words given. Use between two and
five words, including the word given.
1. I last saw Karen when we met up at Dan’s party.
SINCE
I haven’t seen Karen since we met up at Dan’s party.
2. During the summer we spent two weeks in Rome.
STAYED
During the summer we ................................ two weeks.
3. I bought this laptop in March.
I .................................................. March.
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LESSON 4 – February 13th, 2016
PHONETICS. (a) Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the word that differs
from the rest in the position of the main stress in each of the following questions
1. A. follow
B. offer
C. teacher
D. prefer
2. A. information
B. considerate C. explanation
D. preparation
3. A. holiday
B. monitor
C. insurance
D. instrument
4. A. essential
B. different
C. important
D. negation
5. A. ensure
B. picture
C. capture
D. pleasure
(b) Which word among A, B, C, and D whose underlined part is pronounced
differently from that of the other three.
1. A. architect
B. orchid
C. machine
D. school
2. A. love
B. move
C. sun
D. son
3. A. perceive
B. receipt
C. believe
D. diet
4. A. measure
B. pleasure
C. issue
D. leisure
READING 1.
GOAL: ENDING CHILD LABOUR
Carefully guiding a needle that's longer than his tiny fingers, a young boy in
Pakistan stitches together the leather pieces of a soccer ball. He sits crouched in the
corner of a hot, airless shed for 12 hours. For his long day's work, he will earn 60
cents.
The boy is one of more than 200 million children who work at hard, sometimes
dangerous jobs all over the world. Child labour exists in two-thirds of the world's
nations. From Indonesia to Guatemala, poor children as young as six are sent off to
work. Often they are mistreated and punished for not working hard enough. Children
mix the gunpowder for firecrackers in China and knot the threads for carpets in
India, all for pennies a day. Sometimes they are sold as slaves.
In a speech to the Child Labor Coalition when he was U.S. Secretary of Labor,
Robert Reich expressed gratitude for the organization's work to end abuse of child
labour, "You turned up the heat, and you got results." He also congratulated Craig
Kielburger, then 13, of Canada, who travelled the world for a year fighting for kids'
rights. Craig believes kids can make a difference. He offers this advice, "Write letters
to companies and government officials. Put pressure on leaders to make changes and
to stop the misuse of children."
One solution to the child-labour problem in poor countries is education. "The future
of these countries," Secretary Reich declared, "depends on a work force that is
educated. We are prepared to help build schools."
Education has helped to make the world a brighter place for one youth, Aghan of
India. When he was nine, Aghan was kidnapped from his home and sold to a carpet
maker. Aghan's boss was very cruel. "I was always crying for my mother," he
recalls. Aghan's dream was to learn to write so that he could send letters to his
parents. Fortunately, a group that opposes child labour rescued Aghan from the

4. A few moments ago I received an email from Stuart.
JUST
I ................................ an email from Stuart.
5. I’ve spent all morning texting and my thumb hurts!
BEEN
My thumb hurts because I ................................ all morning!
6. Is this your first visit to England?
YOU
................................................................ before?
WORD FORMS. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in
capitals.
1. The top model was......dressed in an elegant evening
gown.
2. My street is .........because it’s far from any main roads.
1. BEAUTY
3. Our football team won the .......at the end of the season 2. PEACE
and received ........from a large company.
3a.
4. There are thousands of........people sleeping in the streets. CHAMPION
5. I bought a .....dress but its colours faded after I washed it. 3b. SPONSOR
6. I was fined because I was driving ......... .
4. HOME
7. The directions you gave us were rather......, as we still got
lost.
5. COLOUR
8. I am feeling quite .......... because I didn’t get enough 6. CARE
sleep last night.
7. HELP
9. I got into a business......with my cousin but it ended up 8. SLEEP
being ........
9a. PARTNER
10. The musical performance was so ........ that the audience 9b. SUCCESS
gave the orchestra a standing ovation.
10. POWER
11. The witness’ statement didn’t help the police in the 11. VALUE
investigation, so it proved to be .......... .
12. GUILT
12. The man was found .........of shoplifting and sentenced 13. SUCCESS
to one month in prison.
14. PAIN
13. He has ........... completed his postgraduate studies.
15. HARM
14. The new laser treatment can extract teeth ........ .
15. It’s just a .........dog. There is no need to panic.
1. ...................................2. .................................... 3. ........................................
4. ...................................5. .................................... 6. ........................................
7. ...................................8. .................................... 9. ........................................
10. .................................

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factory. He was sent to a shelter in New Delhi where he worked hard to learn to
write.

READING 2. Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D to
indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks.
Education is more important today than ever before. It helps people acquire the
skills they need for such everyday (1)..... as reading a newspaper or managing theừ
money. It also gives them the specialized training they may need to (2)......for a job
or career. For example, a person must meet certain educational requirements and
obtain a (3)......or certificate before he can practice law or medicine. Many fields,
like computer operation or police work, (4) ... satisfactory completion of special
training courses.
Education is also important (5)....... it helps people get more out of life. It increases
then knowledge and understanding of the world. It helps them acquire the skills that
make life more interesting and enjoyable, (6)....... the skills needed to participate in a
sport, paint a picture, or play a musical (7)........ Such education becomes (8)........
important as people gain more and more leisure time.
Education also helps people adjust to change. This habit has become necessary
because social changes today take place with increasing speed and (9)....... the lives
of more and more people. Education can help a person understand these changes and
provide him (10)....... the skills for adjusting to them.
1. A. works
B. jobs
C. actions
D. activities
2. A. do
B. prepare
C. make
D. work
3. A. license
B. card
C. diploma
D. paper
4. A. requires
B. requiring
C. require
D. to requree
5. A. therefore
B. despite
C. although
D. because
6. A. such as
B. for instance C. such that
D. for example
7. A. appliance
B. equipment
C. instrument
D. device
8. A. increased
B. increasing
C. increase
D. increasingly
9. A. effect
B. affect
C. affective
D. effective
10. A. with
B. for
C. in
D. to
WRITING 1. Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the sentence that has the
same meaning as the original one.
1. I didn't know you were coming, so I didn't wait for you.
A. If I had known you were coming, I would wait for you.
B. I would have waited for you if I knew you were coming.
C. Had I known you were coming, I would have waited for you.
D. If I had know you were coming, I would have waited for you.
2. When I picked up my book I found that the cover had been torn.
A. Picking up my book, the cover had been torn.
B. On picking up the book, I saw that the cover had been torn.
C. The cover had been torn when my book picked up.
D. Picked up, the book was torn.
3. He is a man of extreme honesty.

1. What is an example of dangerous work done by a child?
A. stitching a soccer ball
B. knotting carpet threads
C. mixing gunpowder
D. none of the above
2. When young children are forced to work,
……
A. they never see their families.
B. they work but never get paid.
C. they are punished if they do not work hard. D. they are always sold as slaves.
3. Child labour is most common in…..
A. countries that make firecrackers.
B. poor countries.
C. countries that have slavers.
D. countries that make carpets.
4. The children who work are often….. .
A. treated well
B. paid generously
C. misused
D. all of the above
5. When children are used to work for unfair wages in poor working conditions, it is
best described as …..
A. an abuse of working children.
B. hard work.
C. a poor working environment.
D. unfair labour practices.
6. According to the article, children who work under poor conditions, ….
A. start to work only after age 13.
B. start to work only after age 12.
C. make only 60 cents an hour.
D. may make only 60 cents a day.
7. According to the article, what is the best way to keep many children from falling
victim to the abuse of child labor in the future?
A. Help poor countries educate their children.
B. Refuse to buy products made in countries that abuse child labour.
C. Rescue each child.
D. none of the above
8. Why do families allow young children to go to work?
A. They don't know how bad it is.
B. The grownups don't want to work.
C. The families are very poor and need the income.
D. The children are paid a lot of money.
9. How do you know Aghan was not happy making carpets away from his family?
A. He dreamed of learning to write.
B. He was rescued.
C. He cried for his mother.
D. He lives in a shelter.
10. In New Delhi, Aghan……
A. worked for a group that is opposed to child labor. B. received an education.
C. lived with his family.
D. made carpets.
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A. He is an extremely honest man.
B. It is extremely honest that he is a man.
C. It is of extreme honesty to a man like him. D. He is an extreme honesty man.
4. I do physical training because I want to keep fit.
A. I want to keep fit because I do physical training.
B. I want to do physical training so I keep fit.
C. I do physical training in order to keep fit.
D. So as to do physical training, I keep fit.
5. The sea was so cold that we couldn't swim in it.
A. The cold sea helped us to swim.
B. We couldn't swim with such a cold sea.
C. The cold sea prevented us from swimming in it.
D. It was such a cold sea that we could swim
WRITING 2. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to
the first sentence, using the word given unchanged. You must use between two
and five words, including the word given.
1. Here’s the house where I lived as a child. (in )
Here’s the house..........................................................as a child.
2. I don’t know what made her quit her job. ( reason )
I don’t .......................................................... she quit her job.
3. Passengers wishing to get up can do so after the seat belt light has gone off. who
Passengers.................................... can do so after the seat belt light has gone off.
4.He didn’t study enough for his exams, so he failed two of them. (caused )
He didn’t study enough for his exams...................................... two of them.
5. He always checked his car tyres before setting off on a journey. ( until )
He never set off on a journey...........................................his car tyres.
6.I’ve read all of Jane Austen’s novels and there were only a couple that I didn’t
enjoy (most )
=>I’ve read all of Jane Austen’s novels,......................................... I enjoyed.
7. Dr Williams is a cardiologist and has his surgery on the second floor.
(Whose)
Dr Williams,........................................... on the second floor, is a cardiologist.
8. Last week Phil took part in a spelling competition and won first prize. ( in )
Phil won first prize in a spelling competition....................................... last week.
WORD FORMS. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in
capitals.
1. My sister’s very............and she never stays out late because that worries my mum.
(THOUGHT)
2. Our teacher is really ............ and makes us laugh with her stories.
FUN
3. I get on well with my brother and there’s no sibling ............ at all.
RIVAL
4. My dad can’t wear ............ jumpers because they irritate his skin.
WOOL

5. You need to have a lot of ............ to become an actor or actress.
CONFIDENT
6. My ............ with Selina began when we were both six years old.
FRIEND
7. I love sitting on my new sofa. It's so .........
COMFORT
8. She chose light-coloured furniture to ......... up her dull flat.
BRIGHT
9. It’s certainly .......to drive at high speed.
DANGER
10. August is a ....... month in our city, as everyone is away on holiday. PEACE
11. The .......... held up the bank and stole £200, 000.
ROB
12. Nobody could find the ............ to the difficult Maths problem.
SOLVE
13. Even though they had financial difficulties, they were .......... married. HAPPY
14. I feel very ...... today. I think I’ll have some coffee.
SLEEP
WORD CHOICE. Choose the correct option for each sentence.
My English teacher is great! She lived in the UK for a year and she often speaks to
us 1) on/about life there. She always speaks 2) to/about us in English and that really
helps us too. We do lots of interesting things in class – sometimes we 3)
translate/listen English pop songs. We do the easy bits and our teacher 4)
explains/means the difficult bits to us. Sometimes, our teacher invites her Englishspeaking friends into our class to talk 5) to/at us about different things. We can’t
always 6) understand/hear everything they say but we enjoy it anyway. Last year,
she invited a Scottish friend to the classroom – he 7) pronounced/meant words in a
very interesting way! I think there are a lot of English words which are difficult to 8)
say/speak. Our teacher often asks us to listen and 9) repeat/understand. I think it’s
really useful to 10) speak/say a foreign language because then you can talk 11)
to/about people in their own language.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LESSON 5 – February 18th, 2016
I. PHONETICS. Which word among A, B, C, and D whose underlined part is
pronounced differently from that of the other three.
1. A. moustache
B. ocean
C. celebrate
D. special
2. A. character
B. cart
C. chemistry
D.chimney
3. A. society
B. social
C. cellar
D. proceed
4. A. chain
B. choice
C. choir
D.chocolate
5. A. sufficient
B. deficiency
C. precious
D.concentration
6. A. describe
B. science
C. scenic
D. scepter
7. A. touch
B. much
C. yacht
D. Dutch
8. A. archive
B. change
C. church
D. achieve
9. A. pace
B. race
C. lose
D cellphone
10. A. chronic
B. molecule
C. critic
D. scenery
II. READING 1.
SMART EXERCISE (READING CHALLENGE 3)
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Are you preparing for a big test? If so, you may want to go play between hitting the
books. Based on information they have collected over the years, researchers have
seen an apparent connection between exercise and brain development. Judy
Cameron, a researcher at Oregon Health and Science University, studies brain
development. According to her research, it seems that exercise can make blood
vessels, including those in the brain, stronger and more fully developed. Cameron
claims this allows people who exercise to concentrate better. She says, “While we
already know that exercise is good for the heart, exercise can literally cause physical
changes in the brain.”
The effects of exercise on brain development can even be seen in babies. Babies
who do things that require a lot of movement and physical activity show greater
brain development than babies who are less physically active. With babies, even a
little movement can show big results. Margaret Barnes, a pediatrician, believes in
the importance of exercise. She thinks that many learning disabilities children have
in elementary school or high school can be traced back to a lack of movement as
babies. “Babies need movement that stimulates their five senses,” says Barnes.
“They need to establish a connection between motion and memory. In this way, as
they get older, children will begin to associate physical activity with higher
learning.”
The benefits of exercise on the brain are not just for babies. Older people can beef
up their brains by working out as well. Researchers at Cornell University studied a
group of seniors ranging in age from seventy to seventy-nine. Their study showed a
short-term memory increase of up to forty percent after exercising just three hours a
week. The exercise does not have to be very difficult, but it does have to increase the
heart rate. Also, just like the motion for infants, exercise for older people should
involve some complexity. Learning some new skills or motions, such as with yoga or
tai-chi, helps open up memory paths in the brain that may not have been used for a
long time.
For most people, any type of physical activity that increases the heart rate is helpful.
The main goal is to increase the brain’s flow of blood. Your brain can benefit from as
little as two to three hours of exercise a week.
(1) Choose the best answer.
1. What is the main idea of this reading?
A. How to exercise
B. How exercise helps the brain
C. How to get good scores on a test
D. How the brain can change
2. According to the reading, what is the connection between exercise and brain
development?
A. Exercise makes us less intelligent.
B. The brain needs special mental exercise.
C. The more exercise, the bigger the brain.
D. Physical exercise helps us think better.

3. The minimum amount of exercise required to gain any benefit is........
A. Three hours per week
B. Forty hours per week
C. Three hours per day
D. Forty hours per month
4. Why is yoga recommended for seniors?
A. It is easy on joints.
B. It does not increase the heart rate.
C. It can be done in groups.
D. It includes learning new motions.
5. What type of patient does a pediatrician probably treat?
A. Poor people
B. Children
C. Animals
D. Old people
(2) Write the letter of the word or phrase with the same meaning as the underlined
word or phrase.
a. connect; link
b. related to the body and exercise
c. actually; in fact
d. become wider or more accessible
e. movement
f. recent past; a time not long ago
1. ...............She is literally the best student in school.
2. ...............I hate sports, but I still have to take a physical education class in school.
3. ...............Your short-term memory can get worse with age.
4. ................Motion of our bodies can improve how well we think.
5. ...............Some researchers associate exercise with brain development.
6. ...............Exercise causes blood vessels to open up so blood flows more easily.
III. WORD FORMS 1. Complete the text below with the correct form of the
words in capitals.
Many people consider (1)........to be the most important (2).... 1. FRIEND
they can have. It is (3)......to have a friend you can talk to and 2. RELATION
share (4).... experiences with. However, it is important to 3. WONDER
choose friends (5) ...... An ideal friend should be (6)...... and 4. VALUE
when any difficulties arise, hopefully be there for us. Of 5. CARE
course, there will be times when we might be (7).... of our 6. THOUGHT
friends. But, we should always talk things through in a (8).... 7. DOUBT
way and find a solution to our problems. Moreover, we should 8. SENSE
be careful not to be (9)…..Without honesty, the bond between 9. TRUTH
friends is (10)......and not worth anything at all.
10. USE
IV. WORD FORMS 2. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the
words in capitals.
1. Don’t use that information in the essay. It’s ...........
RELEVANT
2. If I don’t set my alarm clock, I always ............... .
SLEEP
3. Some kids in my class are ............. and tell lies really easily.
HONEST
4. I can’t see why we need to put the numbers in this order. It’s ..... .
LOGICAL
5. When you’re writing an email, you can use idioms because it’s………..FORMAL
6. He let his ten-year-old son drive his car! That’s completely……..RESPONSIBLE
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7. The ..........killer, Jack the Ripper, is the subject of many novels and films.
FAMOUS
8.Many ………......have written about the reign of Richard III.
HISTORY
9. When they were constructing the new supermarket, they……. ... several skeletons.
(EARTH)
10. They will announce the ……….of the vote at about three o’clock.
COME
V. WORD STUDY 1. Complete the sentences with the collocations / expressions
in the list below.
the other day – all day long – call it a day – at times – on time – in time –
pass the time – ahead of its time – time and time again – for the time being
1. Despite technical problems, the flight left....
2. We’ll be getting a new printer next month.So, .......we have to put up with this one
3. Most engineers agreed that the car’s design was .....
4. I started a conversation with the person sitting next to me on the bus to ......
5. I saw Sally...... Did you know that she had broken her leg?
6. The match started at 7 pm and Jack arrived just.......for the kick-off.
7. Let’s .....and go home.We’ve been working for over twelve hours w ithout a break
8. He keeps making the same mistake .......
9. I find it very difficult to agree with you.......Your views can sometimes be extreme
10. I have been sleepy ....... …..today. I don’t know what’s the m atter with me.
VI. WORD STUDY 2. Read the sentences and complete them with the correct
form of the verbs hold, run, catch or keep.
1. The student was .......... in the act of cheating by the examiner.
2. I just need you to ...........an eye on Sam while I go out.
3. Jenny will certain ly........... everyone's attention with that dress she's wearing.
4. Blue eyes and red hair……..... in my family. Only my aunt has brown eyes.
5. When my grandmother was in hospital, I used to …....... her company in the
afternoons.
6. Mary is moving to another city, but we promised to ….... in touch w ith each other
7. ............. a business requires many skills and expertise.
8. You can't rely on Roger. Actually, he's the kind of person that can't..... ..a promise.
9. The winner of the marathon had to…. ........his breath before speaking to the
journalist.
10. Please..............in mind that smoking is not allowed in this building.
11. We all........ our breath when the winner of the com petition was being announced
12. As I was running to ……... the bus, I slipped and fell.
13. Can you …...... a secret? Jane is organising a surprise party for Kevin’s birthday!
14. The children ………... hands while walking down the street.
VII. READING 2. Choose A , B, C, or D to complete the following dialogue.
Jim: Have you made up your mind about where to go on holiday?

Mike: I've narrowed down my choices to two (0) rather large countries, France and
Mexico. What do you think?
Jim: Well, France is one of (1) the …. countries in Europe. Did you know it's twice
(2) ....... the UK? Since you've got eight weeks off (3) ....work, you could go on a
cycling tour of the country.
Mike: I'd like to visit (4)… Alps and Mont Blanc, which is (5).... than any other
mountain in Western Europe. I suppose I could also go on long walks in the country,
as the climate there is similar (6).... that in Britain.
Jim: Really? I think it's (7).... warmer. Especially on the Riviera, the Mediterranean
in winter is (8) …..temperature as the British coastal waters are in summer! I can
really picture you, tanned and relaxed, tasting delicious local specialities (9)….
Camembert cheese, frogs' legs and snails!
Mike: Come on, that sounds disgusting!
Jim: Apparently, they taste (10) …better than they sound.
Mike: I don't know. I'd rather go to Mexico and eat tortillas and chilli every day!
0. A. rather
B. most
C. far
D. too
1. A. larger
B. largest
C. the larger
D. the largest
2. A. bigger than
B. as big as
C. so big as
D. as bigger than
3. A. a
B. the
C. some
D. Ø
4. A. an
B. the
C. some
D. Ø
5. A. higher
B. highest
C. the higher D. the highest
6. A. as
B. with
C. to
D. of
7. A. more
B most
C. much
D. quite
8. A. the same
B same
C similar
D. the similar
9. A such
B as
C. like
D. so
10. A pretty
B. far
C. the
D. more
VIII. WRITING. Rewrite the following sentences so that each that keeps the
same meaning as the original.
1. She didn’t say a word as she left the room.
She left ......................................................
2. They think the owner of the house is abroad.
The owner ......................................................
3. Speaking English fluently is not easy.
It ......................................................
4. I’m sorry that I didn’t finish my homework last night.
I wish ......................................................
5. She asked John how he liked her new dress.
“How ......................................................?"........
6. A train leaves at eight o’clock every morning.
There is ......................................................
7. Nobody can deny that she has a beautiful voice.
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It can’t......................................................
8. I would like you to help me to put the chair away.
Do you mind ......................................................?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LESSON 6 – (February 25th, 2016)
READING 1. Read the passage then do the exercises that follow it.
Campaigning for the Earth
In 1971, a small boat set sail from Vancouver, Canada, to Amchitka, one of the
Aleutian Islands connecting North America and Asia. of non-violent protest against
a nuclear test that was to be conducted by the It was a gesture United States
government. The crew on the Phyllis Cormack included a doctor, a geographer, an
engineer, a political science teacher, a deep-sea diver, a social worker, a
photographer, and three journalists. Vehement opposition of the test from politicians,
scientists, government and environmental agencies, as well as the residents of the
Aleutian Islands, had been staged for months preceding the launch of the Phyllis
Cormack. Despite the protests, the US refused to change its plans to conduct the test.
Sadly, the ship and her crew did not reach Amchitka and failed to prevent the
nuclear test from occurring. Although Amchitka had not had any inhabitants since
the mid-nineteenth century and there was no imminent danger to humans, the
explosion caused tremendous suffering to local wildlife. It also caused wide-scale
destruction of the island, including a crater more than one mile wide and sixty feet
deep. The voyage of the Phyllis Cormack did not succeed in stopping the nuclear
test, but this peaceful demonstration did have a very positive outcome. It attracted
world-wide attention and gave birth to the international movement called
Greenpeace.
Today, Greenpeace is an international, non-profit organization with offices in more
than forty countries throughout Asia, Europe, North and South America, and the
Pacific. Its headquarters is in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Each office has its own
board of directors and agenda based on the unique needs of the region. Greenpeace
representatives from around the world meet each year to discuss environmental
issues and concerns of the global community. According to its website, “Greenpeace
exists because this fragile earth deserves a voice. It needs solutions. It needs change.
It needs action.” Greenpeace is committed to making the public aware of
environmental abuses. It seeks change through creative, non-violent confrontations
between activists and those responsible for harming the environment.
Greenpeace is currently working in six major areas where there is significant threat
to the environment. The first two areas address radiation and chemical contaminants.
As its initial action against the nuclear test on Amchitka demonstrated, Greenpeace
stands firm in its commitment to end the production and use of nuclear weapons. It
also aims to eliminate toxic chemicals that are released into the environment.

The third area of concern is the threat posed to the environment by genetically
engineered food ingredients, which cause irreversible biological pollution and many
types of health risks. In 2002, Greenpeace published the True Food Guide. This
helps consumers to select their foods by rating food companies according to their
willingness to use genetically engineered ingredients in their products.
A fourth item on the Greenpeace agenda is the protection of marine life. Of
particular concern are commercial fishing practices that do not protect endangered
species. Greenpeace is also engaged in educating the world community about the
effects of global warming.
Finally, Greenpeace actively supports measures that will protect the remaining
ancient forests of the world. With more than 80 percent of the world’s forests already
gone, preserving what we have left seems more urgent than ever. In a recent victory,
the Maisin people of Collingwood Bay, in Papua New Guinea, won a three-year
legal struggle to deny loggers access to their land. Greenpeace played an important
role in defending the interests of the Maisin in the court case.
I. Mark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading.
1. .... The Phyllis Cormack saved wildlife on Amchitka.
2. .... Greenpeace works to protect the world’s environment.
3. .... Greenpeace wants to eliminate toxic chemicals.
4. .... Less than 20 percent of the world’s forests are already gone.
II. Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. Which of the following was NOT on the crew of the Phyllis Cormack?
A. a social worker
B. a teacher
C. a politician
D. an engineer
2. Where is Greenpeace headquartered?
A. In the United States
B. In more than 40 countries
C. In Vancouver, Canada
D. In the Netherlands
3. Why are some people concerned about genetically engineered food?
A. They say it causes biological pollution.
B. They say it tastes bad and is poisonous.
C. They believe it releases toxic chemicals.
D. They believe it destroys ancient forests.
III. Look for the answers to these two questions in the book.
1. How does Greenpeace seek change? ……..
2. What did Greenpeace do in 2002? ……..
IV. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list. Use each word
or phrase only once.
acid rain  ozone layer  extinction  biodegradable
greenhouse effect  pollutants
1. Many scientists think the .................. is warming the Earth’s temperature.
2. ................. has harmful effects on plants and water animals.
3. Several animal species face .................. due to environmental damage.
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4. The .................. protects the Earth from radioactive sun rays.
5. ................. products decompose naturally and merge with the Earth’s soil.
6. Automobile exhaust, burning coal, and litter are all types of ……............
III. Complete the sentences with these words.
funny  good  lazy  lively  old  quite
1. Madrid is quite an interesting city. There are lots of things to see there.
2. My house is ............... and doesn’t have any heating. It’s very cold in winter.
3. Brett is really .............. . He always makes me laugh.
4. My mum says I’m .............. . I like to sleep a lot!
5. I’m quite interested in watching football. I’m not very ........... at playing it though.
6. Write to me. I’m a very .......... person and I always have a lot to say!
READING 2.
WORKING IN A ZOO
Zoo-keeping is an (0) .... but fascinating job. A lot of young people say they want
to work (1) .... animals and being a zookeeper is possibly the most interesting of the
jobs you could be (2)........ . The job (3).........not just cleaning and feeding the
animals in the zoo but also checking up on them to make sure they are well or if
there are any (4)...........to their behaviour. You will also need to (5)...........after them
if they are sick. You have to be prepared to do more (6)............. boring tasks as well,
such as checking their cages and enclosures. In addition, you have to enjoy working
with people (7)...........you usually have to answer questions from visitors to the zoo.
You don't need to have a lot of (8)........... to be a zookeeper. It is the kind of job that
(9)........... more on you having an interest in animals and animal behaviour. If you
want to apply, it's a good idea to get some experience by doing some volunteer
(10)...........at the weekends. You may also need to be quite fit as you may have to do
a lot of walking and (11)..............You don't just have to work in a zoo either, as
many zookeepers work in wildlife parks, which can be (12)...........more exciting!
0. A. abnormal
B. unexpected C. unusual
D. extraordinary
1. A. by
B. with
C. for
D. beside
2. A. suggested
B. proposed
C. shown
D. offered
3. A. considers
B. contains
C. involves
D. needs
4. A. substitutes
B. alterations C. departures D. alternatives
5. A. get
B. look
C. take
D. go
6. A. customary
B. unoriginal C. habitual
D. routine
7. A. because
B. owing
C. so
D. therefore
8. A. preparing
B. coaching
C. training
D. guiding
9. A. counts
B. relies
C. trusts
D. leans
10. A. occupation
B. business
C. job
D. work
11. A. holding
B. transporting C. carrying
D. bearing
12. A. much
B. very
C. quite
D. plenty
WORD STUDY.
I. PHRASAL VERBS with TURN

Complete the sentences using the most suitable preposition below.
to • off • down • on • up • out
1. It turns ..........that they are from Belarus and they are lovely people.
2. Alex was sorry he was turned.........for the job.
3. We hadn't seen Mike for ages, and then he suddenly turned ..........
4. When we turned ............the lights, we saw that the kitchen was in a terrible mess.
5. Students who have problems can turn ............. the counsellor.
6. We turned.............the water supply while the workmen were fixing the pipes.
II. Circle the word that cannot be used with the verb in CAPITAL.
1. FORM
an idea
a memory
an impression
an opinion
2. PASS
the time
an exam
judgment
an expression
3. MAKE
a comment
an attempt
a realisation
a difference
4. KEEP
your promise
a decision
your word
your distance
5. TAKE
the advantage to the time to the opportunity to the trouble to
III. Complete the sentences using words from
1. How do you pass.......... at the weekend when it rains?
2. Will it make........... if I tell you what I think?
3. I don't trust Mike, You should keep...........from him.
4. Unfortunately, people often form a negative........of someone because of the way
they are dressed.
5. Bob and Sue took ..........plan their holiday route carefully beforehand. They were
glad they'd done it.
WRITING. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the
first, using the word given.
1. They entered the competition so they could be on television.
ORDER
They entered the competition.............................. on television.
2. The stadium is much too small for the concert.
ENOUGH
The stadium...............................................for the concert.
3. Martin started singing when he was 13.
BEEN
Martin.................................................he was 13.
4. 'Help us to help the environment,' he said to us.
ASKED
He.........................................help the environment.
5. She is better at acting than her brother.
AS
Her brother is .........................................as she is.
6. They ask you to switch your phone off in the studio.
MUST
You............................................... your phone on in the studio.
7. I think they invented the story about the gorilla!
MADE
I think they...............................the story about the gorilla!
8. That dress really suits you!
AMAZING
That dress...........................................on you!
9. He was too tired to work any more.
THAT
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He was......................................... he couldn't work any more.
10. There's no point going to the market today.
WASTE
It's.................................. going to the market today.
WORD FORMS.
MAKE MONEY FROM BEING ON TV
You can make a career from (0) REALITY (REAL) TV. Some of these television
programmes will pay you to appear in their shows. Others will reward the (1)
.......(WIN). How successful you are depends on how good your (2)
.......(PERORM) is because, after all, these shows are all about (3) ......
(ENTERTAIN). Other opportunities include being asked to make an (4) .......
(APPEAR) on other television programmes. One star of Castaway now has a regular
job in a big London (5) .....(MUSIC). The disadvantages are firstly that, in a
programme like Pop Idol, you have to beat all the other (6) ....... (COMPETE) and
in programmes like Big Brother the (7) .... (PRODUCE) will be filming you 24
hours a day. At some stage you are bound to say or do something you may not be (8)
.......(PARTICULAR) proud of when you later come out of that unusual situation.
No one, other than the other (9).......(CONTEST), will know how extreme the
situation was and may not empathise with you. If you are (10)....... (FORTUNE) you
may get celebrity status, but it may not be the kind you want!

10. I have no idea where I left my trainers. I guess I ......left them at the gym.
A. must have
B. could be
C. have to
D. should be
11. Sarah said she....her homework at home.
A. was left
B. had left
C. leave
D. is leaving
12. William asked me where.....him.
A. had I seen
B. did I
C. I saw
D. I had seen
13. Carol told me..... anyone what had happened.
A. don’t tell
B. not telling C. not to tell
D. to not tell
14. Mrs Jones asked me why...... to see the doctor after school.
A. I am going
B. am I going C. I was going
D. was I going
15. Mum asked me what...... doing all day while she was at work.
A. had I been
B. I had been C. have I been
D. I have been
16. I can't........... to buy tickets for the concert yet.
A. decide
B. succeed
C. provide
D. afford
17. Species are being........... by changes in the world’s climate.
A. cut down
B. wiped out C. held back
D. put away
18. The recording company............millions of euros in new groups.
A. invests
B. promotes
C. donates
D. releases
19. Those reality shows really...........on my nerves.
A. take
B. test
C. get
D. give
20. He didn’t ...........attention to the teacher’s lectures.
A. take
B. get
C. pay
D. show
READING 1.
The Origin of the Universe
Throughout recorded history, the origin of the universe has been a topic of ongoing
controversy. In particular, debate has centered around how - or if - the universe
began. One school of thought, especially held by Jewish, Christian, and Islamic
religions, is that the universe was created. Thus, there was a time when there was no
universe, and equally, there will be a time when there will be an end to the universe.
On the other hand, some people, like the Greek philosopher Aristotle, did not like
the idea of the universe having a beginning. He preferred to believe that the universe
had existed and would exist forever and that it was eternal and perfect. One thing
that these two schools of thought originally had in common was that no matter what
the origin or the ending of the universe, the universe itself was static and
unchanging. In fact, this was a natural belief to have since recorded history is so
short that the universe has not changed significantly in all that time.
In the 19th century, however, evidence began to challenge the idea of a motionless,
unchanging universe. At this time, Boltzmann, the German physicist, formulated the
Second Law of Thermodynamics. This states that the total amount of entropy, or
disorder, of the universe always increases with time. Therefore, the universe must be
changing in some way for its entropy to increase. Also, according to Newton’s Law
of Gravity, each star in the universe ought to be attracted to each other and thus start

LESSON 7 - March 2nd, 2016
LEXICO-GRAMMAR. Choose the word (A, B, C or D) that best completes the
sentence.
1. Have you...... your accommodation for your holiday to Spain yet?
A. booked
B. closed
C. bought
D. taken
2. My mum really wants us to go on a ....., but I don’t like the idea of spending a
week on a boat.
A. voyage
B. journey
C. travel
D. cruise
3. We spent all day ......from London to Glasgow by bus.
A. travelling
B. cruising
C. journeying
D. voyaging
4. What a terrible .......! We spent ten hours stuck in traffic.
A. guide
B. ride
C. accommodation
D. journey
5. When we go on holiday, we’re going to….. a bus to the airport.
A. have
B. catch
C. book
D. travel
6. You..... have told him the truth straight away. It’s too late now.
A. should
B. must
C. could
D. can
7 You must..... really tired when you got to the end of the marathon.
A. be
B. been
C. have been
D. being
8. He ......have left already! He was supposed to be taking me home!
A. can’t
B. wasn’t able to
C. mustn’t
D. couldn’t
9. Oliver...... stay up late last night studying for the test.
A. should
B. could
C. must
D. had to
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falling together and collapsing at a central point. If the universe were motionless, the
result would be an unavoidable collapse.
In the 1920s, US astronomer Edwin Hubble observed a critical phenomenon that
increased our understanding of the universe. Using a powerful new telescope, he
identified a group of celestial objects outside our own galaxy. By observing the
Doppler Shift of these stars---the way the wavelengths and colors of their light
changed due to their motion---he realized that they were receding from our own
position in the universe. In fact, all the observable galaxies were moving away from
each other! Furthermore, the more distant the galaxy, the faster it was moving away.
This observation implied that the universe was expanding. Hubble’s observation led
to the assumption that at some point, all matter in the universe was close together.
The event that started its expansion is referred to as the Big Bang. According to the
Big Bang theory, time and space did not exist prior to the beginning of the
expansion. Thus, the age of the universe can be calculated from the distance and the
velocities of the stars traveling away from us. Due to experimental uncertainties, a
definite age still cannot be given for the universe; however, the age of the universe is
calculated to be between ten to twenty billion years old.
The Big Bang theory has led to many other theories and predictions in science.
Physicist George Gamow realized in the 1940s that the early universe must have
been extremely hot and dense. As the universe expanded, it would cool down, and
the initial hot radiation should eventually be observable as uniform radio waves
throughout space. In the 1960s, Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias discovered cosmic
uniform radio waves that implied a temperature of about 3 degrees above absolute
zero (Kelvin). Later, technology enabled scientists to take very detailed
measurements of this radiation. They confirmed that it is extremely uniform, is of the
shape predicted by theory, and has a temperature of 2.7 degrees Kelvin. This
observation provides strong support for the Big Bang theory.
Another interesting result of the Big Bang theory relates to the movement of the
galaxies. Though the universe is expanding, the galaxies themselves are not moving.
Instead, it is the space between the galaxies that is expanding, while the galaxies
themselves remain still. It’s much like points drawn on the surface of a balloon.
When the balloon inflates, only the material stretches out and separates the points.
The points themselves do not actually move.
I. Mark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading.
1. .... People have always agreed on the origin of the universe.
2. .... The universe would collapse if it was not moving.
3. .... Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe is expanding.
4. .... The universe is expanding, but galaxies are not moving.
II. Choose the best answer according to the reading.
1. What did Aristotle believe about the universe?
A. It began with the Big Bang.
B. It was eternal and perfect.

C. It was slowly expanding.
D. It is fifteen billion years old.
2. What does the Second Law of Thermodynamics state?
A. Each star in the universe is attracted to one another.
B. All galaxies are moving away from each other.
C. Entropy in the universe increases over time.
D. There are uniform radio waves throughout space.
3. What is the significance of the discovery of uniform radio waves?
A. It confirms Aristotle’s belief.
B. It supports the Big Bang theory.
C. It breaks the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
D. It contradicts Newton’s Law of Gravity.
III. For the next two questions, look for the answers in the book and write them
on the lines provided.
1. What belief did religions and Aristotle hold in common?
2. What critical phenomenon did Edwin Hubble observe?
IV. Fill in each blank with the best word or phrase from the list.
Milky Way  observatory  solar  system  cosmology  optical  philosophy
1. The galaxy that includes the Earth is called the ............
2. My ........... of life is “Don’t worry, be happy.”
3. ........... is a branch of science that deals with questions about the universe.
4. A(n) ........... houses huge telescopes used to watch stars and planets.
5. A(n) ........... telescope is used to gather and focus light and wavelengths.
6. The sun and the eight planets that orbit around it are called the ............
READING 2. Read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C, or D) best
fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
PLANET EARTH
The television programme Planet Earth was a (0) MAJOR series that was
broadcast in many countries. The programme (1)..........at the different environments
on our planet and the animals that live in these environments. It showed various
habitats as (2)..........as plants and animals that have never been seen before on
television. Each programme showed different (3)..........of our planet, such as deserts,
forests, seas and so on, and looked at the way animals and plants (4)...........in these
places.
What was interesting w as that it made (5).........reference to the environmental
problems that face our planet but instead was a (6).........of all the different life forms
on the planet. The series was incredibly popular and the photography was amazing
(7).........the photographers working on the series managed to (8)........... some
wonderful scenes of animals in their natural habitats.
The series attracted huge audiences round the world and won several (9)..........for
the people who made the programmes. The producers are now (10)..........another
programme called Planet Earth: The Future, which will look at environmental issues,
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............................................quickly, we wouldn’t have survived.
2. It’s raining and I want it to stop.
WISH
I .............................................................raining.
3. I didn’t go to the party and now I’m sorry.
HAD
I .....................................................to the party.
4. I didn’t get to my lesson on time because the bus was late.
WOULD
If the bus hadn’t been late, I ....................my lesson on time.
5. The cold weather made it impossible to stay.
WARMER
If the weather………….. , we could have stayed.
6. There’s no other mountain higher in the world than Mount Everest. HIGHEST
Mount Everest .............................in the world.
7. Your new car is bigger than I thought it would be.
SMALL
Your new car I ...............thought it would be.
8. My holiday this year wasn’t as good as the one last year.
THAN
My holiday last year ........................the one this year.
9. That ride was more thrilling than all the others.
MOST
That ride was............................................of all.
10. John is more scared of spiders than me.
AS
I am not....................................................John.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LESSON 8 – Thu., March 3rd, 2016
READING 1.
SIXTH EXTINCTION
Most species of plants and animals that have ever lived on Earth are now extinct.
Though most have become extinct slowly, some have been almost completely wiped
out in a sudden, massive, catastrophic event. These mass extinctions have happened
at least five times in the history of the Earth. The first mass extinction occurred
about 450 million years ago, when sudden changes in sea level, caused by melting
glaciers, killed most marine species. The most recent mass extinction was 65 million
years ago, when most scientists believe an asteroid struck the Earth in Mexico and
extinguished the dinosaurs.
Now scientists claim a “Sixth Extinction” is underway. This extinction is not
caused by one big event but by a series of human actions that disrupt the
environment. Edward O. Wilson, a Harvard University scientist, estimates that
human harm will cause half of all species of life to be extinct by 2100. Scientists say
that human activities are causing biological extinction at a rate hundreds of times
faster than ever before.
Humans cause damage to the Earth in three primary ways. The first is exploitation.
Humans hunt animals for food, clothing, and sometimes just for fun. They also
collect plants and insects - such as butterflies - for recreation. The second way
humans impact the Earth is by putting alien plant or animal species in new
environments. In Africa, for example, some fisherman put perch from Egypt’s Nile

such as (11) .........change, and also at how we can save animals which are in danger
of becoming (12)...........
0. A. main
B. heavy
C. major
D. large
1. A. inspected
B. looked
C. viewed
D. observed
2. A. greatly
B. fully
C. much
D. well
3. A. areas
B. districts
C. divisions
D. provinces
4. A. lasted
B. remained
C. supported
D. survived
5. A. no
B. not
C. some
D. any
6. A. festival
B. anniversary
C. performance D. celebration
7. A. due
B. as
C. so
D. owing
8. A. win
B. bring
C. capture
D. earn
9. A decorations
B. rewards
C. awards
D. premiums
10. A making
B. composing
C. forming
D. shaping
11 A. atmosphere
B. weather
C. temperature
D. climate
12 A. lost
B. extinct
C. inactive
D. dead
WORD FORMS. Use the word given in capitals to form a word that fits in the
gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
THE KILLERS TOUR
As part of their world tour. The Killers performed at
Wembley stadium last night to a (0) PACKED audience. 0. PACK
The atmosphere was (1) ........ as this was their first gig in the 1.
UK. When they finally arrived on the stage the audience ELECTRICITY
went wild and there was a lot of (2)........from the girls! First
of all they played several (3)....... songs from their new 2. SCREAM
album, which comes out next month. Then they were into 3. FAMILIAR
safer territory as they played (4).........numbers from past 4. FAVOUR
albums, including their most recent hit.
The audience loved it and the group has a great stage
presence, which meant they managed to hold the audience's 5. ATTEND
(5) ........throughout the entire concert. Some of their slower
numbers were lost in such a huge venue but in general the 6. PERFORM
live (6)........... came across well. There were some 7. AMAZE
(7).........good guitar riffs and they generated an atmosphere 8. EXCITE
of (8) ..........and fun with people dancing on their seats by the
end of the gig. It was a great evening of (9) ........well worth 9. ENTERTAIN
the cost of the ticket. Certainly their tour looks as if it is 10. SUCCESS
going to be very (10)......... for them.
WRITING. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the
first using the word given.
1. We survived because they found us quickly.
IF
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River into Lake Victoria. Nile perch like to eat other fish. Since they came, more
than 200 native species of fish have disappeared from the lake. The third way
humans cause damage is by destroying natural habitats. They clear trees from forests
to build houses, farms, cities, and roads. One of the most terrible instances of habitat
destructions is the cutting down of the tropical rainforests. It is estimated that these
rainforests, which cover less than 10 percent of the Earth, contain almost half of all
the world’s plant and animal species.
Human activity has had a devastating effect on the natural environment. Each year,
an international organization of scientists releases a special “red list” that updates the
status of more than 44,000 animal and plant species. In 2008, the organization
reported that 25 percent of our planet’s 5,487 mammals are on the verge of
extinction. It also claimed that almost 40 percent of all species are “threatened” with
extinction, including 33 percent of all amphibians, a quarter of the Earth’s
coniferous trees, and about 12 percent of all birds. Of all threatened species on the
red list, about 3,000 are “critically endangered,” which means they could disappear
soon.
What would happen to people if the “Sixth Extinction” takes place? Scientists say
life on Earth would be grim. There would not be enough food to eat, and water
would be too polluted to drink. New species of pests and plants would invade the
natural areas that remain. These invaders could carry new kinds of germs, causing
diseases that human bodies cannot resist. Without plants to help cool the sun, the ice
at the North and South Poles could melt, causing sea levels to rise and wash away
coastal cities. By wiping out other species, human beings might be paving the way
for the greatest extinction of all: their own.
I. Mark each statement as either true (T) or false (F) according to the reading.
1. .... Some scientists estimate that half of all species will be extinct in the next
century.
2. .... The Earth is facing its third mass extinction in history.
3. .... A higher percentage of bird species face extinction than coniferous trees.
4. .... Forty percent of all mammals are threatened with extinction.
II. Choose the best answer.
1. How many ways does the reading passage indicate that humans harm the
environment?
A. One
B. Two
C. Three
D. Four
2. Which is NOT an outcome of mass extinction of life on earth?
A. Rising of sea levels
B. Food shortages
C. Lack of fresh water
D. Natural disasters
3. Which kind of animal is the Nile perch?
A. amphibian
B. fish
C. bird
D. mammal
III. Look for the answers to these 2 questions in the passage.
1. Why are rainforests important to the planet?

2. How can mass extinction of living species lead to the extinction of humans?
IV. Fill in each blank with the best word from the list. Use each word only once.
brink  ecosystem  magnitude  deforestation  conserve  wildlife
1. Earthquakes are measured on a scale ranging from minor to great depending on
their
.......
2. With a population of less than 350, the California Condors are on the ..... of
extinction.
3. One of the main reasons for the destruction of the rainforest is ...........
4. An .......... is a community of living and non-living things that work together.
5. It is important to ....... water when living in the desert.
6. It is far easier to see ...... in rural areas than in the city.
V. Fill in the blanks with the phrases from the list. Use each phrase only once.
being destroyed  introduce alien plants  kills native species
continues unchecked  numerous species  cutting down forests
Human activity is a primary reason why (1).....are now extinct and many more are
endangered. The problem is that habitats are (2) ...... not by one single event, but by
a series of actions. One example is when people (3).......or animals to a new
environment where they have no natural predators. This risks disrupting the
ecological balance in the area and (4)......Humans also damage the Earth by
(5)........for development and agricultural purposes. If this trend (6)....., the future of
the planet will be a grim one indeed.
WORD FORMS. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in
capitals.
1. I thought the colour of my room was very light, so I
decided to paint it .......
2. A .......director who wants to .....run a company must
take on many ......
3. The doctor I'm sending you to……. .......in neurology.
4. I didn't have a pen to write down Kevin’s phone
number, so I ……...... it.
5. Things are ............here in summer than in winter.
6. My friend is ……....than I am when it comes to
finding …. ....... spaces.
7. The new skylight defin itely ........... up the room.
8. I am...........now than I was before I had the soft drink.
9............have been working on this project for weeks but
the problem remains ….......
10. She keeps............ her money ............
11. I ran the …….....I could to get to the hospital.
17

1. DARK
2. MANAGE
2b. SUCCESS
2c. RESPONSIBLE
3. SPECIAL
4. MEMORY
5. LIVE
6. LUCK
6b. PARK
7. LIGHT
8. THIRST
9. SCIENCE
9b. SOLVE
10. SPEND
10b. THOUGHT
11. FAST


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12. We found his behaviour so ....... that we had to leave
the room.
13. When the teacher told the children that their
excursion would be...............all he could see was a room
full of ...... faces.
14. Children learn hardly anything during .................
lessons.

They finally got Jennifer to apply for the position.
8. He always waxes his car on his own.
anyone
He never has ...................................................................
9. The children were told to be well-mannered in front of the guests.
behave
The children were told .......................................................
10. We had a very good time at the rock concert.
enjoyed
We ...................................................................................
READING 2. Read the text below and decide which answer A , B, C or D best
fits each space.
Arthur Miller was born in New York in 1915. He was the son of a coat
manufacturer who (1)......control of his business through bankruptcy. This
experience at an early age disturbed Miller and thereafter he was aware of society’s
inadequacies. He would (2)....... them later in his plays by attacking the modern
(3)......of life.
Miller's major achievement came in 1949, when he won the Pulitzer Prize for
Drama for his play “Death of a Salesman”, which is still regarded as one of the
finest contemporary plays. It (4).......the tragic story of an average man destroyed by
false values which get (5)....... the way of developing an honest relationship with his
sons, who (6)...... of his beliefs and look down on him. (7)....., Miller's plays (8)........
social issues and deal with matters people are anxious (9)........ .They include themes
such as how human relationships fall (10)...... the responsibility of the individual and
their purpose in life. One way or another, Miller’s plays analyse (11)....... in detail
the troubles people have in their life and (12)...... society's values.
1. A. failed
B. lost
C. missed
D. wasted
2. A. criticise
B. disapprove
C. complain
D. protest
3. A. way
B. course
C. approach
D. manner
4. A. debates
B. says
C. tells
D speaks
5. A. under
B. out of
C. by
D. in
6. A. argue
B. doubt
C. object
D.disapprove
7. A. On average
B. On demand
C. By force
D.At first sight
8. A. apply
B. wonder
C. discuss
D talk
9. A. of
B. about
C. with
D. for
10. A. in
B. behind
C out
D. apart
11. A. in pairs
B. in person
C. in detail
D. in half
12. A. question
B. inquire
C. ask
D. appeal
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY TO LESSON 1
A. get better – reach a decision – come to terms with. – get into trouble – get dark
– go/get to sleep – get rid of – get ready – get the sack - come in handy – get
revenge – go red – reach an agreement – get lost – get the job – get on sb’s nerves –
get off sb's back – get down to business – go over the top – get even with

12. ANNOY
13. CANCEL
13b. DISAPPOINT
14. BORE

WORD STUDY. Use the correct form of the words in the boxes to complete the
sentences in each group A-B below. You may use some of the words more than
once. In some cases more than one word may be correct.
A.
say  tell  speak talk  discuss  debate
1. Don't interrupt the teacher while she's...........
2. We.... the problem at the meeting so that everybody could give their opinion.
3. It's so noisy in here that I can't hear what he's....... .
4. We were amazed to find out that she.... five languages.
5. "Don't........me what to do!" he .... to her in a loud voice.
6. The panel......women's role in society.
B.
ask  demand  wonder  question  apply
1. The customer..... a full refund because his washing machine didn't work.
2. I'll...... my parents if I can go to the concert.
3. You must..... for a visa if you want to visit China.
4. Bill......whether he would be able to finish his report on time.
5. The police..... the suspect for hours.
6. John..... the waiter for the bill.
7. Most patients hardly ever......their doctors’ decisions.
WRITING. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the
first sentence, using the word given unchanged.
1. Someone stole Bill's briefcase yesterday.
stolen
Bill had ..............................................................
2. Our flat needs painting before we rent it out.
get
We need ...............................................................
3. Sheila, make sure they sign the contracts by the end of the day.
signed
Sheila, get ..............................................................
4. My secretary has rescheduled the meeting for Tuesday.
had
I have .............................................................................
5. Did you know that one of our friends painted this picture?
friend
Did you know ................................................................
6. Have some more cheesecake.
help
Please .............................................................................
7. Jennifer finally agreed to apply for the position.
got
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B. 1. is in charge of
2. be in trouble with
3. be on the safe side
4. in search of 5. to be in his shoes
6. on top of
C. I. COME.
1. found by chance
2. inherited
3. stop by / visit
4. think of and suggest
5. be taken ill with
6. regain consciousness
II. GO.
1. start
2. continue
3. examine
4. match
5. exploded
6. visted / travelled around
7. suffered
8. turned sour 9. is happening
III. BE. 1. is shown
2. end
3. was ready
4. am in favour of
5. are doing
6. leave
D. Grammar Revision.
(1) has (2) had (3) was I (4) was (5) is (6) are (7) be
(8) Do (9) did (10) were (11) been (12) has
E.
1. While Mary was having a bath yesterday evening, I was in the kitchen. I was
cooking her favourite dish because I wanted to surprise her. When she came into the
kitchen, she couldn't believe her eyes!
2. Jim: Mum, I have been looking for my black belt for the past hour and I still
haven’t found it. Have you seen it anywhere?
Mother: No, but I think you lent it to your brother about a week ago.
Jim: Oh, you're right. He has not given it back to me. I bet he has been wearing it
all week. Where is he now, Mum?
Mother: I'm afraid Mark has already left. He got up about an hour before you did.
3. I have been working on this project since this morning but I have not finished it
yet. What am I going to tell my boss?
F. READING 1.
(1) IS (2) WITH (3) AND /OR (4) AGO (5) USED (6) MAKE / REACH (7) AS (8)
WITH (9) DID (10) FOR (11) HAD (12) WILL
READING 2. 1. B. job
2. D. assistant 3. C. at 4. B. able 5. A. across
6. A. it
7. B. over
8. A. staff
9. D. for
10. C. colleagues
11. B. deal with
12. C.
got
G. TRANSFORMATION.
1. We have not been abroad for a long time.
2. How long have they been living in the suburbs?
3. She has never had trouble with the authorities.
4. When Carl was young, he used to go to a holiday camp every summer.
5. After the earthquake, the government provided the homeless with food and
medicine.
6. The last time Lucy visited me was in February.

7. How long is it since he bought this car?
8. I last came down with a cold ages ago.
H. WORD FORMS.
1. suggestion 2. amusement 3. favourite
4. noisy
5. normally
6. Luckily
7. helpful
8. apologised 9. angry
10. Decision
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY TO LESSON 2
A. 1. profession
2. job
3. work
4. Employment 5. occupation
B. 1. task
2. duty
3. course
C. 1. assistant
2. attendant 3. employees / employer
4. clerk
5. colleagues 6. officer
D. 1. party
2. staff
3. party
4. crew
E. 1. challenge 2. aim / goal 3. ambitions / goals 4. success 5. intention
F. 1. succeeded 2. deal / cope 3. fulfilled 4. facing
5. achieved 6. dealt.
G. 1. operate 2. ran 3. undertake 4. managed / run
H. 1. experience / qualifications 2. skills 3. experience
READING.
(1) who (2) whose (3) where (4) why (5) which / that (6) whom (7) which (8)
when
GRAMMAR.
1. B. As
2. C. by the time
3. B. the moment
4. A. until
5. D. since
6. B. while
7. C. whenever
8. D. after
9. A. as soon as
10. C. By the time
READING 1.
The Caribbean Pirates
1. What is the best title for the passage?
A. The History of Piracy in the Caribbean
2. Why didn't the Caribbean sailors in the 18th century want to see the skull and
crossbones? Because it meant they were faced with pirates.
3. Where would the following sentence best fit?
' But they also attacked and stole the ships!' B. 2
4. What is the best choice for blank (A)?
B. made piracy illegal
5. The underlined part tells us that pirates ......
C. are used in many works of
fiction
6. What is NOT true about the Caribbean pirates?
C. They consisted of only French settlers.
READING 2.
(1) Match each word in Column A with its meaning in Column B.
(2) Match each word in Column C with its opposite meaning in Column D.
19


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A

8. B. in which 9. A. as soon as 10. C. where
11. B. Shall
12. C. down
13. A. unless
14. B. where
15. B. lay
16. C. merrier 17. A. up
18. C. had
19. D. from continuing
20. A. yours
WRITING.
1. SINCE I haven’t seen Karen since we met up at Dan’s party.
2. STAYED During the summer we stayed in Rome for two weeks.
3. HAD I have had this laptop since March.
4. JUST I have just received an email from Stuart.
5. BEEN My thumb hurts because I have been texting all morning!
6. YOU Have you visited England before?
WORD FORMS
1. beautifully 2. peaceful
3. championship – sponsorship
4.
homeless
5. colourful
6. carelessly
7. unhelpful 8. sleepy
9. partnership – unsuccessful 10. powerful 11. valueless
12. guilty
13. successfully
14. painlessly
15. harmless
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY TO LESSON 4
PHONETICS.
(a)1. D. prefer
2. B. considerate 3. C. insurance 4. B. different 5. A. ensure
(b) 1. C. school 2. B. move
3. D. diet
4. C. issue
READING 1.
1. C 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. D 7. A 8. C 9. C 10. B
READING 2.
1. D 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. A 7. C 8. D 9. B 10. A
WRITING 1.
1. C 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. C
WRITING 2.
1. Here’s the house IN which I lived as a child.
2. I don’t the REASON why she quit her job.
3. Passengers WHO wish to get up can do so after the seat belt light has gone off.
4. He didn’t study enough for his exams, which CAUSED him to fail two of them.
5. He never set off on a journey UNTIL he has checked his car tyres.
6. I’ve read all of Jane Austen’s novels, MOST of which I enjoyed.
7. Dr Williams, WHOSE surgery is on the second floor, is a cardiologist.
8. Phil won first prize in a spelling competition IN which he took part last week.
WORD FORMS.
1. My sister’s very THOUGHTFUL and she never stays out late because that
worries my mum.
2. Our teacher is really FUNNY and makes us laugh with her stories.

C

1. currently
g
9. difficult
j
2. environment
d
10. future
n
3. energy
a
11. throwing out o
4. dispose of
h
12. encouraged k
5. recycled
c
13. problems
a
6. disappears
e
14. often
p
7. goods
b
15. added to
l
8. dangerous
f
16. enjoy
m
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY TO LESSON 3
READING 1.
A.
1. Most modem cities face heavy pollution.
2. The disaster by the floods led to much suffering.
3. Most things that we buy will have a lot of packaging.
4. Waste material is difficult and expensive to get rid of.
B. Say whether each of the sentences below is True (T) or False (F).
1. T
The environment suffers when there is heavy packaging of the things we
buy.
2. F
Politicians and scientists are not giving any attention to the problems of the
environment.
3. T
Newspapers and glass bottles can be recycled.
4. T
It is difficult to get rid of plastic goods.
5. T
Rich countries take care to cut down on waste.
C. Answer these questions in full sentences.
1. What are the two reasons that packaging is harmful to the environment?
One reason is that packaging uses up energy. Another reason is that the materials
used in packaging are difficult to dispose of.
2. Which groups of people are looking at the issues of the environment?
Both politicians and scientists are.
3. What are the important qualities for packaging to be green?
For packaging to be green, it should be either recyclable or biodegradable.
READING 2.
A NIGHT AT THE THEATRE
1. B. reminds 2. A. which 3. C. audience’s 4. A. life 5. B. when 6. C. scenes
7. B. efforts 8. D. with 9. A. When
10. A. glancing 11. B. at 12. C. sight
GRAMMAR. Choose the correct answer.
1. B. on
2. C. come
3. A. who is sitting
5. D. the sleeves of which
6. B. when you pay

4. D. From
7. D. by
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3. I get on well with my brother and there’s no sibling RIVALRY at all.
4. My dad can’t wear WOOLLEN jumpers because they irritate his skin.
5. You need to have a lot of CONFIDENCE to become an actor or actress.
6. My FRIENSHIP with Selina began when we were both six years old.
7. I love sitting on my new sofa. It's so COMFORTABLE.
8. She chose light-coloured furniture to BRIGHTEN up her dull flat.
9. It’s certainly DANGEROUS to drive at high speed.
10. August is a PEACEFUL month in our city, as everyone is away on holiday.
11. The ROBBER held up the bank and stole £200, 000.
12. Nobody could find the SOLUTION to the difficult Maths problem.
13. Even though they had financial difficulties, they were HAPPILY married.
14. I feel very SLEEPY today. I think I’ll have some coffee.
WORD CHOICE.
1. about
2. to
3. translate
4. explains
5. to
6. understand 7. pronounced 8. speak
9. repeat
10. speak 11.to
KEY TO LESSON 5
I. PHONETICS.
1. C. celebrate
2. D. chimney
3. B. social
4. C. choir
5. D. concentration
6. A. describe
7. C. yacht
8. A. archive
9. C. lose
10. D. scenery
II. READING 1
(1) 1. B
2. D
3. A
4. D
5. B
(2) 1. c
2. b
3. f
4. e
5. a
6. d
III. WORD FORMS 1
1. FRIENDSHIP
2. RELATIONSHIP
3. WONDERUL 4. VALUABLE
5. CAREFULLY
6. THOUGHTFUL
7. DOUBTFUL 8. SENSIBLE
9. UNTRUE
10. USELESS
IV. WORD FORMS 2
1. irrelevant 2 oversleep 3 dishonest 4 illogical 5 informal 6 irresponsible
7. infamous 8 historians 9 unearthed 10 outcome
V. WORD STUDY 1
1. on time
2. for the time being
3. ahead of its time
4. pass the time
5. the other day
6. in time
7. call it a day
8. time and time again. 9. at times
10. all day long
VI. WORD STUDY 2
1. caught
2. keep
3. catch
4. run
5. keep
6. keep
7. Running
8. keep
9. catch
10. keep
11. held
12. catch
13. keep
14. held
VII. READING 2.
1. B
2. B
3. D
4. B
5. A
6. C
7. C
8. A
9. C
10. B
VIII. WRITING.

1. She left the room without saying a word.
2. The owner of the house is thought to be abroad.
3. It is not easy to speak English.
4. I wish I had finished my homework last night.
5 “How do you like my new dress, John?” she asked.
6. There is a train leaving ay 8 o’clock every morning.
7. It can’t be denied that she has a beautiful voice.
8. Do you mind helping me to put the chair away?
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY TO LESSON 6
READING 1.
I. True or False
1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F
II. Multiple Choice
1. C 2. D 3. A
III. Short Answer
1. It seeks change through creative, non-violent confrontations between activists and
those responsible for harming the environment.
2. In 2002, Greenpeace published the True Food Guide.
IV. 1. greenhouse effect
2. acid rain
3. extinction
4. ozone layer
5. biodegradable
6. pollutants
READING 2. 0A (abnormal) 1B 2D 3C 4B 5B 6D 7A 8C 9B 10D 11C 12A
WORD STUDY.
I. PHRASAL VERBS with TURN
1. OUT 2. DOWN 3. UP 4. ON 5. TO 6. OFF
II. 1. a memory 2. an expression 3. a realisation 4. a decision 5. the trouble to
III. 1. How do you pass THE TIME at the weekend when it rains?
2. Will it make A DIFFERENCE if I tell you what I think?
3. I don't trust Mike, You should keep YOUR DISTANCE from him.
4. Unfortunately, people often form a negative OPINION of someone because of the
way they are dressed.
5. Bob and Sue took THE TIME TO / THE OPPORTUNITY TO plan their holiday
route carefully beforehand. They were glad they'd done it.
WRITING. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the
first, using the word given.
1. They entered the competition IN ORDER THAT they could be on television.
2. The stadium NOT LARGE ENOUGH for the concert.
3. Martin HAS BEEN A SINGER since he was 13.
4. He ASKED US to help the environment.
5. Her brother is AS GOOD AT acting as she is.
6. You MUST NOT switch your phone on in the studio.
7. I think theyMADE UP the story about the gorilla!
8. That dress LOOKS AMAZING on you!
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9. He was SO tired THAT he couldn't work any more.
10. It's A WASTE OF TIME going to the market today.
WORD FORMS.
(0) REALITY (1) WINNER. (2) PERORMANCE (3) ENTERTAINMENT.
(4) APPEARANCE (5) MUSICAL [noun] (6) COMPETITORS (7)
PRODUCERS
(8) PARTICULARLY (9) CONTESTANTS (10) FORTUNATE
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY TO LESSON 7
LEXICO-GRAMMAR.
1. A 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. B 6. A 7. C 8. A 9. D 10. A
11. B 12. D 13. C 14. C 15. B 16. D 17. B 18. A 19. C 20. C
READING 1.
I. True or False.
1. T
2. F
3. T
4. F
II. Multiple Choice.
1. C
2. D
3. B
III. Answers.
1. Psychologists believe that these sports give people the feeling they are
unstoppable and able to defy the odds.
2. Because what were once thought of as “fringe” activities have now become
mainstream ones.
READING 2. 0. C 1. A 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. A 6. D 7. B 8. C 9. C 10. A 11. D
12. B
WORD FORMS.
1. electric
2. screaming 3. unfamiliar 4. favourite
5. attention
6. performance
7. amazingly 8. excitement 9. entertainment
10.
successful
WRITING.
1. If they hadn’t found us so
2. wish it would stop
3. wish I had gone
4. would have got to
5. had been warmer
6. is the highest mountain
7. isn’t as small as
8. was better than
9. the most thrilling (ride)
10. as scared of spiders as

2. There would not be enough food to eat, and water would be too polluted to drink.
New species of pests and plants could carry new kinds of germs, causing diseases
that human bodies cannot resist, and if the glaciers melt causing sea levels to rise, it
could wash away coastal cities.
IV. 1. magnitude 2. brink 3. deforestation 4. ecosystem 5. conserve 6. wildlife
V. 1. numerous species 2. being destroyed 3. introduce alien plants
4. kills native species 5. cutting down forests 6. continues unchecked
WORD FORMS
1. darker
2. managing – successfully – responsibilities
3. specialises
4. memorised
5. livelier
6. luckier – parking
7. lightened up
8. thirstier
9. Scientists – unsolved
10. spending – thoughtlessly
11. fastest
12. annoying 13. cancelled – disappointed 14. boring
WORD STUDY.
A. 1. talking 2. discussed 3. saying 4. speaks 5. tell – said 6. debated
B. 1. demanded 2. ask 3. apply 4. wondered 5. questioned 6. asked 7. question
WRITING.
1. Bill had his briefcase stolen yesterday.
2. We need to get our flat painted before we rent it out.
3. Sheila, get/have the contracts signed by the end of the day.
4. I have had the meeting rescheduled for Tuesday.
5. Did you know that a friend of ours painted this picture?
6. Please help yourself to some more cheesecake.
7. They finally got Jennifer to apply for the position.
8. He never has anyone (else) wax his car.
9. The children were told to behave themselves in front of the guests.
10. We enjoyed ourselves very much/a lot at the rock concert.
READING 2.
1. B. lost
2. A. criticise
3. A. way
4. C. tells
5. D. in
6. D. disapprove
7. A. On average
8. C. discuss
9. B. about
10. D. apart
11. C. in detail
12. A. question

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------KEY TO LESSON 8
READING 1.
I. True or False.
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. F
II. Multiple Choice.
1. C
2. D
3. B
III. Answers
1. Because they contain almost half of all the world’s plant and animal species.
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