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The effects of marketing communication on brand equity luận văn thạc sĩ

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION TRAINING
UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS HO CHI MINH CITY
----oOo-------

HUỲNH KIM PHỤNG

THE EFFECTS OF MARKETING
COMMUNICATON ON BRAND
EQUITY

Major: Business Administration
Major Code: 60.34.05

Supervior: Dr. TRẦN HÀ MINH QUÂN

Ho Chi Minh City - 2011


TABLE OF CONTENT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………….1
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………..2

CHAPTER 1.

BACKGROUND…………………………………………….3

1.1.

Introduction…………………………………………………………………3

1.2.

Research Objectives………………………………………………………...4

1.3.

Research methodology and scope…………………………………………..4

1.4.

Managerial implications……………………………………………………5

1.5.

Structure of the research report……………………………………………..5

CHAPTER 2.

LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH MODEL….7

2.1.

Introduction…………………………………………………………………7

2.2.

Brand equity…………………………………………………………………7
2.2.1. Brand awareness……………………………………………………...7
2.2.2. Perceived quality……………………………………………………..8
2.2.3. Brand loyalty…………………………………………………………8
2.2.4. Brand Association……………………………………………………8


2.3.

The elements of marketing communication…………………………………9
2.3.1. Advertising Spending……………………………………………….10
2.3.2. Field Support Activities…………………………………………….11
2.3.3. Sales Promotion…………………………………………………….11

2.4.

Research Model…………………………………………………………….12


2.5.

Summary…………………………………………………………………...13

CHAPTER 3.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………15

3.1.

Introduction………………………………………………………………..15

3.2.

Research design……………………………………………………………15
3.2.1. Research methodology……………………………………………...15
3.2.2. Research process……………………………………………………17
3.2.3. Questionnaire Structure……………………………………………..18

3.3.

Measurement scale development…………………………………………..19
3.3.1. Measurements of brand awareness…………………………………19
3.3.2. Measurements of perceived quality………………………………...20
3.3.3. Measurements of brand loyalty…………………………………….20
3.3.4. Measurements of attitudes toward advertising spending…………..21
3.3.5. Measurements of attitudes toward field support activities………...21
3.3.6. Measurements of attitudes toward sales promotion………………..22

3.4.

Field work………………………………………………………………….23
3.4.1. Researched brands………………………………………………….23
3.4.2. Sample……………………………………………………………...23

3.5.

Summary…………………………………………………………………..24

CHAPTER 4.
4.1.

RESEARCH RESULTS…………………………………...28

Introduction………………………………………………………………..28


4.2.

Sample Characteristics…………………………………………………….28

4.3.

Measure reliability check………………………………………………….28

4.4.

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)…………………………………………31

4.5.

Examination research model by multiple regression………………………36
4.5.1. Examination the effects of advertising spending, field support

activities and sales promotion on brand awareness……………………………….36
4.5.2. Examination the effects of advertising spending, field support
activities and sales promotion on perceived quality………………………………37
4.5.3. Examination the effects of advertising spending, filed support
activities and sales promotion on brand loyalty…………………………………..39
4.6.

Summary…………………………………………………………………...41

CHAPTER 5.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION……………………..43

5.1.

Introduction………………………………………………………………..43

5.2.

Marketing communication elements and building brand equity………….43

5.3.

Limitation and future research…………………………………………….45

REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………….46
APPENDIX
TABLE
Table 2.1: Structural model – Relationship between some key elements of
marketing communication and brand equity………………………………………13
Table 3.1: Research progression…………………………………………………..16


Table 3.2: Research process……………………………………………………….17
Table 3.3: Measurement scales for brand awareness……………………………..19
Table 3.4: Measurement scales for perceived quality……………………………..20
Table 3.5: Measurement scales for brand loyalty…………………………………20
Table 3.6: Measurement scales for attitudes toward advertising spending……….21
Table 3.7: Measurement scales for attitudes toward field support activities……..22
Table 3.8: Measurement scales for attitudes toward sales promotion……………..22
Table 4.1: Sample Characteristics…………………………………………………28
Table 4.2: Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient for the used measurement scales……….30
Table 4.3: Total Variance Explained – elements of marketing communication…..32
Table

4.4:

Rotated

Component

Matrix(a)



elements

of

marketing

communication…………………………………………………………………….33
Table 4.5: Total Variance Explained – elements of brand equity…………………33
Table 4.6: Rotated Component Matrix(a) – elements of brand equity…………….34
Table 4.7: New Variables Computed……………………………………………...35
Table

4.8:

Model

Summary



Marketing

Communication

and

Brand

Awareness…………………………………………………………………………37
Table 4.9: ANOVA (b) – Marketing Communication and Brand Awareness……37
Table

4.10:

Coefficients

(a)



Marketing

Communication

and

Brand

Awareness…………………………………………………………………………37
Table 4.11: Model Summary – Marketing Communication and Perceived
Quality……………………………………………………………………………..39


Table

4.12:

ANOVA

(b)



Marketing

Communication

and

Perceived

Quality……………………………………………………………………………..39
Table 4.13: Coefficients (a) – Marketing Communication and Perceived
Quality……………………………………………………………………………..39
Table 4.14: Model Summary – Marketing Communication and Brand
Loyalty……………………………………………………………………………..41
Table 4.15: ANOVA (b) – Marketing Communication and Brand Loyalty………41
Table

4.16:

Coefficients

(a)



Marketing

Communication

and

Brand

Loyalty……………………………………………………………………………..41
Table 4.17: Hypothesis and research results………………………………………42


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author would like to thank Dr Tran Ha Minh Quan for his instructions and
valuable comments during the research. I also would like to thank Mr Dang Huu
Phuc who gave meaningful advice for processing data.


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ABSTRACT
The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between selected
elements of marketing communication and brand equity of in the body lotion
category. The selected set includes three key elements from each of marketing
factors. They are advertising spending, field support activities and sales promotion
from communication. Plus, awareness, perceived quality and brand loyalty are from
brand equity. With the concrete measurement, the study surveys body lotion users
in HCMC. The results show that to selected component of brand equity of body
lotion category, advertising spending and field support activities response a positive
side, whereas sales promotion have a negative impact.
These findings provide insights for doing strategy of marketing communication
activities generating and managing brand equity.


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CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND
1.1.

Introduction

Brand equity is very important as it is a source of sustainable competitive
advantages of a brand. The brand owning strong equity increases a chance for the
brand to be selected, purchased more frequently and so the loyalty to the brand is
higher, Pitta and Katsanis (1995).
Moreover, brand equity has strong relationship with marketing communication.
From various study, importance of brand equity are witnessed
According to Rajh 2005, brand equity is very important because it has many
benefits for companies. Bharadwaj et al., (1993) and Hoffman (2000) find that
brand equity could be considered as a source of sustainable competitive advantage
while Pitta and Katsanis (1995) discover that there is the positive relationship
between brand equity and brand loyalty. It means that the brand owning strong
equity increases a chance for the brand to be selected, purchased more frequently
and so the loyalty to the brand is higher. Aaker and Keller (1990) also find other
benefits related to brand extension such as strong brand equity of the brand
enhances possibility of brand extension to other product categories. It allows
companies to use established brand name to drive consumers to enter new product
categories.
In relation to marketing mix, various studies (Barwise, 1993; Farquhar et al., 1991;
Keller, 1993; Keller, 1998; Pitta and Katsanis, 1995; Simon and Sullivan, 1993;
Smith and Park, 1992; Yoo et al., 2000) find that brand equity is one of the sources
to increase efficiency of marketing communication programs. Brand equity also
increases willingness of consumers to pay premium price for a specific brand.
Brand equity also impact elasticity of consumers to price change. More precisely,
brand equity increases elasticity of consumers to price reductions and decreases
elasticity of consumers to price increases. Brand equity has positive relationship


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with willingness of stores (distribution channel) to collaborate and provide support
for the brand. Brand equity reduces the company vulnerability to marketing
activities of the competition and their vulnerability to crises.
Although of understanding importance of brand equity, managers have not invested
in creation brand equity properly in the body lotion category which is growing in
Vietnam market.Top two giant advertisers Unilever and Beiersdorf are competing
in advertising spending, sales promotion, etc. However, they have not hadany
research to investigate the relationship between elements of marketing
communication and brand equity for this category. In the last two years, the
managers have frequently used sales promotion to improve their sales performance
in the short-term. They may ignore to analysis whether sales promotion can
deteriorate brand equity in the long-term. In addition, they don’t have clear
communication strategy to enhance brand equity. Therefore, it’s necessary to
explore the relationship between elements of marketing communication and
dimensions of brand equity.
1.2.

Research objectives

The purpose of this research is to explore impacts of factors of marketing
communication on brand equity’s elements. This has been one of hottest topics in
management today in Vietnam emerging market where building brand equity plays
an important role for giant advertisers’ communication strategy.The research also
provides a starting point for further research on relationship between marketing mix
and brand equity
1.3.

Research methodology and scope

The research is conducted in the dynamic market, HCMC in which there is the
biggest sales contribution, up to 80% of sales on each key brand (Source AC
Nielsen Market Retail Audit 2010)


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Key brands are defined as brands with satisfying one of following criteria:
 The brand is the market leading in the body lotion category or
 The brands have long heritage in Vietnam market and have influence on the
market or
 The brand have been active in marketing activities like adverting, promotion,
etc or
 The brands that have high chance of consideration when making buying
decision
This study is conducted by two steps: (1) qualitative study and (2) quantitative
study.
Qualitative study is conducted through analyzing secondary data and in-depth
interview with some current users and brand managers in cosmetic companies. This
step helps to (1) confirm key drivers of marketing communications (2) adjust and
fine tune the measurement scales.
Quantitative study is conducted through face-to-face interview at consumers’
houses. The second step p is to (1) re-confirm the components and the measurement
scales and (2) test the research model. Cronbach’s alpha, Exploratory Factor
Analysis (EFA) and multiple regression methods are used to analyze collected data
in this step
1.4.

Managerial implications

Findings of the research will help managers have in-depth understanding about
elements of marketing communication and role of each element to increase or
decrease brand equity of the body lotion market. Hence, brand managers can design
effective marketing communication strategy
1.5.

Structure of the research report


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This paper comprises five chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the background of the
study. Chapter 2 presents the literature review on brand, brand equity and the
research model and hypotheses. Chapter 3 explains research methodology and
measurement scales. Chapter 4 presents data analysis process and results of the
study. Chapter 5 summarizes the key findings, discussion, managerial implications,
limitations of the research and recommendations for future research.


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CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW AND RESEARCH MODEL
2.1.

Introduction

This chapter reviews literature to establish a theoretical framework for the research.
The concept of brand equity and common elements of marketing communication
are presented in the part. The research model is developed to investigate the
relationship between elements of marketing communication and factors of brand
equity. Hence, it helps marketing managers to design marketing strategies more
effectively
2.2.

Brand equity

Brand equity is defined as a set of assets and liabilities linked to the brand, which
add value to or subtract value from a product in its relationship with customers.
According to the proposal formulated by Aaker (1991, 1996) brand equity is a
multidimensional concept. It comprises of perceived quality, brand awareness,
brand loyalty, brand associations, and other proprietary assets. Other researchers
also share these dimensions as Aaker. For example, Shocker and Weitz (1998)
suggest brand loyalty and brand association, Keller (1993) recommends brand
knowledge, including brand awareness and brand image. And Lasscar et al., (1995)
suggest five elements of brand equity (1) perceived quality, (2) perceived value, (3)
brand image, (4) trustworthiness, and (5) commitment to the brand.
2.2.1. Brand awareness
It relates to the strength of the brand node or trace in memory, as reflected by
consumer’s ability to identify the brand under different conditions (Rossiter and
Percy 1987). Brand awareness includes brand recognition and brand recall
performance. Brand recognition requires that consumers correctly discriminate the
brand as having been seen or heard previously. Brand recall requires that
consumers correctly generate the brand from the memory.


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2.2.2. Perceived Quality
Zeithaml (1988) defines perceived quality as “the consumer’s [subjective]
judgment about a product’s overall excellence or superiority” (p.3). These
judgments may be influenced by personal product experiences, unique needs and
consumption situations. High perceived quality indicates that consumers recognize
the differentiation and superiority of the brand through the long-term experience
related to the brand. Zeithaml also identifies perceived quality as a component of
brand value; hence, high perceived quality would drive a consumer to choose the
brand rather than other competing brands. Therefore, to the degree that brand
quality is perceived by consumers, brand equity will increase.
2.2.3. Brand Loyalty
Oliver (1997) defines brand loyalty as “a deep held commitment to rebuy or
repatronize a preferred product or service consistently in the future, despite
situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching
behavior” (p.392). Brand loyalty makes consumers purchase a brand routinely and
resist switching to another brand. Therefore, to extend that consumers are loyal to
the brand, brand equity will increase
2.2.4. Brand Association
Aaker (1991) defines brand associations as “anything linked in memory to a brand”
and brand image as “a set of [brand] associations, usually in some meaningful way”
(p.109). Brand association which result in high brand awareness, are positively
related to brand equity because they can be a signal of quality and commitment and
they help a consumer consider a brand at the point of purchase, which leads to
favorable behavior for the brand.
Considering Vietnamese consumers behaviors with female target group – in
comparison with consumer market, the body lotion brands have high level of


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branding, similar buying process and consumption of product. With all those
reasons mentioned, we recognize three common components of brand equity: (1)
brand awareness, (2) perceived quality and (3) brand loyalty. High brand equity can
help to explain that consumers can know about the brand, recognize the brand from
other brands perceive high quality and loyal to the brand in the body lotion
category
In theresearch scope, this study will not investigate how each component of brand
equity increase brand equity. Yoo et al (2000) and other researchers find that brand
name, brand loyalty, perceived quality, and brand awareness/associations are
positively related to brand equity.
Many researchers suggest that brand equity is a strategic aspect of marketing
management and can be created, maintained and intensified by strengthening on of
it components (Leuthesser, 1998, Farquhar, 1989, Nomem, 1996). Elements of
marketing communication have impact on brand equity
This study focuses on exploring how marketing communication increase or
decrease brand equity. Hence, the following part of this chapter concentrates on
theoretical framework on marketing communication
2.3.

The elements of marketing communication

Learning from previous qualitative researches in Beierdoft company, there are three
main key components of the marketing communication which have frequently been
used by almost big cosmetic companies in Vietnam in order to build brand equity:
(1) advertising spending; (2) field support activities; and (3) sales promotion.
Therefore, this research concentrates on these elements. Although these variables
do not cover the full marketing activities of cosmetic companies in Vietnam they
represent the most often used marketing actions. Thus, it’s enough to express
relationship between factors of marketing communication and elements of brand
equity. Knowing how certain marketing activities increase or decrease brand equity


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will enable marketing managers to develop effective marketing program. Managers
need to promote brand-building activities and decrease or avoid brand-hurting
activities (Yoo et al., 2000)
2.3.1. Advertising Spending
Advertising by definition is any paid form of non-personal communication of ideas
or products on both traditional media (TV, Press, Radio, Cinema, Out-of-home)
and non-traditional media (Internet). Jobber (2001) and some studies (Maxwell,
Chay and Tellis, Simon and Sullivan, Boulding et al.) indicates that advertising
spending is good for building brand awareness because it can aim at a mass
audience quickly, repetition of advertising means that a brand positioning concept
can be effectively communicated, advertising also can be used to aid the sales effort
through legitimizing a company and its products, however, advertising is
impersonal and has limited capability to close the sale.
The positive effect of advertising spending on brand equity was found in the
research of Simon and Sullvian (1993). The dollar amount spent on advertising has
positive effects on brand equity and its components (Cobb-Walgren et al., 1995).
In Vietnam market, two giant companies Unilever Vietnam and P &G have heavily
invested in advertising spending in the past ten years.Thousands of million USD
has been poured into advertising to build up their brands in the emerging market
(Source Kantar Media, 2010). This also proves that advertising spending is one of
key drivers of building up brand equity effectively in Vietnam
Yoo et al. (2000) find the positive relationship between advertising spending and
brand loyalty. Shimp (1997) find that the advertising spending positively related to
brand loyalty because it reinforces brand-related associations and attitudes toward
the brand. Therefore,
 H1: Advertising spending positively affects brand awareness


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 H2: Advertising spending positively affects brand loyalty
H3: Advertising spending positively affects perceived quality of the brand.
2.3.2. Field support activities
Field support activities are efforts to provide face-to-face technical supports to
consumers by cosmetic firms through market visit, meeting scheme, with the
intention of making a sale. Since these activities are personal contacts, question can
be answered and objective overcome, relationships can be built because of its
personal nature. This two-way communication will help sales forces to identify
consumers on premises and design better messages in communication. Sales
materials can help sales persons to explain about products of benefits and create
atmosphere at shops effectively. Hence, they also contribute to create brand
awareness and raise the perceived quality, and finally consumers could apply the
product properly to get good result and become loyal to the brand. Thus, we can
assume that field support activities have a good impact on aspects of brand equity.
Therefore,
 H4: Field support activities conducted for the brand positively affects brand
awareness
 H5: Field support activities conducted for the brand positively affects brand
loyalty
 H6: Field support activities conducted for the brand positively affects
perceived quality of the brand.
2.3.3. Sales promotion
Sales promotion by definition is an effort to provide incentives to consumers and/or
trade that are designed to stimulate purchase of the identified products. According
to Jobber (2001), incentives help to push sales in the short term quickly; however, it
may harm brand equity if marketing Managers use some incentives excessively,
especially money off. Beyond this, these incentives can be easily copied and


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counteracted by competitors (Aaker, 1991). Regular sales promotion would
communicate low-quality brand image in the long term. Furthermore, Shimp, 1997
believe that sales promotion do not prolong enough to generate brand association in
the long-term comparing with other efforts. In addition, consumers may confuse
about the correct price. The gap between expected and observed prices may
question about the brand quality. The consumers can perceive brands as poor
quality. This may unfavorably influence on consumer brand choice decisions. Also,
sales promotion may cause switching brands among users because they are
appealed by the benefits provided by sales promotion. When the sales promotion
ends, they will lose interests in the brand and switch another brand. Yoo et al.
(2000) suggest that manager should focus on advertising spending to develop brand
equity instead of offering price promotion.The following hypotheses are proposed:
establish
 H7: Sales promotion negatively affects brand awareness.
 H8: Sales promotion negatively affects brand loyalty.
 H9: Sales promotion negatively affects perceived quality of the brand.
2.4.

Research model

The main goal of the research is to explore the relationship between some key
elements of the marketing communication and the components of brand equity. The
above literature review indicates the direct relationship between marketing
communication

efforts

and

brand

equity.

The

elements

of

marketing

communication and components of brand equity are grouped separately. The
simplified research model is summarized in Table 2.1.


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Table 2.1: Structural model – Relationship between some key elements of
marketing communication and brand equity

Advertising
Spending

H1(+)

Brand
Awareness

H4(+)
H7(-)

H2(+)
Field
Support
Activities

H5(+)

Brand
Loyalty

Brand Equity

H8(-)

H3(+)
H6(+)
Sales
Promotion

2.5.

H9(-)

Perceived
Quality

Summary

This chapter goes through the literature review for both the concept of brand equity
and key elements of marketing communication. Three common components of
brand equity: (1) brand awareness, (2) perceived quality and (3) brand loyalty are
identified. Three key elements of marketing communication are (1) advertising
spending, (2) Field support activities and (3) sales promotion. The structural model
is also defined by which the relationship between key elements of marketing
communication and common components of brand equity are explained. This


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chapter also discusses on how each selected element of marketing communication
potentially affect each common component of brand equity, through that the
relationships are hypothesized.The next chapter presents the research method used
to

validate

the

measures

and

to

test

the

hypotheses


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CHAPTER 3.
3.1.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to explain the research methodology which was used
to develop scales for measuring researched concepts and examine the hypotheses.
This chapter introduces (1) research design, (2) Measurement scale development,
and (3) field work
3.2.

Research design
3.2.1. Research methodology

This study was conducted through two steps: (1) qualitative study and (2)
quantitative study. Quantitative study was conducted through analyzing secondary
data and in-depth interview with regular consumers and brand managers. The
purpose of this step is to (1) confirm the key elements of marketing communication
(2) adjust and fine tune the measurement scales. This step is conducted in MarMay in HCM City. The procedure for qualitative research is: (1) Personal contact
was made firstly through telephone calls and emails. (2) After having the
acceptance from them, the interview was conducted in an open-ended questions,
thus the interviewees can answer as much as they can. (3) After the interview,
emails or informal meeting were often used for solving unclear information which
was collected during the interview. Besides, brand managers are interviewed to
obtain more useful information. Quantitative study is conducted using face-to-face
interview technique at consumers’ houses in Jun - Aug in HCM city. Cronbach’s
alpha, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and multiple regression methods were
used to analyze data collected in this step. The research progression is showed in
Table 3.1.


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Table 3.1: Research progression
Step Methodology

1

Qualitative

2

Quantitative

Data

collection

Time

Location

Secondary data

Mar-Apr 2011

HCM City

In-depth interview

May 2011

HCM City

Face-to-face interview

Jun-Aug 2011

HCM City

technique


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3.2.2. Research process
The process of this study is structured in Table 3.2
Table 3.2: Research process
Literature review and
conceptual framework

Draft measurement
scales

Finalize
measurement scales

In-depth interviews

Quantitative study
(n = 170)

Cronbach’s alpha

EFA

Multiple Regressions

Eliminate variables that have low Item-Total
Correlation coefficients. Check Cronbach’s
alpha coefficients.

Test convergent and discriminate validity.
Eliminate variables that have low EFA
loadings. Check eigen values and extraction
Sums of Squared Loadings

Test the effects of key elements of marketing
communication on brand equity. Test
hypotheses. Check the fitness of the multiple
regression equation (r2). Test of the
significance level of r2 using F-test. Test of the
significance level of each regression
coefficient using t-test.


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Cronbach’s alpha. To measure reliability coefficient for the items of each
component, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated. When reliability coefficient achieved
.70, the cut-off level of reliability recommended for theory testing research
(Nanullyand Bernstein, 1994). According to Yoo et al (2000), because of
parsimony purpose, the item that did not contribute to the reliability significantly
was eliminated.
Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). EFA is the common name of group of
procedures mainly used to reduce and recap data. EFA is a complex, multi-step
process. Fabrigar et al., (1999) recommend using principle component analysis if
the purpose of this analysis is to reduce the information in many variables into a set
of weighted linear combinations of those variables. Basically, the extraction of
principal components amounts to a variance maximizing (varimax) rotation of the
original variable space. This type of rotation is called variance maximizing as the
criterion for the rotation is to maximize the variance (variability) of the “new”
variable while minimizing the variance around the new variable (Advanced
statistical analysis using SPSS, SPSS inc., 2000). Based on these theories,
exploratory factor analysis was conducted by using varimax rotation technique with
principle component analysis extraction method.
The objective of using EFA is to test convergent and discriminate validity and
eliminate variables that have low EFA loadings. Eigen values and extraction sums
of squared loading must be checked for EFA. According to Kaiser (1960), we
should retain only components with eigenvalues greater than 1.
Multiple Regression. Multiple regression was used to test hypotheses in the
research model. We check the fitness of the multiple regression equation (r2), test of
the significance level of r2 using F-test, test of the significance level of each
regression coefficient using t-test.
3.2.3. Questionnaire Structure:


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Questionnaire is divided four parts including scanning respondents, measure
elements of marketing communication which are advertising spending, field
support activities and sales promotion, measure dimensions of brand equity defined
as brand awareness, perceived quality and brand loyalty and respondent’s
demographic information
3.3.

Measurement scale development

The set of measurement scales were developed based on (1) the literature review in
Chapter 2, and (2) recommendations from other authors (Yoo et al., 2000; Martin,
2000). All items were measured on 5-points Linkert-type scales, with anchors of 1
= strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree. The first set of measurement scales
(draft measurement scales) was developed and taken to in-depth interviews.
Measurement scales are adjusted based on the consumer market and the body lotion
market. Based on in-depth interviews with regular consumers and brand managers
in cosmetic companies, the draft measurement scales are adjusted and fine-tuned to
final measurement scale. The following part of this paper is to explain in more
details about the final measurement scales developed
3.3.1. Measurements of brand awareness
The brand awareness (BA) will be measured by four observed variables (BA1 to
BA4) which are the four factors contribute to the awareness of the brand. The full
list of variables used in this research for brand awareness can be found in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3: Measurement scales for brand awareness
BA1 I am aware of X
BA2 I can recognize X among other competing brands
BA3 I can easily distinguish X from other body lotion brands
BA4 The characteristics of X can come to me very quickly


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