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Career development interventions 5th by spence niles and bowlsbey chapter 08

Career Development Interventions
5th Edition
Spence G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

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Chapter 8
Career Counseling
Strategies and Techniques
for the 21st Century

Developed by:
Jennifer Del Corso

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


Expanding the Limited View of
Career Counseling
• Career counseling has traditionally emphasized

helping individuals find the “best occupational
fit”, however there is a substantial body of
evidence that suggested this limited view has
“less than desirable outcomes”
• A limited view of career counseling has led
individuals to overemphasize testing
• Counselors in the 21st century recognize that
one’s life and career are not separate; and that
mental health and work are interwoven

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Career Counseling is Counseling
• The 2016 Standards for CACREP continue to
identify career development as a core area
of counseling competence; thus, career
counselors are professional counselors or
psychologists with specialized training in the
delivery of career development interventions
• Career counseling can be classified within
the general category of counseling because
of the overlap in skills required to conduct
general and career counseling

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Career Counseling and Mental
Health Counseling

• Niles and Anderson (1995) examined the
content of more than 250 career
counseling sessions and found no pattern
for the presentation of career and noncareer concerns in career counseling
• Important to view career counseling as a
type of psychological intervention that, at
times throughout the course of career
counseling, may require the counselor and
client to focus on non-career concerns.
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Crites’ View
• The need for career counseling is
greater than the need for
psychotherapy.
• Career counseling
 can be therapeutic.
 should follow psychotherapy.
 is more effective than psychotherapy.
 is more difficult than psychotherapy.
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Definition of Career Counseling (Brown
and Brooks)

• Career counseling is an interpersonal
process designed to assist individuals
with career development problems.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Designing Career Counseling
Strategies for the 21st Century
• Career counselors must respond to:
 global unemployment
 corporate downsizing
 jobless economy
 global competition of small companies
via information highway
 workerless factories

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Designing Career Counseling
Strategies for the 21st Century
 redefinition of social contract between
employers and employees
 increase in the number of companies
offering daycare and parental leave
 increase in the number of families with
dual incomes
 increase in the number of people
working from home
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved

(cont.)


Designing Career Counseling
Strategies
• Career counseling issues “must keep pace with our
society’s movement to the postmodern era”
(Savickas, 1993, p. 205).
• Hierarchical organizational pyramids have been
flattened in corporations- therefore, career success
is no longer defined by moving up the “corporate
ladder”
• Career patterns now resemble roller coasters rather
than gradual inclines

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Providing Counseling-Based Career
Assistance
• Counseling-Based career assistance seeks
to empower clients to articulate their
experiences, clarify their self-concepts,
and construct their own lives
• Counselors are not seen as possessing the
solution, rather they work collaboratively
with the client to address their needs
• Counselors must express multicultural
sensitivity and be aware of how contextual
factors impact clients’ careers
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Providing Counseling-Based Career
Assistance
(cont.)

• Counseling based assistance involves
basic counseling skills
• Counseling based assistance
addresses resistance on behalf of the
client
• Counselors must join with their
clients and demonstrate that they are
working with and for their clients
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Providing Support in Career
Counseling
• Career counseling involves facilitating
“hope, confidence, and purpose”
within clients
• Counseling addresses hopelessness,
anxiety, confusion, and/or depression
related to career concerns

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Providing Support
• Helping individuals cope with unemployment,
• Helping highly self-conscious clients who are
having trouble making career decisions,
• Educating clients who have limited
experience in coping with barriers they
encounter
• Helping clients cope with challenges they
encounter as they manage their career
development

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Types of Support

• Emotional support
• Informational support
• Assessment support

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Emotional Support in Career
Counseling
• Providing emotional support to clients
helps them feel as though they matter
• Counselors can use the acronym PLEASE
as an aid for expressing mattering to their
clients:







Protecting
Listening
Enquiring
Acknowledging
Supporting
Exchanging

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Informational Support in Career
Counseling
• Informational support empowers
clients to help themselves
• Involves teaching clients strategies
for job searches and career decision
making
• Helps provide reading materials that
are relevant to client’s career concern
• Most important in the early phase of
career counseling
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Assessment Support in Career
Counseling
• Provides clients with information
about oneself
• Standardized assessments alone do
not empower people to manage their
careers effectively

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Life Designing (Savickas)
• Life-designing involves helping
clients construct their careers by
identifying what matters to them (life
themes- a thread that is woven
through the client’s career story).
• Use of subjective assessments such
as Career Construction Interview to
identify life themes

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Life Designing (Savickas)-

cont.

• Savickas’s life-design interventions
are structured to:
• (a) construct career through small
stories,
• (b) deconstruct these stories and
reconstruct them into an identity
narrative or life portrait,
• (c) co-construct intentions that lead to
the next action episode in the real
world.
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Types of Clients Who Benefit from
Subjective Interventions

• Indecisive clients
• “Difficult cases” or clients who have
received but not profited from
counseling
• Mid-career changers
• Culturally diverse clients

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Strengths of Subjective
Assessments
• Help clients understand themselves at a deep level
• Help clients consider the relevance of their life
experiences to their career development
• Help clients attach a sense of purpose to their
activities
• Are inexpensive to use
• Actively engage clients in the counseling process
• Results are clearly connected to client responses

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


A Framework for Career
Counseling
• Getting started
• Helping clients deal with change
• Helping clients engage in selfassessment activities
• Helping clients learn more about the
world of work
• Helping clients expand or narrow
choices
• Helping clients make plans
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Phases of the Career Counseling
Process (Gysbers et. al, 2014)






Opening phase
Phase of information-gathering
Working phase
Final phase

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Phases of the Career Counseling
Process (Niles & Harris-Bowlsbey)
• Beginning or Initial Phase
 establish effective relationship
 begin to gather information about the
client
 define preliminary goals for counseling
• Middle or Working Phase
 explore concerns and goals in depth
 develop and implement a specific plan
of action
Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Phases of the Career Counseling
Process (Niles & Harris-Bowlsbey) continued
• Ending or Termination Phase
 Connect the work done in the beginning
and middle phases by assessing client’s
current status
 Relate current status to client’s goals for
counseling

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


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