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Career development interventions 5th by spence niles and bowlsbey chapter 04

Career Development Interventions
5th Edition
Spence G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

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Chapter 4
Providing Culturally
Competent Career
Development Interventions

Developed by:
Jennifer Del Corso

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


Definition of Multicultural
Counseling
• A helping process that places the emphasis for

counseling theory and practice equally on the
cultural impression of both the counselor and the
client (Axelson, 1985)

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Some Basic Facts
• Whites are expected to make up a decreasing share of the
labor force, while Blacks, Asians, and other groups will increase
• By the year 2060, it is predicted that people of color will
represent the numerical majority in the U.S.
• According to U.S. Census (2015), the influx of new immigrants
into U.S. will continue in large numbers.
• According to Pew Research Center (2014), the number of U.S.
born Hispanic children ages 5 to 17 in the U.S. doubled
between 1997 and 2013.
• Women earn 78 cents on a dollar for every dollar a man earns
in a year (Arons, 2008)

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Some Basic Facts
continued

• According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2015),
16.1% of African Americans and 11.8% of Latinos were
unemployed in April 2011 compared to 8% of Whites
being unemployed.

• Nearly 25% of all teenagers were also unemployed in
April 2011.
• Only 23% of African American and 15% of Hispanic
persons are employed as executives, administrators,
salespersons, and managers (compared to 32% for
Whites).

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Some Basic Facts
continued

• Employment rate for American Indians reached 24.2%
in 20010.
• Men are 18.7 times as likely to be in higher prestige
occupations in science, math, or technology than
women.
• Americans with disabilities experienced an
unemployment rate of 14.5% in 2011

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


American Assumptions
• Individualism and autonomy
• Affluence
• Opportunity open to all
• Centrality of work in people’s lives
• Linearity and rationality of the career
development process

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Universal or Culture-Specific
Models?
• Etic perspectives - maintain that career
interventions for members of minority groups
should be the same as those used for the
majority.
• Emic perspectives - highlight the importance of
offering career development interventions that
are specific to the client’s culture.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Universal Elements of Healing in
All Cultures (Fischer et al.)
• The therapeutic relationship
• Shared worldview
• Client expectations
• Ritual or intervention

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Ethnocentrism
• When counselors assume that one value system (their
own) is superior and preferable to another, they engage
in ethnocentric behavior that is insensitive to their
clients’ worldviews.
• Ethnocentrism can easily occur when counselors
assume that individualistic and self-sufficient actions
are preferable to collectivistic actions reflecting
interdependence and group loyalty.
• Instruments, such as the Career-in-Culture Interview
and the Person-in-Culture Interview are examples of
useful assessments for exploring worldview constructs

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Acculturation
• The process of adopting the cultural traits or social patterns
of another group (Stein,1975)
• Language familiarity and usage, cultural heritage, ethnicity,
ethnic pride and identity, interethnic interactions, and
interethnic distance influence acculturation (Padilla, 1980)
• Persons may be marginal (not accepting either culture fully)
or bicultural (accepting both fully)
• Nguyen and Benet-Martinez (2013) found a strong,
significant, and positive relationship between biculturalment
and adjustment (both psychological and sociocultural)

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Identity Development Models
• Racial Identity Models
• Gender Identity Models
• Lesbian/Gay/Bisexual/Transgendered/Questioning
Identity Models

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Five Stages of Racial Identity
Development (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue)
• Conformity
• Dissonance
• Resistance and immersion
• Introspection
• Synergy

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Cross Model
• Pre-encounter
• Encounter
• Immersion-Emersion
• Internalization
• Internalization-Commitment

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Gender Differences in Socialization
• Stereotypically reinforce competition and skill
mastery in boys, relationships and connectedness
in girls
• Affects initial selection of occupation and
opportunities for mentoring and promotion

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Feminist Identity Model
(Gysbers, Heppner, & Johnson)

• Stage 1: Passive Acceptance
• Stage 2: Revelation
• Stage 3: Embeddedness-Emancipation
• Stage 4: Synthesis
• Stage 5: Active Commitment

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Special Needs of Women
(Cook, Heppner, & O’Brien)

• Dealing with attending to the needs of others
• Learning to negotiate in the workplace
• Accessing quality child care
• Handling sexual harassment in the workplace
• Accessing mentors

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Special Needs of Men
• Understanding how socialization has influenced
their career behaviors
• Learning to express feelings
• Learning how to manage and reduce stress
• Identifying strategies to participate more fully in
life roles other than work

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Six-Stage Model of Identity Development for Gay Men and
Lesbian Women
(Cass, 1979)

• Confusion
• Comparison
• Tolerance
• Acceptance
• Pride
• Synthesis

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Four-Stage Model of Lesbian
Identity Development (Sophie)
• Stage 1: Awareness of same sex feelings without
disclosing these to others
• Stage 2: Testing and exploration of emerging
lesbian identity with limited disclosure to
heterosexual persons
• Stage 3: Identity acceptance and preference for
gay social interactions
• Stage 4: Identify integration with movement
from a dichotomous (gay/straight) worldview to
integrated

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Career Counselor Recommendations
for Working with Sexual Minorities
• Understand discrimination can be formal or
informal
• Help clients achieve realistic and accurate
perceptions regarding discrimination
• Explore various options for coping with workplace
discrimination
• Remain sensitive to the client’s pace of identity
development and cultural context.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Definition of Persons with
Disabilities
• One who is usually considered to be different
from a normal person -- physically,
physiologically, neurologically, or psychologically
-- because of accident, disease, birth defect, or
developmental problem (Herr & Cramer, 1996)

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Another Definition
• A person who has physical or mental impairment
that substantially limits one or more major life
activities, or has a record of such impairment, or
is regarded as having such an impairment
(Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990)

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Americans with Disabilities Act
• Employers can only consider essential job
functions when hiring or promoting.
• Employers must make reasonable
accommodations in the workplace.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Career Development Issues of Persons
with Disabilities (Zunker, 2006)
• Adjusting to disability
• Confronting attitudinal barriers
• Overcoming generalizations
• Lack of role models and norm groups
• Coping with issues associated with age of onset of
disability
• Developing social skills
• Developing a positive self-concept
• Developing skills for independent living

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Competencies for Working with
Persons with Disabilities
• Exposure to employed individuals with similar
disabilities can help increase self-efficacy
• Interpret and advise about legislation, policy,
guidelines, and rights
• Use diagnostic and informal assessment
• Assess functional limitations and adapt methods of
occupational exploration
• Apply theory to assist with analysis of self-concept or
developmental tasks deficits

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


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