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Career development interventions 5th by spence niles and bowlsbey chapter 03

Career Development Interventions
5th Edition
Spence G. Niles and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

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Chapter 3
Understanding and Applying
Emerging Theories of Career
Development

Developed by:
Jennifer Del Corso

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


Characteristics of Emerging
Theories
• Have evolved to address cognitive and meaningmaking processes that people use to manage

their career effectively within a global and
mobile society
• Attempt to address the career development
needs of diverse client populations
• Reflect a “postmodern” approach which stresses
the client’s subjective experience (stories rather
than scores)

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Lent, Brown, & Hackett’s Social
Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT)
• Builds on the assumption that cognitive
factors play an important role in career
development and decision making
• Is closely linked to Krumboltz’s learning
theory of career counseling
• Incorporates Bandura’s triadic reciprocal
model of causality

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Self-Efficacy (Bandura)
• Defined as people’s judgments of their
capabilities to organize and execute
courses of action required to attain
designated types of performances


Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Forces Shaping Self-Efficacy
Beliefs (Bandura)
• Personal performance accomplishments
• Vicarious learning
• Social persuasion
• Physiological states and reactions

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Triadic Reciprocal Model
• The relationship among goals, self-efficacy, and
outcome expectations is complex
• This occurs within the framework of reciprocal
causality comprised of:
o personal attributes (e.g. predisposition, gender, race)
o external environmental factors (e.g., culture,
geography, family, gender-role socialization)
o learning experiences.

 

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


SCCT Career Development
Interventions
• Directed toward
• self-efficacy beliefs
• outcome expectations

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Applying SCCT
• Card sort exercise in which clients sort occupations
according to:
• (a) those they would choose,
• (b) those they would not choose, and
• (c) those they question.
• Occupations placed in the first two categories
(relating to self-efficacy beliefs and outcome
expectations) are then examined for accuracy in skill
and outcome perceptions.
• Clients can be helped to modify their self-efficacy
beliefs by exposing them to personally relevant
vicarious learning opportunities

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Evaluating SCCT
• Overall SCCT has generated substantial
research supporting the efficacy of SCCTbased interventions for specific diverse
populations
• Choi, Park, Yang, Lee, and Lee (2012) found
that career decision-making self-efficacy
correlated significantly with self-esteem,
vocational identity, and outcome
expectations

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Four Assumptions of the Cognitive
Information Processing Approach (CIP)
• Career decision making involves the interaction
between cognitive and affective processes
• The capacity for career problem solving depends
on the availability of cognitive operations and
knowledge.
• Career development is ongoing and knowledge
structures continually evolve.
• Enhancing information processing skills is the
goal of career counseling

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


CIP Approach
• The CIP approach to career intervention
includes several dimensions:
 The pyramid of information processing,
 CASVE cycle of decision-making skills, and
 The executive processing domain.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Information Processing
• Uses a pyramid to describe the domains of
cognition involved in a career choice:
 self-knowledge
 occupational knowledge
 decision-making skills

• The fourth domain is metacognitions and
includes
 self-talk
 self-awareness
 monitoring and control of cognitions

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


CASVE Cycle
• This is the second dimension of the CIP
approach and represents a generic model of
information processing.
• Skills included are
 C-communication
 A-analysis
 S-synthesis
 V-valuing
 E-execution

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Executive Processing Domain
• This domain involves metacognitive skills
such as self-talk, self-awareness, and
control.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Applying the CIP Approach
• The CIP approach uses the Career Thoughts
Inventory (CTI) (Sampson, Peterson, Lenz,
Reardon, & Saunders, 1996) to identify clients
with dysfunctional career thoughts
• The pyramid model can be used as a framework
for providing career development.
• The five steps of the CASVE cycle can be used to
teach decision-making skills.
• The executive processing domain provides a
framework for exploring and challenging.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Interventions (Peterson, Sampson,
& Reardon)
• Step 1 - Conduct initial interview with
client.
• Step 2 - Do a preliminary assessment to
determine the client’s readiness.
• Step 3 - Work with client to define the
career problem(s) and analyze causes.
• Step 4 - Collaborate with client to formulate
achievable problem-solving and decisionmaking goals.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Sequence for Delivering Career
Interventions (Peterson, Sampson, &
Reardon)
• Step 5 - Provide clients with a list of
activities and resources they need
(individual learning plans).
• Step 6 - Require clients to execute their
individual learning plans.
• Step 7 - Conduct a summative review of
client progress and generalize new learning
to other career problems.

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Evaluating CIP
• Although research investigating CIP theory is not extensive,
the numbers of studies based on CIP theory is growing
• Successful use with military families coping with transitions
to new jobs
• Increased career decidedness, career planning, career
exploration, and vocational identity
• Higher levels of trauma in college students relate to
dysfunctional career thoughts, vocational identity, and
development work personality
• Students with disabilities have more negative thoughts than
nondisabled counterparts

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Savickas’ Career Construction
Theory
• Comprehensive career theory (explains
what, how, why)
• Career is socially constructed as individuals
implement their ideal self-concept as the
protagonist within their life story

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Career Construction Theory
• Vocational Personality (Self as Actor)
• Career Adaptability (Self as Agent)
• Life Themes (Self as Author)

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Vocational Personality
• • Vocational personality (Values, Abilities,
Traits reflect how a person’s narrates what
stage they would like to perform on, what
they believe they have the ability to do, and
what interests they have formed)
• • Holland’s Typology RIASEC reconceptualized as preferences and
possibilities, not predictions

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Career Adaptability
• Incorporates Super’s work
• Address the attitudes, beliefs, competences
(ABC’s) individuals need as they face career
transitions, work traumas, career decisionsboth anticipated and unanticipated

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Career Adaptability

(cont.)

• Concern
• Control
• Curiosity
• Confidence

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Life Themes
• Reoccurring themes throughout individuals
lives and work roles (e.g. helping others)
• Draws on narrative and how individuals
construct their experience
• Individuals are believed to “actively master
what they have passively suffered”
(Savickas, 2005)

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


Career Construction Counseling
• Helps clients clarify and articulate the
private meanings they attach to their
career behavior- how they are striving
towards self-completion
• Utilizes the Career Construction Interview
(CCI) formerly known as the Career Style
Interview

Career Development Interventions, 5th Edition
Spencer G. Nile and JoAnn E. Harris-Bowlsbey

Copyright © 2017, 2013, 2009 by Pearson Education,
Inc.
All Rights Reserved


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