Tải bản đầy đủ

Economics principles tools and applications 9th by sullivan sheffrin perez chapter 26

Economics

NINTH EDITION

Chapter 26
Market Entry and
Monopolistic
Competition

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


Learning Objectives

26.1 Describe and explain the effects of market entry.
26.2 List the conditions for equilibrium in monopolistic competition.
26.3 Contrast monopolistic competition and perfect competition.
26.4 Explain the role of advertising in monopolistic competition.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved



Market Entry and Monopolistic Competition



Monopolistic competition
A market served by many firms that sell slightly different products.

The term monopolistic competition actually conveys the two key features of the market:



Each firm in the market produces a good that is slightly different from the goods of other firms, so each firm has a narrowly defined monopoly.



The products sold by different firms in the market are close substitutes for one another, so there is intense competition between firms for consumers.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.1 THE EFFECTS OF MARKET
ENTRY (1 of 3)

MARGINAL PRINCIPLE
Increase the level of an activity as long as its marginal benefit exceeds its marginal cost. Choose the level at which the marginal benefit equals
the marginal cost.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.1 THE EFFECTS OF MARKET
ENTRY (2 of 3)
(A) A monopolist maximizes profit at point a, where marginal
revenue equals marginal cost. The firm sells 300 toothbrushes
at a price of $2.00 (point b) and an average cost of $0.90 (point
c). The profit of $330 is shown by the shaded rectangle.

(B) The entry of a second firm shifts the firm-specific demand
curve for the original firm to the left. The firm produces only 200

toothbrushes (point d) at a lower price ($1.80, shown by point
e) and a higher average cost ($1.00, shown by point f). The
firm’s profit, shown by the shaded rectangle, shrinks to $160.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.1 THE EFFECTS OF MARKET
ENTRY (3 of 3)

Entry Squeezes Profits from Three Sides
Entry shrinks the firm’s profit rectangle because it is squeezed from three directions. The top of the rectangle drops because the price decreases. The
bottom of the rectangle rises because the average cost increases. The right side of the rectangle moves to the left because the quantity decreases.

Examples of Entry: Stereo Stores, Trucking, and Tires
Empirical studies of other markets provide ample evidence that entry decreases market prices and firms’ profits. In other words, consumers pay less for
goods and services, and firms earn lower profits.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


APPLICATION 1

SATELLITE VS. CABLE
APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #1: How does market entry affect prices?



Consider the market for television signals provided to residential consumers. How will an existing cable-TV provider respond to the entry of a firm
that provides TV signals via satellite?



In most cases, the entry of a satellite firm causes the cable firm to improve the quality of service and decrease its price, so consumer surplus
increases. In some cases, the cable company improves the quality of service and increases price.



Because the service improvement is typically large relative to the price hike, consumer surplus increases in this case too. On average, the entry of
a satellite firm increases the monthly consumer surplus per consumer from $3.96 to $5.22, an increase of 32 percent.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.2 MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION (1 of 3)

Under a market structure called monopolistic competition, firms will continue to enter the market until economic profit is zero. Here are the
features of monopolistic competition:



Many firms.



A differentiated product.



Product differentiation
The process used by firms to distinguish their products from the products of competing firms.



No artificial barriers to entry.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.2 MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION (2 of 3)

When Entry Stops: Long-Run Equilibrium
Under monopolistic competition, firms continue to enter the market until
economic profit is zero.

Entry shifts the firm specific demand curve to the left.

The typical firm maximizes profit at point a, where marginal revenue
equals marginal cost.

At a quantity of 80 toothbrushes, price equals average cost (shown by
point b), so economic profit is zero.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.2 MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION (3 of 3)

Differentiation by Location
Book stores and other retailers differentiate their products by selling
them at different locations.

The typical book store chooses the quantity of books at which its
marginal revenue equals its marginal cost (point a).

Economic profit is zero because the price equals average cost (point b).

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


APPLICATION 2

OPENING A MOTEL
APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #2: Are monopolistically competitive firms profitable?



One way to get into a monopolistically competitive market is to get a franchise for a nationally advertised product.



If you’d like to get into the economy motel market, you could pay a $35,000 franchise fee to Accor, the owner of the Motel 6 brand. The term for the
renewable franchise agreement is 15 years. In addition, you will pay Accor a royalty of 5 percent of your sales revenue.



How much money are you likely to earn in your motel? You will compete with nearby motels and hotels for customers, and because the barriers to entering
the industry are relatively low, the competition is likely to be keen.



You are likely to earn zero economic profit, with the total revenue equal to total cost.

SOURCE: Based on data from www.entrepreneur.com (accessed February 27, 2015).

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.3 TRADE-OFFS WITH ENTRY AND
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION (1 of 3)
Average Cost and Variety



There are some trade-offs associated with monopolistic competition. Although the average cost of production is higher than the minimum, there
is also more product variety.



When firms sell the same product at different locations, the larger the number of firms, the higher the average cost of production. But when firms
are numerous, consumers travel shorter distances to get the product. Therefore, higher production costs are at least partly offset by lower travel
costs.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.3 TRADE-OFFS WITH ENTRY AND
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION (2 of 3)
Monopolistic Competition versus Perfect
Competition
(A) In a perfectly competitive market, the firm-specific demand curve is
horizontal at the market price, and marginal revenue equals price.

In equilibrium, price = marginal cost = average cost.

The equilibrium occurs at the minimum of the average-cost curve.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.3 TRADE-OFFS WITH ENTRY AND
MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION (3 of 3)
Monopolistic Competition versus Perfect
Competition
(B) In a monopolistically competitive market, the firm- specific demand
curve is negatively sloped and marginal revenue is less than price.

In equilibrium, marginal revenue equals marginal cost (point b) and
price equals average cost (point c).

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


APPLICATION 3

HAPPY HOUR PRICING
APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #3: How does monopolistic competition compare to perfect competition?



Consider the phenomenon of “happy hour.” Many bars and restaurants near workplaces face an increase in demand for food and drink around 5:00 p.m., and many
cut their prices for an hour or two. According to the model of perfect competition, an increase in demand will lead to higher, not lower prices. What explains the
happy-hour combination of higher demand and lower prices?



Bars are subject to monopolistic competition. Each bar has a local monopoly within its neighborhood, but faces competition from other bars outside its neighborhood.
For an individual consumer, the higher the demand for food and drink, the greater the incentive to consider alternatives to the nearest bar. If you expect to purchase
large quantities of bar food and drink, the savings achieved by finding a lower price at an alternative bar will be relatively large. In other words, when individual
demand increases, each bar faces a more elastic demand for its products.



In a market subject to monopolistic competition, the bar’s rational response to more elastic demand (more sensitive consumers) is to decrease its price. In graphical
terms, the demand curve facing each bar becomes flatter, and the demand curve will be tangent to the average-cost curve at a larger quantity and a lower price and
average cost.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


APPLICATION 4



PICTURE OF MAN VS. PICTURE OF WOMAN



APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #4: How does advertising affect consumer choices?



A South African consumer lender decided to use a mass mailing of 53,000 loan offers to test the sensitivity of consumers to variations in interest rates
and other features of loan offers. The interest rates in the offer letters ranged from 3.75% to 11.75% per month.



As expected, the uptake rate (the number of consumers who accepted a particular loan offer) was higher for offer letters with low interest rates. The
elasticity of the uptake rate with respect to the interest rate was -0.34: a 10% decrease in the interest rate (from say an interest rate of 7.0% to 6.3%)
increased the uptake rate by 3.4%.



More surprising was the finding that the uptake rate among men was much higher when the offer letter included a picture of a woman rather than a
picture of a man. Replacing a male model with a female model was equivalent to cutting the interest rate by 25 percent, for example, from 7.0 percent to
5.25 percent. In contrast, the uptake rate for women consumers was unaffected by the gender of the model.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


26.4 ADVERTISING FOR PRODUCT
DIFFERENTIATION
An advertisement that doesn’t provide any product information may actually help consumers make decisions.

TABLE 26.1 Advertising Profitability and Signaling

Number of Consumers Who

Number

Profit per Repeat

Profit from Repeat

Try the Product

of Repeat Customers

Customer

Customers

Cost of Advertisement

Energy bar A

10 million

5 million

$4

$20 million

$10 million

Energy bar B

10 million

1 million

4

4 million

10 million

Product

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved


KEY TERMS

Monopolistic competition
Product differentiation

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×