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Decision support and BI systems ch10

Decision Support and
Business Intelligence
Systems
(9th Ed., Prentice Hall)
Chapter 10:
Collaborative ComputerSupported Technologies
and Group Support
Systems


Learning Objectives













10-2

Understand the basic concepts and processes of
groupwork, communication and collaboration
Describe how computer systems facilitate
communication and collaboration in enterprises
Know the concepts and importance of the
time/place framework
Be aware of the underlying principles and
capabilities of groupware (e.g., GSS)
Know the process gains and losses and how GSS
increases/decreases each of them
Describe indirect support for decision making,
especially in synchronous environments

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Learning Objectives












10-3

Become familiar with the GSS products of the major
vendors (e.g., Lotus, Microsoft, WebEx, Groove)
Understand the concept of GDSS and describe how to
structure an electronic meeting in a decision room
Describe the three settings of GDSS

Describe how a GDSS uses parallelism and anonymity
and how they lead to process/task gains and losses
Understand how the Web enables collaborative
computing and group support of virtual meetings
Describe the role of emerging technologies
Define creativity and explain how it can be facilitated
by computers

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Opening Vignette:
“Procter & Gamble Drives Ideation with Group Support
Systems”

10-4



Company background



Problem description



Proposed solution



Results



Answer and discuss the case questions

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Collaboration


What is it?
“… making joint effort toward achieving an agreed
upon goal.”

10-5



Meeting is a common form of collaboration



Why collaborate?

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Why Collaborate?
Make Decisions
Synergy

Build Trust

Share Work

Share the Vision
Share Information
Solve Problems

Build Consensus
10-6

Review

Socialize

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Collaboration is Difficult
Waiting to speak
Domination
Fear of Speaking
Misunderstanding
Inattention
Lack of Focus
Inadequate Criteria
Premature Decisions
Missing Information
Distractions
10-7

Ineffective
Collaboration

Wrong People
Groupthink
Poor Grasp of Problem
Ignored Alternatives
Lack of Consensus
Poor Planning
Hidden Agendas
Conflict
Inadequate Resources
Poorly Defined Goals

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Collaboration is Expensive


15 Million formal Sessions / day



? Million Informal Sessions / day



4

Billion Sessions / year



30-80% Manager’s time
Fortune 500 Companies
3M Corporation Study

10-8

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Collaboration is Essential


No one has all the …






Experience
Knowledge
Resources
Insight, and
Inspiration

…to do the job alone


10-9

Bottom line:
Collaboration is difficult, expensive, and
yet essential for today’s organizations

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


How Do People Collaborate?
Low

3 Levels of Collaboration Capability

Degree of
Collaborative
Effort

High
10-10

Sprinters

Level 1 Collected Work :
Uncoordinated Individual Efforts

Relay

Level 2 Coordinated Work:
Coordinated Individual Efforts

Crew

Level 3 Concerted Work:
Concerted Team Effort

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Meetings (a form of
collaboration)









10-11

Joint activity
Equal or near equal status
Outcome depends on participant’s
knowledge, etc.
Outcome depends on group composition
Outcome depends on decision-making
process
Disagreement settled by rank or
negotiation

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


The Ideal Meeting
 Dozens of people attends
 Everyone …
talks at once
hears everything
understands
remembers
 The impossible dream?
10-12

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Traditional Meetings

Only ONE person can speak at a time
10-13

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


GSS Meetings

By using the computer everyone can
SPEAK and be understood simultaneously
10-14

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Communication Support

10-15



Vital



Needed for collaboration



Modern information technologies provide inexpensive,
fast, capable, reliable means of supporting
communication



Internet / Web

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Supporting Communication


Evolution of Communication











10-16

Word of mouth
Delivery persons
Horseback
Snailmail
Telegraph
Telephone
Radio
Television
Videoconferencing
Internet / Web…

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


A Time/Place
Communication Framework

10-17

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Groupware


Lotus Notes / Domino Server
Includes Learning Space

10-18



Netscape Collabra Server



Microsoft NetMeeting



Novell Groupwise



GroupSystems



TCBWorks



WebEx

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Group Support Systems





Goal: to support groupwork
Increase benefits / decrease losses of
collaboration
Based on traditional methods


Nominal Group Technique
“Individuals work alone to generate ideas which are
pooled under guidance of a trained facilitator”



Delphi Method
“A structured process for collecting and distilling
knowledge from a group of experts by means of
questionnaires”


10-19

Electronic Meeting System (EMS)

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


GSS – Important Features
Process Gains:
 Parallelism









Larger groups can participate

Anonymity


( simultaneous contributions )
( promotes equal participation )

Focus on content not personalities

Triggering
Synergy
Structure
Record keeping
)

(
(
(
(

stimulates thinking )
integrates ideas )
facilitates problem solving )
promotes organizational memory

Process Loses:
 Free-riding
 Flaming
10-20

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Benefits of Anonymity
 Ideas considered
on merit not
source
 Overcome fear of
speaking up
 More ideas leads
to more quality
ideas
 Defuses tough
political
discussions
10-21

9#

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


GSS Enabling Technologies

10-22



Decision room



Multiple use facility



Web-based

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


The Decision (Electronic Meeting)
Room








10-23

12 to 30 networked personal
computers
Usually recessed into the desktop
Server PC
Large-screen projection system
Breakout rooms
Need a Trained Facilitator for Success

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Cool Decision Rooms

IBM Corp.
10-24

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


Cooler Decision Rooms

US Air Force
10-25

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall


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