Tải bản đầy đủ

pediatric oncology

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P. Imbach · T. Kühne · R. Arceci (Eds.)
Pediatric Oncology
A Comprehensive Guide


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P. Imbach · T. Kühne · R. Arceci (Eds.)
Pediatric Oncology
A Comprehensive Guide

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Paul Imbach · Thomas Kühne
Robert Arceci (Eds.)


Pediatric Oncology
A Comprehensive Guide
In Collaberation with
A. Di Gallo, F. Oeschger-Schürch and C. Verdan


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Professor Dr. Paul Imbach
University Children’s Hospital Basel
Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology
Römergasse 8, CH-4005 Basel
Switzerland
Dr. Thomas Kühne
University Children’s Hospital Basel
Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology
Römergasse 8, CH-4005 Basel
Switzerland
Robert J. Arceci
Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
at John Hopkins
1650 Orleans Street
Baltimore, MD 21231, USA

Title of the original German edition:
Kompendium Kinderonkologie
© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1999, 2004
ISBN 3-540-20530-6
Originally published by Gustav Fischer Taschenbücher, Stuttgart 1987
ISBN-10 3-540-25211-8 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg NewYork
ISBN-13 978-3-540-25211-5 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg NewYork
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V

Foreword
Hardly any field of pediatrics reflects the medical advances of the past three decades as
dramatically as pediatric oncology. Thirty years ago, when I began my pediatric training, three quarters of all children with malignancies died of their disease. Today the
same proportion are healed. Three reasons for this can be delineated. First, therapy
optimization studies have led to constant improvement through adaptation of treatment to individual cases. Second, new drugs, new combinations and new dosages have
been developed and tolerance to therapy has been improved by supportive measures.
Finally, molecular biological research has increased our fundamental understanding.
We now broadly know what molecular mechanisms cause malignant growth and use
this knowledge in therapeutic decision-making. We cannot yet – with certain exceptions – intervene specifically in the aberrant regulation of malignant growth, but the
foundations have been laid.
Pediatric oncology is rightly viewed as a clinical and scientific subspecialty of pediatrics. This does not mean it need not interest the general pediatrician or specialists in
other areas of pediatrics. On the contrary: in the early stages of a malignant disease the
symptoms are often nonspecific. Although one may primarily suspect a tumor or leukemia, other diseases cannot be excluded. Conversely the vague general symptoms that
can be caused by a malignancy may lead to misinterpretation. Furthermore, a whole
team is required to care for the patients: pediatricians, pediatric or specialist surgeons,
specialized nurses, psychologists, social workers and pastoral advisors. Pediatric oncology is holistic, integrated medicine in the true sense of the word. And with regard to
medical training, nowhere in pediatrics can one gain a closer experience with treatment of infections and other particular topics than in pediatric oncology. Oncology
has an undisputed place in the training of every pediatrician. Equally, comprehensive
general pediatric training is important for every future specialist.
There are a number of excellent, exhaustive textbooks on oncology that are indispensable in training. However, there is also a need for a compact guide offering rapid
orientation in the situations encountered by all who work in pediatric oncology. Precisely that is provided by this book by Paul Imbach, Thomas Kühne and Robert Arceci.
I wish them the success they deserve.
Berlin, June 2005

Gerhard Gaedicke
Charité Campus Virchow-Klinikum
Berlin


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A Comprehensive Guide

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VII

Preface
The healing process in children and adolescents with oncological diseases depends
greatly on the knowledge and experience of all those involved in the patients’ care:
physicians, specialist nurses, psychooncologists and others. This last group embraces
parents, siblings and teachers as well as laboratory staff, physiotherapists, pastoral advisors, social workers and other hospital personnel. Increasingly, the patients’ general
practitioners and pediatricians and external nurses are also becoming involved. Knowledge and experience on the part of the carers are necessary for full information of the
patient, who is thus enabled to play a full part in his or her own healthcare: the power of
the informed patient. Whether a young patient is waiting for the diagnosis, undergoing
intensive therapy, or suffering a complication or setback, whether he/she knows that
the disease has almost certainly been healed or that it is progressing with early death as
the probable consequence – in every situation, full information is the basis of optimal
care.
This book was written to improve the fundamental dissemination of knowledge. It
has no pretensions to replace the standard textbooks and the learned journals on pediatric oncology.
In this new edition contributions by specialist nurses and a child psychiatrist and
psychooncologist considerably improve the all-round coverage. The remaining chapters systematically describe the various disease groups. Some of these chapters, together
with a new chapter on emergencies in pediatric oncology, were written by Thomas
Kühne, for many years my trusted colleague. Robert Arceci of Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, editor-in-chief of ”Pediatric Blood and Cancer,” brought his vast experience to
bear on the English translation.
My heartfelt thanks go to all of the contributing authors, to Erika Scheibli for dedicated secretarial and organizational assistance and to the responsible staff at Springer
Heidelberg for their commitment to this project.
May this book help to create an atmosphere of trust, hope and joy in the face of
potentially life-threatening disease.
Basel, June 2005

Paul Imbach


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A Comprehensive Guide

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IX

Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 4

Myelodysplastic Syndrome . . . . . . . . 41
Chapter 1

Thomas Kühne

General Aspects
of Childhood Leukemia . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Predisposing Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Etiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Clinical Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Laboratory Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Differential Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Paul Imbach
Definition and General Characteristics . . . . . . .
Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Etiology and Predisposing Factors . . . . . . . . . . .
Pathogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6
6
6
8

Chapter 2

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia . . . . 11
Paul Imbach
Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clinical Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laboratory Findings and Classification . . . . . .
Leukemic Cell Characterization
and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prognostic Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differential Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management of Complications
and Side Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
12
15
16
23
23
24
26
26
27

Chapter 3

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia . . . . . 29
Paul Imbach
Epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Predisposing Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differential Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clinical Presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Characteristics of and Therapy for AML
Subtypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30
30
30
30
34
35
37
39

Chapter 5

Myeloproliferative Syndromes
(Chronic Myeloproliferative
Disorders) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Thomas Kühne
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia . . . . . . . .
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
(Adult Type) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polycythemia Vera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Essential Thrombocythemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Idiopathic Myelofibrosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transient Myeloproliferative Syndrome . . . . .
Associated with Down Syndrome . . . . . . . .
Mast Cell Disease (Mastocytosis) . . . . . . . . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52
54
55
56
56
57
57
57
58
59

Chapter 6

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . . . . . . . . . 61
Paul Imbach
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Etiology, Pathogenesis,
and Molecular Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pathology and Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62
62
62
63


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Contents

XI

Chapter 12

Chapter 15

Soft Tissue Sarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Retinoblastoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Paul Imbach

Paul Imbach

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rhabdomyosarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fibrosarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synovial Sarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Liposarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor
Leiomyosarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hemangiopericytoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Malignant Fibrohistiocytoma . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139
140
150
152
153
154
155
156
157

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Etiology, Genetics, and Pathogenesis . . . . .
Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clinical Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differential Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Management of the Different
Manifestations of Retinoblastoma . . . . . .
Prognosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

172
172
172
173
174
174
174
175
176

Chapter 13

Osteosarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Chapter 16

Thomas Kühne

Germ Cell Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Etiology and Tumor Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clinical Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metastasis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differential diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prognosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

160
160
160
160
161
162
162
162
163
163
163
164
164

Paul Imbach
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pathogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Histological Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Therapy: Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testicular Germ Cell Tumor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ovarian Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors . . . . . . . . . .

178
178
178
179
179
180
180
181
183
184

Chapter 17

Hepatic Tumors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Chapter 14

Paul Imbach

Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors . 165

Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pathology and Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clinical Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laboratory Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiological Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differential Diagnosis of Hepatoblastoma
and Hepatocellular Carcinoma . . . . . . . . .
Staging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prognosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thomas Kühne
Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Epidemiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pathogenesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pathology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clinical Manifestations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metastases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Differential Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prognosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

166
166
166
166
167
167
168
168
168
169
169
169
170

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188
189
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190
190
190
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XII

Contents

Chapter 18

Chapter 20

Emergencies in Pediatric Oncology 193

Psychology and Psychosocial Issues
in Children with Cancer . . . . . . . . . . 229

Thomas Kühne
Tumor Lysis and Hyperleukocytosis . . . . . . .
Hyperkalemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hypercalcemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Airway Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spinal Cord Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
and Superior Mediastinal Syndrome . . . .
Pleural and Pericardial Effusion . . . . . . . . . . .
Cardiac Tamponade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hemolysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Abdominal Emergencies:
Abdominal Tumor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hemorrhagic Cystitis, Oliguria, Anuria . . . .
Acute Alteration of Consciousness . . . . . . . .
Seizures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

195
195
196
197
198
199
199
200
200
201
201
202
203

Chapter 19

Oncological Nursing Care . . . . . . . . 205
Franziska Oeschger-Schürch, Christine Verdan
The Role of the Nurse
in Pediatric Oncology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Side Effects of Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nausea and Vomiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hair Loss, Stomatitis and Mucositis . . . . . . .
Loss of Appetite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digestive Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Neuropathy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Central Catheter Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Giving Information to the Child
and Parents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care at Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Long-term Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Alain Di Gallo
Significance for Contemporary Pediatric
Oncology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Practice of Pediatric Psycho-oncology
Problems and Possible Interventions . . . . .
Before Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
After Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start of Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Course of Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surgical Interventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation .
End of Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Long-Term Remission and Cure . . . . . . . . . . .
Relapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dying, Death and Mourning . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Treatment Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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213
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XIII

Contributing Authors
Paul Imbach
(e-mail: paul.imbach@unibas.ch)
Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology
University Children’s Hospital (UKBB)
CH-4005 Basel, Switzerland

Alain Di Gallo
(e-mail: alain.digallo@upkbs.ch)
Department of Psycho-oncology
University Children’s Hospital (UKBB)
CH-4005 Basel, Switzerland

Thomas Kühne
(e-mail: thomas.kuehne@ukbb.ch)
Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology
University Children’s Hospital (UKBB)
CH-4005 Basel, Switzerland

Franziska Oeschger-Schürch
(e-mail: franziska.oeschger@ksa.ch)
STL 910
Children’s Hospital KSA
CH-5001 Aarau, Switzerland

Robert J. Arceci
(e-mail: arceci@jhmi.edu)
Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center
John Hopkins
1650 Orleans Street
Baltimore, MD 21231, USA

Christine Verdan
(e-mail: christine.verdan@ksa.ch)
STL 910
Children’s Hospital KSA
CH-5001 Aarau, Switzerland


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A Comprehensive Guide

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XV

Abbreviations
aCML
ADH
AFP
ALCL
ALL
ALPS
AMCL
AMKL
AML
AMML
ANAE
ANC
APL

atypical chronic myeloid leukemia
antidiuretic hormone
α-fetoprotein
anaplastic large cell lymphoma
acute lymphoblastic leukemia
autoimmune lymphoproliferative
syndrome
acute monocytic leukemia
acute megakaryocytic leukemia
acute myelogenous leukemia
acute myelomonocytic leukemia
a-naphthyl acetate esterase
absolute neutrophil count
acute promyelocytic leukemia

β-HCG
BL
BLL
BWS

β-choriogonadotropin
Burkitt lymphoma
Burkitt-like lymphoma
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome

CD
CEL
CML
CMML
CNL
CNS
CT
CVID

cluster determination
chronic eosinophilic leukemia
chronic myelogenous leukemia
chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
chronic neutrophilic leukemia
central nervous system
computed tomography
common variable immune
deficiency

DI
DIC
DNA

DNA index
disseminated intravascular
coagulation
deoxynuclein acid

EBV
EFS
EFT
EM
ES
ET

Epstein–Barr virus
event-free survival
Ewing family of tumors
electron microscopy
Ewing sarcoma
essential thrombocythemia

FAB
FACS

French-American-British
fluorescence-activated cell sorting

FEL
FISH
G-CSF

familial erythrophagocytic
lymphohistiocytosis
fluorescence in situ hybridization

GVHD
GVL
Gy

granulocyte colony-stimulating
factor
granulocyte-macrophage colonystimulating factor
graft-versus-host disease
graft vs leukemia
Gray, dose unit of irridiation

HD
HGA
HIV
HVA

Hodgkin disease
high-grade astrocytoma
human immunodeficiency virus
homovanillic acid

IAHS

infection-associated
hemophagocytic syndrome
idiopathic thrombocytopenic
purpura

GM-CSF

ITP

JMML

juvenile myelomonoytic leukemia

LBCL
LCH
LDH
LGA
LI
LL
LOH

large B-cell lymphoma
Langerhans cell histiocytosis
lactate dehydrogenase
low-grade astrocytoma
label index
lymphoblastic lymphoma
loss of heterozygosity

MDS
MH
MHPG
MIBG
MLL
MPS
MRD
MRI

myelodysplastic syndrome
malignant histiocytoma
3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol
methylisobenzyl guanidinium
mixed-lineage leukemia
myeloproliferative syndrome
minimal residual disease
magnet resonance imaging

NDD
NHL
NSA

neurodegenerative disease
non-Hodgkin lymphoma
neuron-specific enolase


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XVI

Abbreviations

PAC
PAS
PCR
PET
PNET
PV

Port-a-Cath
periodic acid Schiff
polymerase chain reaction
positron-emission tomography
primitive neuroectodermal tumor
polycythemia vera

RA
RAEB
RAEB-T

refractory anemia
refractory anemia with excess blasts
refractory anemia with excess blasts
in transition
refractory anemia with ringed
sideroblasts
Reed–Sternberg cell

RARS
RS
SCID

SCT

hematopoietic stem-cell
transplantation

TdT

terminal deoxynucleotidyl
transferase
transient myeloproliferative
syndrome

TMS

VIP
VMA
VOD

vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
vanillylmandelic acid
veno-occlusive disease

WBC
WHO
WT

white blood cell
World Health Organization
Wilms tumor

severe combined immune
deficiency

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1

Introduction


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2

Introduction

Incidence and Management of Childhood Cancer
Every year 130–140 children per million under the age of 16 years, or around 1 out of 500
children, are diagnosed with childhood cancer. The incidence within the first 5 years of
life is twice as high as from 6 to 15 years of age.
Survival probability has considerably changed within the past 30 years. Clinical research
by cooperating groups of pediatric oncology centers has progressively increased the
long-term survival rate from <20% before 1975 to >70% in the new millennium.
International cooperation contributes to quality assurance, because the majority of
children with an oncologic disease are treated according to standard protocols. Reference centers therefore fulfill the important function of controlling, providing a second
opinion and assessing the data of each child periodically.
Table 1 shows the average frequency of the different forms of pediatric neoplasia, based
on international data.
Overview of the frequency distribution of tumors in children and the incidence per year for children between 0 and 16 years of age
Proportion
of total (%)

Incidence per year
and per 1 million
children

Cumulative
incidence per
million children
<16 years

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

28

38

604

Acute myeloblastic leukemia

5

7

108

Myelodysplastic/
myeloproliferative syndrome

2

3

44

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

5

7

108

Hodgkin’s lymphoma

5

7

108

Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis

3

4

65

Brain tumors

19

26

410

Retinoblastoma

2

3

44

Neuroblastoma

8

11

172

Kidney tumor (Wilms’ tumor)

6

8

129

Soft tissue tumors

6

8

129

Osteogenic sarcoma

3

4

65

Ewing’s sarcoma

2.5

3.5

54

Germ cell tumors

2.5

3.5

54

Liver tumors

1

1.4

22

Rare tumors

2

3

44

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Incidence and Management of Childhood Cancer

3

While in adults about 80% of cancerous diseases pertain to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and reproductive organs, only <5% of cancerous diseases of children are manifested in these organs. Furthermore, the histopathology of pediatric neoplasia differs
markedly from that of adults: in children embryonal and immature cells can be found
at very different stages of development which perpetually proliferate and rarely mature.
The variability within a particular childhood neoplasia and in the prognosis is high.
Diagnosis and therapy must be adjusted to the individual child according to the clinical manifestation and the extent of the tumor.
Treatment normally requires 1–3 years, followed by check-ups for the following 3–7
years. The child newly diagnosed with cancer is critically ill during the first 2–6 months;
after that his or her life continues similar to that of a healthy child, except that periodical treatment adjustment and check-ups are necessary. The initial treatment is carried
out alternating between hospital care and care at home, the latter including the general
practitioner and pediatrician as well as external nursing under the guidance of a pediatric cancer center.
Children with relapse need special attention and care. Particularly intensive treatments,
such as stem cell transplantation or experimental therapies, yield hope. Last but not
least, a child with a short life expectancy deserves high-quality palliative care by experienced professionals of the pediatric cancer team.
Management may be divided as follows:
 Guidance/information of child and parents
 Therapy of complications and side effects (Chaps. 18 and 19)
 Specific therapy of the underlying disease, divided into induction of remission, consolidation and maintenance
After confirmation of the diagnosis, an open discussion of all aspects between the parents and the responsible physician should assure the following points:
 Close cooperation of child and family with the oncology team
 Explanation of diagnosis, prognosis, disease course, and treatment plan
 Stepwise orientation of therapy, including effect, side effects, and complications
 Emphasis of the aim to enable the child to lead as normal a life as possible
 To show critical openness in favor of the sick child if paramedical attendance or a
second opinion is desired
 To determine how the information should be communicated to the young patient:
in age-appropriate fashion, honestly, openly, in simple terms, and without frightening words; the child will want to hear the plan for the next days and weeks, look
forward to the next festivity (birthday, Christmas, vacation); long-term prognosis
are mainly of interest to the parents and other family members
For more guidance on how to deal with the patient, parents and siblings: see Chap. 20.


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P. Imbach · T. Kühne · R. Arceci (Eds.)
Pediatric Oncology
A Comprehensive Guide

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5

General Aspects of Childhood
Leukemia
Paul Imbach
Definition
and General Characteristics – 6
Incidence – 6
Etiology and Predisposing Factors – 6
Genetics – 6
Ionizing Radiation – 7
Chemicals and Drugs – 7
Infection – 7
Immunodeficiency – 8
Socioeconomic Situation – 8

Pathogenesis – 8
Molecular Pathogenesis – 9
Minimal Residual Disease – 9

1


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6

Chapter 1 - General Aspects of Childhood Leukemia

Definition and General Characteristics
 Uncontrolled proliferation of immature white blood cells with a different immunological subtype which is lethal within 1–6 months without treatment
 The disorder starts in the bone marrow, where normal blood cells are replaced by
leukemic cells
 Morphological, immunological, cytogenetic, biochemical, and molecular genetic
factors characterize the subtypes with various responses to treatment

Abbreviations
 ALL:

acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Chap 2)

 AML:

acute myelogenous leukemia (Chap 3)

 CML:

chronic myelogenous leukemia (Chap 4)

Incidence
 Thirty-three percent of all cancers in children are leukemias
 Annually 45 of each million children less than 16 years of age are newly diagnosed
as having leukemia
 Incidence peak at 2–5 years
 Occurrence in all age groups during childhood, grouped by type of leukemia:
– 75% acute lymphoblastic leukemia
– 20% acute myelogenous leukemia
– 5% undifferentiated acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia

Etiology and Predisposing Factors
 The cause of human leukemia is unknown
 Predisposing factors in the pathogenesis of leukemia and other malignant disorders in childhood are described in the section Pathogenesis
 There is a 2–4 times higher incidence of leukemia in siblings than in children in the
general population aged 0–15 years (1:720–1,000)
 In a monocytic twin there is an increased risk of leukemia within months after the
co-twin develops leukemia
Genetics
 Higher risk in the following congenital disorders:
– Trisomy 21 (14 times higher)
– Other trisomies

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Etiology and Predisposing Factors















7

1

Turner syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome
Monosomy 7
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklinghausen disease)
Fanconi anemia (high fragility of chromosomes)
Bloom syndrome
Kostmann syndrome
Shwachman–Diamond syndrome (dysfunction of bone marrow and exocrine
pancreatic insufficiency)
Poland syndrome (absence of pectoralis major muscle and variable ipsilateral
upper-extremity defects)
Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome
Congenital agammaglobulinemia
Ataxia-telangiectasia (highly fragile chromosomes)
Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome

Ionizing Radiation
Atomic bomb survivors (from Hiroshima and Nagasaki) developed leukemia with
an incidence of 1:60 within a radius of 1,000 m of the epicenter occurring after 1–
2 years (peak incidence after 4–8 years). There was a predominance of ALL in children and of AML in adults, which may reflect the different pathogenesis in the various age groups.
Chemicals and Drugs





Benzene (related to AML)
Chloramphenicol (usually related to ALL)
Chemical warfare agent, i.e. nitrogen-Lost (related to AML)
Cytotoxic agents; e.g. correlation between alkylating agents and Hodgkin disease
and other malignancies – especially after irradiation there is a higher incidence of
leukemia, ovarian carcinoma, and other solid tumors

Infection
 Correlation between viruses and development of leukemia has been observed, especially after RNA virus infection in mice, cats, chicken, and cows
 Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) has been demonstrated in adults to be linked
to T-cell lymphoma in some geographical areas
 Association between Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and occurrence of Burkitt lymphoma
 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): HIV infection and/or immunodeficiency
causes a higher incidence of malignancy
 In humans vertical or horizontal transmission of human leukemia has not been
demonstrated except in rare cases of a mother with leukemia to her newborn or in
identical twins with prenatal leukemia


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8

Chapter 1 - General Aspects of Childhood Leukemia

Immunodeficiency
There is correlation between immunodeficiency and development of leukemias (i.e.
congenital hypogammaglobulinemia, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, HIV infection)
Socioeconomic Situation
 Higher incidence of neoplasia in higher socioeconomic groups
 Similar frequencies in urban and nonurban areas: no correlation between different
nutritional conditions

Pathogenesis
The etiology and/or predisposition (see above) indicates a correlation between
leukemogenesis and different risk factors:
 Higher instability/fragility of chromosomes
 Deficiency of the immune response cascade
 Certain exposures (ionizing radiation, chemicals, viruses)
The leukemic cell is pathophysiologically characterized by a certain degree of
differentiation during hematopoiesis (see Fig. 1.1.)

Fig. 1.1 Differentiation during hematopoiesis

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