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Cambridge grammar and vocabulary for advanced wordlist

Wordlist for vocabulary section
reside /rɪˈzaɪd/
signify /ˈsɪg.nɪ.faɪ/
sprawl /sprɔːl/
survey /ˈsɜː.veɪ/

Unit 26
NOUNS
area /ˈeə.ri.ə/
belief /bɪˈliːf/
benefits /ˈben.ɪfɪts/
commuter /kəˈmjuː.tə/
construction

ADJECTIVES
accessible /əkˈses.ə.bl/
affluent /ˈæf.lu.ənt/
affordable /əˈfɔː.də.bl/
bike-friendly /baɪk ˈfrend.li/
car-mad /kɑː mæd/
commercial /kəˈmɜː.ʃəl/

convenient /kənˈviː.ni.ənt/
crime-free /kraɪmˈfriː/
cultural /ˈkʌl.tʃər.əl/
demolished /dɪˈmɒl.ɪʃt/
developed /dɪˈvel.əpt/
environmental

/kənˈstrʌk.ʃən/

consequences
/ˈkɒn.sɪ.kwənsɪz/
costs /kɒsts/

criminology
/ˌkrɪm.ɪˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/

demolition /ˌdem.əˈlɪʃ.ən/
developer /dɪˈvel.ə.pər/
development

/ɪnˌvaɪ.rən.ˈmen.təl/

/dɪˈvel.əp.mənt/

downside /ˈdaʊn.saɪd/
environment
/ɪnˈvaɪ.rən.mənt/

environmentalist
/ɪnˌvaɪ.rənˈmen.təl.ɪst/

estate /ɪˈsteɪt/
exhaust /ɪgˈzɔːst/
fumes /fjuːmz/
impact /ˈɪm.pækt/
installation /ˌɪn.stəˈleɪ.ʃən/
metropolis /məˈtrɒp.əl.ɪs/
neighbourhood
/ˈneɪ.bə.hʊd/


outskirts /ˈaʊt.skɜːts/
pollution /pəˈluː.ʃən/
pollutant /pəˈluː.tənt/
psychology /saɪˈkɒl.ə.dʒi/
resident /ˈrez.ɪ.dənt/
residence /ˈrez.ɪ.dəns/
rush hour /ˈrʌʃ.aʊər/
sprawl /sprɔːl/
suburb /ˈsʌb.ɜːb/
surveillance /səˈveɪ.ləns/
system /ˈsɪs.təm/

VERBS
combat /ˈkɒm.bæt/
demolish /dɪˈmɒl.ɪʃ/
develop /dɪˈvel.əp/
explode /ɪkˈspləʊd/
include /ɪnˈkluːd/
install /ɪnˈstɔːl/
pollute /pəˈluːt/
prioritise /praɪˈɒr.ɪ.taɪz/

explosive /ɪkˈspləʊ.sɪv/
gridlocked /ˈɡrɪd.lɒkt/
inclusive /ɪnˈkluː.sɪv/
incredible /ɪnˈkred.ɪ.bl/
integral /ˈɪn.tɪ.grəl/
major /ˈmeɪ.dʒər/
pet-friendly /ˌpetˈfrend.li/
polluted /pəˈluːtɪd/
psychological
/ˌsaɪ.kəlˈɒdʒ.ɪ.kəl/

remote /rɪˈməʊt/
residential /ˌrez.ɪˈden.ʃəl/
rural /ˈrʊə.rəl/
run-down /rʌnˈdaʊn/
significant /sɪgˈnɪf.ɪ.kənt/
sprawling /ˈsprɔː.lɪŋ/
undeveloped
/ˌʌn.dɪˈvel.əpt/
urban /ˈɜː.bən/
vibrant /ˈvaɪ.brənt/
work-mad /wɜːkˈmæd/

ADVERBS
densely /ˈdens.li/
obsessively /əbˈses.ɪvli/
seriously /ˈsɪə.ri.əs.li/
socially /ˈsəʊ.ʃəl.i/
surprisingly /səˈpraɪ.zɪŋ.li/

NOUN PHRASES
a significant drop in
air pollution
an incredible range of
an integral part of

commuter belt
crime levels
crime rate
exhaust fumes
give and take
hustle and bustle
local residents
negative consequences
open spaces
peace and quiet
pedestrian area
public transport system
pros and cons
psychological benefits
rush-hour traffic
surveillance system
the cost of living
tourist attraction
traffic congestion
traffic jam
ups and downs
urban sprawl

VERB PHRASES
be densely populated
be obsessed with sth
be steeped in history
be socially inclusive
come into contact with sb/sth
conduct a study
have little impact on
hop on (a bus/train)

Unit 27
NOUNS
accumulation
/əˌkjuː.mjʊˈleɪ.ʃən/

accuracy /ˈæk.jʊ.rə.si/
ancestor /ˈæn.ses.tər/
ancestry /ˈæn.ses.tri/
appointment
/əˈpɔɪnt.mənt/

archive /ˈɑː.kaɪv/
autobiography
/ˌɔː.tə.baɪˈɒg.rə.fi/

branch /brɑːntʃ/
descendant /dɪˈsen.dənt/
descent /dɪˈsent/
embellishment
/ɪmˈbel.ɪʃ.mənt/

entry /ˈen.tri/

fact /fækt/
fragment /ˈfræg.mənt/
hurdle /ˈhɜː.dl/
multitude /ˈmʌl.tɪ.tjuːd/
mystery /ˈmɪs.tər.i/
myth /mɪθ/
note /nəʊt/
process /ˈprəʊ.ses/
record /rɪˈkɔːd/
reminiscence
/ˌrem.ɪˈnɪs.əns/

roots /ruːts/
scrap /skræp/
source /sɔːs/
trace /treɪs/
verification
/ˌver.ɪ.fɪˈkeɪ.ʃən/

verifier /ˈver.ɪfaɪ.ə/

VERBS
accumulate
/əˈkjuː.mjʊ.leɪt/

conduct /kənˈdʌkt/
confront /kənˈfrʌnt/
consider /kənˈsɪd.ər/
dig /dɪg/
disclose /dɪˈskləʊz/
document /ˈdɒk.jʊ.mənt/
embellish /ɪmˈbel.ɪʃ/
expose /ɪkˈspəʊz/
formulate /ˈfɔː.mjʊ.leɪt/
hoard /hɔːd/
originate /əˈrɪdʒ.ɪ.neɪt/
overcome /ˌəʊ.vəˈkʌm/
reminisce /ˌrem.ɪˈnɪs/
unlock /ʌnˈlɒk/
verify /ˈver.ɪ.faɪ/
weigh /weɪ/

ADJECTIVES
accumulated
/əˈkjuː.mjəleɪ.tɪd/

accurate /ˈæk.jʊ.rət/
ancestral /ænˈses.trəl/
blank /blæŋk/
countless /ˈkaʊnt.ləs/
embellished /ɪmˈbel.ɪʃt/
genealogical
/ˌdʒiː.ni.əˈlɒdʒ.ɪ.kəl/

huge /hjuːdʒ/
inaccurate /ɪˈnæk.jʊ.rət/
numerous /ˈnjuː.mə.rəs/
precious /ˈpreʃ.əs/

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reminiscent /ˌrem.ɪˈnɪs.ənt/
valuable /ˈvæl.jʊ.bl/
verified /ˈver.ɪfaɪd/
verifiable /ˈver.ɪ.faɪ.ə.bl/

ADVERBS
eerily /ˈɪə.rɪ.li/
wildly /ˈwaɪld.li/

NOUN PHRASES
a multitude of
branch of your roots
criminal record
grain of truth
half-price entry
huge amounts of information
line of descent
long-buried secret
skeleton in the cupboard
world record

VERB PHRASES
accumulate information
be eerily reminiscent of sth
be wildly inaccurate
conduct an investigation
cover your tracks
dictate the course of
dig up dirt on sb
document facts
draw the line
expose secrets
gain entry
keep sb in the dark
muddy the waters
put together (from)
(say sth) off the record
sweep sth under the carpet
unlock a mystery
verify facts
weigh up (a decision)
work backwards

Unit 28
NOUNS
audition /ɔːˈdɪʃ.ən/
artefact /ˈɑː.tɪ.fækt/
audience /ˈɔː.di.əns/
back-catalogue
/bæk ˈkæt.əl.ɒg/

blockbuster /ˈblɒkˌbʌs.tər/
capacity /kəˈpæs.ə.ti/
cast /kɑːst/

2

celebrity /sɪˈleb.rɪ.ti/
chaos /ˈkeɪ.ɒs/
character /ˈkær.ɪk.tə/
comedy /ˈkɒm.ə.di/
comic /ˈkɒm.ɪk/
beat /biːt/
euphoria /juːˈfɔː.ri.ə/
exhibition /ˌek.sɪˈbɪʃ.ən/
exhilaration
/ɪgˌzɪl.əˈreɪ.ʃən/

festival /ˈfes.tɪ.vəl/
genius /ˈdʒiː.ni.əs/
gig /gɪg/
installation /ˌɪn.stəˈleɪ.ʃən/
intimacy /ˈɪn.tɪ.mə.si/
irony /ˈaɪ.rə.ni/
lines /laɪnz/
jewellery /ˈdʒuː.əl.ri/
melancholy /ˈmel.əŋ.kɒl.i/
melody /ˈmel.ə.di/
multiplex /ˈmʌl.tɪ.pleks/
narrative /ˈnær.ə.tɪv/
novelist /ˈnɒv.əl.ɪst/
orchestra /ˈɔː.kɪ.strə/
part /pɑːt/
portrait /ˈpɔː.trət/
premiere /ˈprem.i.eə/
replica /ˈrep.lɪ.kə/
review /rɪˈvjuː/
routine /ruːˈtiːn/
sculptor /ˈskʌlp.tə/
sculpture /ˈskʌlp.tʃə/
soloist /ˈsəʊ.ləʊ.ɪst/
stand-up /ˈstænd.ʌp/
stitches /stɪtʃɪz/
venue /ˈven.juː/
vocals /ˈvəʊkəlz/

VERBS
attend /əˈtend/
appreciate /əˈpriː.ʃi.eɪt/
book /bʊk/
compose /kəmˈpəʊz/
conduct /kənˈdʌkt/
exhibit /ɪgˈzɪb.ɪt/
headline /ˈhed.laɪn/
perform /pəˈfɔːm/
review /rɪˈvjuː/
tour /tʊə/

ADJECTIVES
abrasive /əˈbreɪ.sɪv/
academic /ˌæk.əˈdem.ɪk/
bizarre /bɪˈzɑː/
bland /blænd/

boisterous /ˈbɔɪ.stər.əs/
challenging /ˈtʃæl.ɪn.dʒɪŋ/
chaotic /keɪˈɒt.ɪk/
classic /ˈklæs.ɪk/
classical /ˈklæs.ɪ.kəl/
contemporary
/kənˈtem.pər.ər.i/

cramped /kræmpt/
dated /ˈdeɪ.tɪd/
devoted /dɪˈvəʊ.tɪd/
eclectic /ɪˈklek.tɪk/
edgy /ˈedʒ.i/
emotional /ɪˈməʊ.ʃən.əl/
euphoric /juːˈfɒr.ɪk/
exhilarating /ɪgˈzɪl.ə.reɪ.tɪŋ/
historic /hɪˈstɒr.ɪk/
historical /hɪˈstɒr.ɪ.kəl/
insistent /ɪnˈsɪs.tənt/
intimate /ˈɪn.tɪ.mət/
legendary /ˈledʒ.ən.dri/
melancholic /ˌmel.əŋˈkɒl.ɪk/
melodic /məˈlɒd.ɪk/
melodramatic
/ˌmel.ə.drəˈmæt.ɪk/
memorable /ˈmem.ər.ə.bl/
outdoor /ˈaʊtˌdɔː/
prestigious /presˈtɪdʒ.əs/
provincial /prəˈvɪn.ʃəl/
raucous /ˈrɔː.kəs/
repetitive /rɪˈpet.ə.tɪv/
scientific /ˌsaɪənˈtɪf.ɪk/
star-studded /ˈstɑːˌstʌd.ɪd/
subtle /ˈsʌt.əl/
surgical /ˈsɜː.dʒɪ.kəl/
syrupy /ˈsɪr.əp.i/
televised /ˈtel.ɪ.vaɪzd/

understated

provincial theatre
public art gallery
scientific instrument
surgical instrument

VERB PHRASES
appear on stage
appreciate art
be the right word
book a venue
conduct an orchestra
fill a venue
go on stage
have sb in stitches
headline a venue
lead an orchestra
learn by rote
produce a film
shoot a film
take to the stage
write music

Unit 29
NOUNS
expatriate /ekˈspæt.ri.ət/
homesickness
/ˈhəʊm.sɪknɪs/

illegality /ˌɪl.iːˈgæl.ɪ.ti/
immigrant /ˈɪm.ɪ.grənt/
legality /liːˈgæl.ə.ti/
legalisation
/ˌliː.ɡəl.aɪˈzeɪ.ʃən/

migrant /ˈmaɪ.grənt/
pastures /ˈpɑːs.tʃəz/
persecution
/ˌpɜː.sɪˈkjuː.ʃən/

/ˌʌn.dəˈsteɪ.tɪd/

unimpressive
/ˌʌn.ɪmˈpres.ɪv/

weak /wiːk/

NOUN PHRASES
a devoted following
a hint of irony
academic performance
ballet company
capacity audience
concert hall
comedy club
great fan of
live music event
medical instrument
multiplex cinema
open-air stadium

persecutor /ˈpɜː.sɪ.kjuː.tə/
settler /ˈset.lə/
smuggler /ˈsmʌg.lə/
smuggling /ˈsmʌɡlɪŋ/
specialism /ˈspeʃ.əl.ɪ.zəm/
specialisation
/ˌspeʃ.əl.aɪˈzeɪ.ʃən/

specialist /ˈspeʃ.əl.ɪst/
surroundings /səˈraʊn.dɪŋz/

VERBS
embed /ɪmˈbed/
embitter /ɪmˈbɪt.ə/
embody /ɪmˈbɒd.i/
empower /ɪmˈpaʊə/
enable /ɪˈneɪ.bl/
encase /ɪnˈkeɪs/

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encircle /ɪnˈsɜː.kl/
enclose /ɪnˈkləʊz/
endanger /ɪnˈdeɪn.dʒər/
engulf /ɪnˈgʌlf/
enlarge /ɪnˈlɑːdʒ/
enliven /ɪnˈlaɪ.vən/
enrich /ɪnˈrɪtʃ/
grieve /griːv/
legalise /ˈliː.ɡəl.aɪz/
migrate /maɪˈgreɪt/
overstay /ˌəʊ.vəˈsteɪ/
persecute /ˈpɜː.sɪ.kjuːt/
pine /paɪn/
settle /ˈset.l/
smuggle /ˈsmʌg.l/
specialise /ˈspeʃ.əl.aɪz/

VERB PHRASES
be off the menu
do sth like a shot
dream of pastures new
find your feet
go off the beaten track
pine for sth/sb
pull a rug out from under sb
things are looking up
your heart is in (a place)

Unit 30
NOUNS

ADJECTIVES
beaten /ˈbiː.tən/
close-knit /ˌkləʊsˈnɪt/
desperate /ˈdes.pər.ət/
endangered /ɪnˈdeɪn.dʒəd/
familiar /fəˈmɪl.i.ə/
homesick /ˈhəʊm.sɪk/
illegal /ɪˈliː.gəl/
insecure /ˌɪn.sɪˈkjʊə/
legal /ˈliː.gəl/
multicoloured
/ˌmʌl.tiˈkʌl.əd/

multicultural
/ˌmʌl.tiˈkʌl.tʃər.əl/

multifunctional
/ˌmʌl.tiˈfʌŋk.ʃən.əl/

multilingual
/ˌmʌl.tiˈlɪŋ.gwəl/

multinational

asylum seeker
contract worker
illegal immigrant
multinational corporation
seasonal employee
sense of belonging
sense of duty
sense of humour
sense of loss
sense of responsibility
sense of urgency

/ˌkær.ɪk.təˈrɪs.tɪk/

consequences
/ˈkɒnt.sɪ.kwəntsɪz/
exertion /ɪgˈzɜː.ʃən/
expert /ˈek.spɜːt/
hazard /ˈhæz.əd/
hype /haɪp/
individual /ˌɪn.dɪˈvɪd.ju.əl/
kick /kɪk/
level /ˈlev.əl/
measures /ˈmeʒəz/
onset /ˈɒn.set/
outcome /ˈaʊt.kʌm/
participant /pɑːˈtɪs.ɪ.pənt/
precautions /prɪˈkɔː.ʃənz/
reaction /riˈæk.ʃən/

representative

/ˌmʌl.tiˈnæʃ.ən.əl/

persecuted /ˈpɜː.sɪkjuː.tɪd/
smuggled /ˈsmʌɡəld/
specialised /ˈspeʃ.əl.aɪzd/
specialist /ˈspeʃ.əl.ɪst/

NOUN PHRASES

adolescence /ˌæd.əˈles.əns/
adolescent /ˌæd.əˈles.ənt/
bungee /ˈbʌn.dʒi/
buzz /bʌz/
characteristic

/ˌrep.rɪˈzen.tə.tɪv/

response /rɪˈspɒns/
results /rɪˈzʌlts/
risk /rɪsk/
sample /ˈsɑːm.pl/
scuba /ˈskuː.bə/
teen /tiːn/
thrill /θrɪl/
youth /juːθ/

VERBS
analyse /ˈæn.əl.aɪz/
anticipate /ænˈtɪs.ɪ.peɪt/
avoid /əˈvɔɪd/
determine /dɪˈtɜː.mɪn/
display /dɪˈspleɪ/
engage /ɪnˈgeɪdʒ/
evaluate /ɪˈvæl.ju.eɪt/

foresee /fəˈsiː/
induce /ɪnˈdjuːs/
release /rɪˈliːs/
predict /prɪˈdɪkt/
slip /slɪp/
stumble /ˈstʌm.bl/
trip /trɪp/

ADJECTIVES
associated /əˈsəʊ.si.eɪ.tɪd/
content /kənˈtent/
competent /ˈkɒm.pɪ.tənt/
exaggerated
/ɪɡˈzædʒ.əreɪ.tɪd/

frustrated /frʌsˈtreɪ.tɪd/
harmful /ˈhɑːm.fəl/
hazardous /ˈhæz.ə.dəs/
physical /ˈfɪz.ɪ.kəl/
reasonable /ˈriː.zən.ə.bl/
recreational

have a lucky escape
make a choice
make a decision
make a difference
make an effort
make progress
make sure
make use of
take action
take advice
take care
take a chance
take a decision
take effect
take exercise
take part in sth
take precautions
take responsibility
take risks
take steps to do sth

/ˌrek.riˈeɪ.ʃən.əl/

responsible /rɪˈspɒn.sɪ.bl/
risky /ˈrɪs.ki/
serious /ˈsɪə.ri.əs/
satisfied /ˈsæt.ɪs.faɪd/
tentative /ˈten.tə.tɪv/

ADVERBS
potentially /pəˈten.ʃəl.i/

NOUN PHRASES
bungee jumping
control measure
dangerous driving
hang-gliding
ice climbing
individual sport
lucky escape
marketing hype
physical exertion
potholing
reasonable precautions
recreational activity
safety expert
scuba diving
skydiving
tentative link
white-water rafting
windsurfing

Unit 31
NOUNS
aggression /əˈgreʃ.ən/
arrogance /ˈær.ə.gəns/
attractiveness
/əˈtræk.tɪvnɪs/

attraction /əˈtræk.ʃən/
attendant /əˈten.dənt/
bias /ˈbaɪ.əs/
capability /ˌkeɪ.pəˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/
category /ˈkæt.ə.gri/
colleague /ˈkɒl.iːg/
comedian /kəˈmiː.di.ən/
comedienne /kəˌmiː.diˈen/
competitiveness
/kəmˈpetɪtɪvnəs/

competition
/ˌkɒm.pəˈtɪʃ.ən/

connotations
/ˌkɒn.əʊˈteɪ.ʃənz/

contribution
/ˌkɒn.trɪˈbjuː.ʃən/

contributor
/kənˈtrɪb.jʊ.tə/

disadvantage
/ˌdɪs.ədˈvɑːn.tɪdʒ/

VERB PHRASES

discrimination

do further research
engage in sth
evaluate outcomes
live forever

drive /draɪv/
equality /ɪˈkwɒl.ɪ.ti/
evidence /ˈev.ɪ.dəns/
flexibility /ˌflek.sɪˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/

/dɪˌskrɪm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən/

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forefathers /ˈfɔːˌfɑː.ðəz/
gender /ˈdʒen.dər/
gift /gɪft/
gracefulness /ˈɡreɪs.fəlnɪs/
grace /greɪs/
humanity /hjuːˈmæn.ə.ti/
humankind

biased /ˈbaɪ.əst/
competitive /kəmˈpet.ɪ.tɪv/
concerned /kənˈsɜːnd/
contributory

/ˌhjuː.mənˈkaɪnd/
involvement /ɪnˈvɒlv.mənt/
leadership /ˈliː.də.ʃɪp/
mankind /mænˈkaɪnd/
midwife /ˈmɪd.waɪf/
partner /ˈpɑːt.nər/
passivity /pæsˈɪv.ɪ.ti/

/dɪˈskrɪm.ɪ.nə.tər.i/
dominated /ˈdɒm.ɪneɪ.tɪd/
driven /ˈdrɪv.ən/
equal /ˈiː.kwəl/
flexible /ˈflek.sɪ.bl/

perpetuation

gifted /ˈgɪf.tɪd/
graceful /ˈgreɪs.fəl/
historical /hɪˈstɒr.ɪ.kəl/
inadequate /ɪˈnæd.ɪ.kwət/
inclusive /ɪnˈkluː.sɪv/
involved /ɪnˈvɒlvd/
man-made /ˌmænˈmeɪd/
marginal /ˈmɑː.dʒɪ.nəl/
muscular /ˈmʌs.kjʊ.lər/
neutral /ˈnjuː.trəl/
passive /ˈpæs.ɪv/
perpetual /pəˈpetʃ.u.əl/
powerful /ˈpaʊə.fəl/
pure /pjʊə/
rooted /ruːtɪd/
sexist /ˈsek.sɪst/
shocking /ˈʃɒk.ɪŋ/
submissive /səbˈmɪs.ɪv/
underpaid /ˌʌndəˈpeɪd/
voluntary /ˈvɒl.ən.tər.i/

/pəˌpetʃ.uˈeɪ.ʃən/

power /paʊər/
purity /ˈpjʊə.rɪ.ti/
predecessor /ˈpriː.dɪˌses.ər/
responsibility
/rɪˌspɒn.sɪˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/

sibling /ˈsɪb.lɪŋ/
spouse /spaʊs/
stereotype /ˈster.i.ə.taɪp/
stewardess /ˈstjuː.ə.dɪs/
subconscious /ˌsʌbˈkɒn.ʃəs/
submissiveness
/səbˈmɪs.ɪvnɪs/

submission /səbˈmɪʃ.ən/
synthetic /sɪnˈθet.ɪk/

VERBS
categorise /ˈkæt.ə.ɡər.aɪz/
clarify /ˈklær.ɪ.faɪ/
complete /kəmˈpliːt/
consider /kənˈsɪd.ə/
contribute /kənˈtrɪb.juːt/
deem /diːm/
discriminate
/dɪˈskrɪm.ɪ.neɪt/

involve /ɪnˈvɒlv/
marginalise
/ˈmɑː.dʒɪ.nəl.aɪz/
overt /əʊˈvɜːt/
participate /pɑːˈtɪs.ɪ.peɪt/
perpetuate /pəˈpetʃ.u.eɪt/
pursue /pəˈsjuː/
specify /ˈspes.ɪ.faɪ/
strengthen /ˈstreŋ.θən/

ADJECTIVES
adequate /ˈæd.ə.kwət/
aggressive /əˈgres.ɪv/
arrogant /ˈær.ə.gənt/
attractive /əˈtræk.tɪv/
4

/kənˈtrɪb.jʊ.tər.i/
derogatory /dɪˈrɒg.ə.tər.i/

discriminatory

fundamental
/ˌfʌn.dəˈmen.təl/

ADVERBS
involuntarily
/ɪnˈvɒl.ən.tərɪ.li/

mainly /ˈmeɪn.li/
predominantly
/prɪˈdɒm.ɪ.nənt.li/

subconsciously
/sʌbˈkɒn.tʃəs.li/

NOUN PHRASES
flight attendant
fundamental beliefs
future life chances
historical disadvantage
mature adult

VERB PHRASES
be concerned about sth
be deeply rooted in the
subconscious

be treated as
contribute to
do sth in a derogatory way
have an enormous impact
on sth
impose restrictions on sth
make inroads
pay attention to
stand by
stand for
stand in for sb
stand out
stand up for
take responsibility for yourself

Unit 32
NOUNS
academy /əˈkæd.ə.mi/
apprenticeship
/əˈpren.tɪs.ʃɪp/
boarding /ˈbɔː.dɪŋ/
capability /ˌkeɪ.pəˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/
capacity /kəˈpæs.ə.ti/
charity /ˈtʃær.ɪ.ti/
educator /ˈed.jʊ.keɪ.tə/

establishment
/ɪˈstæb.lɪʃ.mənt/

faith /feɪθ/
funds /fʌndz/
graduation
/ˌgrædʒ.uˈeɪ.ʃən/

graduate /ˈgrædʒ.u.ət/
induction /ɪnˈdʌk.ʃən/
influence /ˈɪn.flu.əns/
innovation /ˌɪn.əˈveɪ.ʃən/
innovator /ˈɪnəveɪtə/
insight /ˈɪn.saɪt/
lecture /ˈlek.tʃə/
method /ˈmeθ.əd/
motivation
/ˌməʊ.tɪˈveɪ.ʃən/

special needs
/ˈspeʃ.əl niːdz/

team building
/tiːm ˈbɪl.dɪŋ/

technical /ˈtek.nɪ.kəl/
workshop /ˈwɜːk.ʃɒp/

VERBS
achieve /əˈtʃiːv/
educate /ˈed.jʊ.keɪt/
enable /ɪˈneɪ.bl/
establish /ɪˈstæb.lɪʃ/
foster /ˈfɒs.tə/
graduate /ˈgrædʒ.u.ət/
influence /ˈɪn.flu.əns/
innovate /ˈɪn.ə.veɪt/
motivate /ˈməʊ.tɪ.veɪt/
raise /reɪz/

ADJECTIVES
child-centred
/ˈtʃaɪldˌsen.təd/

disadvantaged
/ˌdɪs.ədˈvɑːn.tɪdʒd/

educated /ˈed.jʊ.keɪ.tɪd/
educational
/ˌed.jʊˈkeɪ.ʃən.əl/

electrical /ɪˈlek.trɪ.kəl/
established /ɪˈstæb.lɪʃt/
fundamental
/ˌfʌn.dəˈmen.təl/

hands-on /ˌhænd.ˈzɒn/
holistic /həˈlɪs.tɪk/
innovative /ˈɪn.ə.və.tɪv/
influential /ˌɪn.fluˈen.ʃəl/
interactive /ˌɪn.təˈræk.tɪv/
mainstream /ˈmeɪn.striːm/
motivated /ˈməʊ.tɪˌveɪ.tɪd/
motivational
/ˌməʊ.tɪˈveɪ.ʃən.əl/

motivating /ˈməʊtɪveɪtɪŋ/
practical /ˈpræk.tɪ.kəl/
self-motivated
/self ˈməʊ.tɪˌveɪ.tɪd/

motivator /ˈməʊtɪveɪtə/
nursery /ˈnɜː.sər.i/
objective /əbˈdʒek.tɪv/
opportunity

technical /ˈtek.nɪ.kəl/
traditional /trəˈdɪʃ.ən.əl/

/ˌɒp.əˈtjuː.nə.ti/
pre-school /ˈpriː.skuːl/
pioneer /ˌpaɪəˈnɪə/
position /pəˈzɪʃ.ən/
potential /pəˈten.ʃəl/
release /rɪˈliːs/
realisation /ˌrɪə.laɪˈzeɪ.ʃən/
researcher /rɪˈsɜːtʃ.ə/

firmly /ˈfɜːm.li/
highly /ˈhaɪ.li/
increasingly /ɪnˈkriː.sɪŋ.li/
newly /ˈnjuː.li/
politically /pəˈlɪt.ɪ.kli/
poorly /ˈpɔː.li/
strongly /ˈstrɒŋ.li/

ADVERBS

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fluid /ˈfluː.ɪd/
healthcare /ˈhelθ.keə/
hygiene /ˈhaɪ.dʒiːn/
immunisation

NOUN PHRASES
children with special needs
boarding school
day release
development opportunity
distance-learning course
early years
faith school
fee-paying school
further education
hands-on experience
higher education
local state school
independent school
primary school
secondary school
special needs
teaching method
team-building day
technical college
training plans

/ˌɪm.jə.naɪˈzeɪ.ʃən/

immunity /ɪˈmjuː.nɪ.ti/
influenza /ˌɪn.fluˈen.zə/
infection /ɪnˈfek.ʃən/
injury /ˈɪn.dʒər.i/
intake /ˈɪn.teɪk/
malnutrition
/ˌmæl.njuːˈtrɪ.ʃən/

medication /ˌmed.ɪˈkeɪ.ʃən/
medicine /ˈmed.ɪ.sən/
metabolism
/məˈtæb.əl.ɪ.zəm/

misconduct
/ˌmɪsˈkɒn.dʌkt/

misdiagnosis
/ˌmɪs.daɪ.əɡˈnəʊ.sɪs/
misfortune /ˌmɪsˈfɔː.tʃuːn/

misinformation

VERB PHRASES

/ˌmɪs.ɪn.fəˈmeɪ.ʃən/

apply for a course
be firmly established
be fundamental to sth
be highly educated
be highly influential
be increasingly influential
be newly established
be politically motivated
be poorly educated
be strongly motivated
graduate from university
give insight into sth
have a (good) influence on sb
have a love of sth
have a positive image of
yourself
learn by doing sth
raise funds for charity

Unit 33
NOUNS
appetite /ˈæp.ɪ.taɪt/
calories /ˈkæl.ər.iz/
cancer /ˈkæn.sə/
catastrophe /kəˈtæs.trə.fi/
dementia /dɪˈmen.ʃə/
depression /dɪˈpreʃ.ən/
disease /dɪˈziːz/
epidemic /ˌep.ɪˈdem.ɪk/

mismanagement
/ˌmɪsˈmænɪdʒmənt/

misrepresentation
/ˌmɪs.rep.rɪ.zenˈteɪ.ʃən/

obesity /əʊˈbiː.sə.ti/
pandemic /pænˈdem.ɪk/
prevention /prɪˈven.ʃən/
suppressant /səˈpres.ənt/
starvation /stɑːˈveɪ.ʃən/
toll /təʊl/
treatment /ˈtriːt.mənt/

VERBS
cope /kəʊp/
contract /ˈkɒn.trækt/
detoxify /diːˈtɒk.sɪ.faɪ/
immunise /ˈɪm.jə.naɪz/
infect /ɪnˈfekt/
medicate /ˈmed.ɪ.keɪt/
prevent /prɪˈvent/
spread /spred/
transmit /trænzˈmɪt/
treat /triːt/

ADJECTIVES
acute /əˈkjuːt/
contagious /kənˈteɪ.dʒəs/
critical /ˈkrɪt.ɪ.kəl/
dehydrated
/ˌdiː.haɪˈdreɪ.tɪd/

elderly /ˈel.dəl.i/
essential /ɪˈsen.ʃəl/

immune /ɪˈmjuːn/
infectious /ɪnˈfek.ʃəs/
infected /ɪnˈfek.tɪd/
insufficient /ˌɪn.səˈfɪʃ.ənt/
medical /ˈmed.ɪ.kəl/
medicated /ˈmed.ɪ.keɪ.tɪd/
metabolic /ˌmet.əˈbɒl.ɪk/
preventable /prɪˈven.tə.bl/
preventative
/prɪˈven.tə.tɪv/

prone /prəʊn/
treatable /ˈtriː.tə.bəl/
untreated /ʌnˈtriː.tɪd/
vital /ˈvaɪ.təl/
waterborne /ˈwɔː.tə.bɔːn/

ADVERBS
substantially
/səbˈstæn.ʃəl.i/

NOUN PHRASES
a balanced diet
access to healthcare
appetite suppressant
death toll
energy intake
heart disease
medical advance
metabolic rate
professional misconduct
rate at which you do sth
regular exercise
respiratory system
the elderly
waterborne disease

VERB PHRASES
be a vital part of sth
be essential to sth
be on a diet
be prone to
be run down
burn calories
lose weight
play an important role
sweep the globe

Unit 34
NOUNS
altitude /ˈæl.tɪ.tjuːd/
authority /ɔːˈθɒr.ɪ.ti/
awareness /əˈweə.nəs/
cabin /ˈkæb.ɪn/

comeback /ˈkʌm.bæk/
dinghy /ˈdɪŋ.gi/
fraction /ˈfræk.ʃən/
income /ˈɪn.kʌm/
increase /ɪnˈkriːs/
journey /ˈdʒɜː.ni/
network /ˈnet.wɜːk/
pavement /ˈpeɪv.mənt/
rent /rent/
runway /ˈrʌn.weɪ/
theft /θeft/
vehicle /ˈviː.ɪ.kl/

VERBS
hail /heɪl/
opt /ɒpt/
pedal /ˈped.əl/
rent /rent/
relinquish /rɪˈlɪŋ.kwɪʃ/
row /rəʊ/

ADJECTIVES
conventional
/kənˈven.ʃən.əl/

confined /kənˈfaɪnd/
costly /ˈkɒst.li/
clean-running /kliːn ˈrʌn.ɪŋ/
dramatic /drəˈmæt.ɪk/
eco-friendly
/ˈiː.kəʊˌfrend.li/

extensive /ɪkˈsten.sɪv/
finite /ˈfaɪ.naɪt/
incompatible
/ˌɪn.kəmˈpæt.ɪ.bl/

inflatable /ɪnˈfleɪ.tə.bl/
leaky /ˈliː.ki/
miniature /ˈmɪn.ɪ.tʃə/
packed /pækt/
potential /pəˈten.ʃəl/
preposterous
/prɪˈpɒs.tər.əs/

realistic /ˌrɪəˈlɪs.tɪk/
timetabled /ˈtaɪmˌteɪ.bəld/
unrealistic /ˌʌn.rɪəˈlɪs.tɪk/

NOUN PHRASES
a dramatic increase
a fraction of
a heavy fine
a means of
a realistic prospect
black cab
carbon emissions
commuter train
cargo ship

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energy consumption
finite resource
folding bicycle
fossil fuel
inflatable dinghy
key advantage
local authority
pedestrian zone
private car
returnable deposit
roll-on, roll-off ferry
row a dinghy
sightseeing bus
speed awareness
top speed
traffic lane

VERB PHRASES
be a costly business
be an alternative to
be confined to
be fitted with
be incompatible with
be on a low income
board a train
book a cabin
drive / travel at speeds of
(up to)
get around
get away with doing sth
get by
get out of doing sth
get round to doing sth
hail a cab
make a comeback
pop out to (a place)
undergo training in sth

Unit 35
NOUNS
anger /ˈæŋ.gə/
anxiety /æŋˈzaɪ.ə.ti/
apprehension
/ˌæp.rɪˈhen.ʃən/

attitude /ˈæt.ɪ.tjuːd/
authority /ɔːˈθɒr.ɪ.ti/
bully /ˈbʊl.i/
confrontation
/ˌkɒn.frʌnˈteɪ.ʃən/

calm /kɑːm/
contentment
/kənˈtent.mənt/

dreamer /ˈdriː.mə/
6

fury /ˈfjʊə.ri/
misery /ˈmɪz.ər.i/
optimism /ˈɒp.tɪ.mɪ.zəm/
optimist /ˈɒp.tɪ.mɪst/
patience /ˈpeɪ.ʃəns/
positivity /ˌpɒz.ə.ˈtɪv.ɪ.ti/
relaxation /ˌriː.lækˈseɪ.ʃən/
sieve /sɪv/

VERBS
confront /kənˈfrʌnt/
frown /fraʊn/
groan /grəʊn/
honour /ˈɒn.ə/
infuriate /ɪnˈfjʊə.ri.eɪt/
narrow /ˈnær.əʊ/
trigger /ˈtrɪg.ər/
recall /rɪˈkɔːl/
repress /rɪˈpres/
retain /rɪˈteɪn/
relive /ˌriːˈlɪv/
sail /seɪl/
stammer /ˈstæm.ə/
tremble /ˈtrem.bl/
twist /twɪst/
wrinkle /ˈrɪŋ.kl/

ADJECTIVES
apprehensive
/ˌæp.rɪˈhen.sɪv/

anxious /ˈæŋk.ʃəs/
astonishing /əˈstɒn.ɪ.ʃɪŋ/
calm /kɑːm/
confrontational
/ˌkɒn.frʌnˈteɪ.ʃən.əl/
contented /kənˈten.tɪd/
dejected /dɪˈdʒek.tɪd/
devastated /ˈdev.ə.steɪ.tɪd/
devastating /ˈdev.ə.steɪ.tɪŋ/

excruciating
/ɪkˈskruː.ʃi.eɪ.tɪŋ/

fascinating /ˈfæs.ɪ.neɪ.tɪŋ/
furious /ˈfjʊə.ri.əs/
hideous /ˈhɪd.i.əs/
laid-back /ˌleɪdˈbæk/
ludicrous /ˈluː.dɪ.krəs/
memorable /ˈmem.ər.ə.bl/
miserable /ˈmɪz.ər.ə.bl/
nervous /ˈnɜː.vəs/
optimistic /ˌɒp.tɪˈmɪs.tɪk/
patient /ˈpeɪ.ʃənt/
petrifying /ˈpet.rɪfaɪ.ɪŋ/
positive /ˈpɒz.ə.tɪv/
ravenous /ˈræv.ən.əs/
relaxed /rɪˈlækst/

superb /suːˈpɜːb/
tearful /ˈtɪə.fəl/
terrific /təˈrɪf.ɪk/
tragic /ˈtrædʒ.ɪk/
traumatic /trɔːˈmæt.ɪk/
treasured /ˈtreʒəd/
upbeat /ʌpˈbiːt/
upset /ʌpˈset/
uptight /ˌʌpˈtaɪt/
vague /veɪg/

ADVERBS
absolutely /ˌæb.səˈluːt.li/
bitterly /ˈbɪt.ə.li/
completely /kəmˈpliːt.li/
endlessly /ˈend.ləsli/
extraordinarily
/ɪkˈstrɔː.dɪn.ər.əl.i/

faintly /ˈfeɪnt.li/
hopelessly /ˈhəʊp.ləs.li/
incredibly /ɪnˈkred.ɪ.bli/
indefinitely /ɪnˈdef.ɪ.nət.li/
literally /ˈlɪt.ər.əl.i/
mildly /ˈmaɪld.li/
obviously /ˈɒb.vi.əs.li/
outwardly /ˈaʊtwədli/
particularly /pəˈtɪk.jʊ.lə.li/
thoroughly /ˈθʌr.ə.li/
totally /ˈtəʊ.təl.i/
utterly /ˈʌt.əl.i/

NOUN PHRASES
a bitter memory
a childhood memory
an early memory
long-term memory
a photographic memory
a mind like a sieve
short-term memory
a traumatic memory
a treasured memory

VERB PHRASES
be bitterly disappointing/
disappointed
be endlessly fascinating
be faintly ludicrous
be hopelessly optimistic
be in a mood
be mildly painful
be particularly good
be put off by sth
be thoroughly miserable
be up and down
bite your nails

bring back a memory
calm down
deal with bullies
demand an apology
fly off the handle
frown deeply
go in one ear and out the
other
go wrong
have a can-do attitude
have a (good) memory for
have an attitude problem
have mood swings
have sth on your mind
have your head in the clouds
honour the memory of sb
jog sb’s memory
lighten up
look outwardly calm
narrow your eyes
not be in the mood
not feel like doing sth
not have a care in the world
repress a memory
relive a memory
sail through life

Unit 36
NOUNS
academia /ˌæk.əˈdiː.mi.ə/
accomplishment
/əˈkʌm.plɪʃ.mənt/

addict /ˈæd.ɪkt/
addiction /əˈdɪk.ʃən/
attention /əˈten.ʃən/
benefit /ˈben.ɪ.fɪt/
celebrity /sɪˈleb.rɪ.ti/
compensation
/ˌkɒm.penˈseɪ.ʃən/

consultancy /kənˈsʌl.tən.si/
coverage /ˈkʌv.ər.ɪdʒ/
credibility /ˌkred.əˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/
devotion /dɪˈvəʊ.ʃən/
drama /ˈdrɑː.mə/
dramatist /ˈdræm.ə.tɪst/
embarrassment
/ɪmˈbær.əs.mənt/

empire /ˈem.paɪə/
endorsements
/ɪnˈdɔːsmənts/

genre /ˈʒɑ̃ː.rə/
entitlement /ɪnˈtaɪ.tl.mənt/
envy /ˈen.vi/

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esteem /ɪˈstiːm/
exposure /ɪkˈspəʊ.ʒə/
fame /feɪm/
fantasist /ˈfæn.tə.sɪst/
fantasy /ˈfæn.tə.si/
fee /fiː/
gift /gɪft/
gossip /ˈgɒs.ɪp/
dramatisation

monitor /ˈmɒn.ɪ.tə/
recommend /ˌrek.əˈmend/
stalk /stɔːk/
unwind /ʌnˈwaɪnd/

ADJECTIVES
addicted /əˈdɪk.tɪd/
addictive /əˈdɪk.tɪv/
compulsive /kəmˈpʌl.sɪv/
dramatic /drəˈmæt.ɪk/
everyday /ˈev.ri.deɪ/
fantastical /fænˈtæs.tɪkəl/
humorous /ˈhjuː.mə.rəs/
immense /ɪˈmens/
lucrative /ˈluː.krə.tɪv/
manipulative

/ˌdræm.ə.taɪˈzeɪ.ʃən/

infatuation
/ɪnˌfæt.juˈeɪ.ʃən/

jealousy /ˈdʒel.ə.si/
legend /ˈledʒ.ənd/
lifestyle /ˈlaɪf.staɪl/
manipulation

/məˈnɪp.jʊ.lə.tɪv/

/məˌnɪp.jʊˈleɪ.ʃən/

manufactured

manipulator
/məˈnɪp.jʊ.leɪ.tə/
media /ˈmiː.di.ə/
non-believer /ˌnɒn.bɪˈliː.və/
non-fiction /ˌnɒnˈfɪk.ʃən/
non-smoker /ˌnɒnˈsməʊ.kə/
non-starter /ˌnɒnˈstɑː.tə/

/ˌmæn.jəˈfæk.tʃəd/

non-addictive
/ˌnɒn.əˈdik.tɪv/

non-disposable

non-judgemental

/ˌnɒnˈswɪm.ə/
novel /ˈnɒv.əl/
obsession /əbˈseʃ.ən/
paparazzi /ˌpæp.ərˈæt.si/
perk /pɜːk/

/ˌnɒn.dʒʌdʒˈmen.təl/

non-political
/nɒn pəˈlɪt.ɪ.kəl/

non-profit-making
/ˌnɒnˈprɒf.ɪtˌmeɪ.kɪŋ/

personality
/ˌpɜː.sənˈæl.ə.ti/
popularity /ˌpɒp.jʊˈlær.ə.ti/
programme /ˈprəʊ.græm/
prosperity /prɒsˈper.ɪ.ti/
reality /riˈæl.ɪ.ti/
recognition /ˌrek.əgˈnɪʃ.ən/
respect /rɪˈspekt/
reward /rɪˈwɔːd/
royalty /ˈrɔɪ.əl.ti/
sector /ˈsek.tə/
showbiz /ˈʃəʊ.bɪz/
skill /skɪl/
stardom /ˈstɑː.dəm/
talent /ˈtæl.ənt/
value /ˈvæl.juː/

VERBS
achieve /əˈtʃiːv/
addict /ˈæd.ɪkt/
attain /əˈteɪn/
dramatise /ˈdræm.ə.taɪz/
envy /ˈen.vi/
fantasise /ˈfæn.tə.saɪz/
manipulate /məˈnɪp.jʊ.leɪt/

VERB PHRASES
be in the public eye
be highly sought-after
be readily available
find common ground
not be everyone’s cup of tea

/nɒn dɪˈspəʊ.zə.bl/

non-essential
/ˌnɒn.ɪˈsen.tʃəl/

non-swimmer

compulsive viewing
everyday life
group dynamics
mass media
media attention
media coverage
media empire
ordinary people
public appearance
reality television
sporting legend
story line
television genre
television personality
trashy novel

non-specific
/ˌnɒn.spəˈsɪf.ɪk/

non-standard
/ˌnɒnˈstæn.dəd/

ordinary /ˈɔː.dɪ.nə.ri/
sought-after /ˈsɔːtˌɑːf.tər/
talented /ˈtæl.ən.tɪd/
trashy /ˈtræʃ.i/
unscripted /ʌnˈskrɪp.tɪd/
weird /wɪəd/
world-famous
/ˌwɜːldˈfeɪ.məs/

ADVERBS
highly /ˈhaɪ.li/
rarely /ˈreə.li/
readily /ˈred.ɪ.li/

NOUN PHRASES
a big name
celebrity endorsements
celebrity gossip
celebrity lifestyle
complete rubbish

Unit 37
NOUNS
advice /ədˈvaɪs/
advisor /ədˈvaɪ.zə/
breakdown /ˈbreɪk.daʊn/
break-up /ˈbreɪk.ʌp/
conflict /ˈkɒn.flɪkt/
dispute /dɪˈspjuːt/
failure /ˈfeɪ.ljər/
globalisation
/ˌɡləʊbəlaɪˈzeɪʃən/

intake /ˈɪn.teɪk/
judge /dʒʌdʒ/
letdown /ˈlet.daʊn/
listener /ˈlɪs.ən.ə/
loggerheads /ˈlɒg.ə.hedz/
mediator /ˈmiː.di.eɪ.tə/
outbreak /ˈaʊt.breɪk/
partnership /ˈpɑːt.nə.ʃɪp/
phenomenon
/fəˈnɒm.ɪ.nən/
sake /seɪk/
stability /stəˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/
upbringing /ˈʌpˌbrɪŋ.ɪŋ/

VERBS
appease /əˈpiːz/
appreciate /əˈpriː.ʃi.eɪt/
contribute /kənˈtrɪb.juːt/
doubt /daʊt/

drift /drɪft/
endanger /ɪnˈdeɪn.dʒə/
erode /ɪˈrəʊd/
impart /ɪmˈpɑːt/
inform /ɪnˈfɔːm/
instil /ɪnˈstɪl/
overlook /ˌəʊ.vəˈlʊk/
question /ˈkwes.tʃən/
recognise /ˈrek.əɡ.naɪz/
ruin /ˈruː.ɪn/
soothe /suːð/
tolerate /ˈtɒl.ər.eɪt/
weaken /ˈwiː.kən/

ADJECTIVES
cherished /ˈtʃer.ɪʃt/
close-knit /ˌkləʊsˈnɪt/
committed /kəˈmɪt.ɪd/
comprehensive
/ˌkɒm.prɪˈhen.sɪv/

concerned /kənˈsɜːnd/
dependable /dɪˈpen.də.bl/
distraught /dɪˈstrɔːt/
dysfunctional
/dɪsˈfʌŋk.ʃən.əl/

fragile /ˈfrædʒ.aɪl/
impartial /ɪmˈpɑː.ʃəl/
idyllic /ɪˈdɪl.ɪk/
loving /ˈlʌv.ɪŋ/
middle-class /ˌmɪd.lˈklɑːs/
privileged /ˈprɪv.əl.ɪdʒd/
pushy /ˈpʊʃ.i/
sheltered /ˈʃel.təd/
solid /ˈsɒl.ɪd/
stable /ˈsteɪ.bl/
supportive /səˈpɔː.tɪv/
tough /tʌf/
traumatic /trɔːˈmæt.ɪk/
tricky /ˈtrɪk.i/
troubled /ˈtrʌb.ld/
turbulent /ˈtɜː.bjʊ.lənt/
uneasy /ʌnˈiː.zi/

ADVERBS
constantly /ˈkɒn.stənt.li/

NOUN PHRASES
anxious parents
close-knit family
comfortable upbringing
committed relationship
concerned parents
difficult childhood
distraught parents
dysfunctional family

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idyllic childhood
legal document
loving family
middle-class upbringing
privileged upbringing
pushy parents
secure relationship
sheltered upbringing
social circle
solid relationship
supportive family
stable relationship
strong family
tough upbringing
traumatic childhood
troubled childhood
turbulent childhood
uneasy relationship
worried parents

VERB PHRASES
be up against a brick wall
be at loggerheads
be there for sb
be thoroughly dependable
break down
break out
break up
bridge a gap
do/say sth behind sb’s back
do sth for the sake of (profit)
drift apart
fall for
fall out
get sb interested
go into business
have a fall out
have a wealth of
have high expectations
let sb down
mess up
not be speaking to each
other
perform a balancing act
provide stability
take sides

Unit 38
NOUNS
adjustment /əˈdʒʌst.mənt/
calorie /ˈkæl.ər.i/
cuisine /kwɪˈziːn/
destination /ˌdes.tɪˈneɪ.ʃən/
8

exercise /ˈek.sə.saɪz/
favour /ˈfeɪ.və/
fee /fiː/
gossip /ˈgɒs.ɪp/
pastime /ˈpɑːs.taɪm/
pro /prəʊ/
resort /rɪˈzɔːt/
scenery /ˈsiː.nər.i/
spectator /spekˈteɪ.tə/
view /vjuː/

VERBS
encourage /ɪnˈkʌr.ɪdʒ/
honeymoon /ˈhʌn.i.muːn/
include /ɪnˈkluːd/
pack /pæk/
reassure /ˌriː.əˈʃɔː/
sacrifice /ˈsæk.rɪ.faɪs/

ADJECTIVES
all-inclusive
/ˌɔːl.ɪnˈkluː.sɪv/

artificial /ˌɑː.tɪˈfɪʃ.əl/
authentic /ɔːˈθen.tɪk/
discouraged /dɪˈskʌr.ɪdʒd/
distracting /dɪˈstræktɪŋ/
enjoyable /ɪnˈdʒɔɪ.ə.bl/
excessive /ekˈses.ɪv/
exhausting /ɪgˈzɔː.stɪŋ/
exhilarating
/ɪgˈzɪl.ə.reɪ.tɪŋ/

exorbitant /ɪgˈzɔː.bɪ.tənt/
exotic /ɪgˈzɒt.ɪk/
extortionate /ɪkˈstɔː.ʃən.ət/
extravagant
/ɪkˈstræv.ə.gənt/

far-flung /ˌfɑːˈflʌŋ/
foreign /ˈfɒr.ən/
genuine /ˈdʒen.ju.ɪn/
incredible /ɪnˈkred.ɪ.bl/
international
/ˌɪn.təˈnæʃ.ən.əl/

isolated /ˈaɪ.sə.leɪ.tɪd/
local /ˈləʊ.kəl/
regional /ˈriː.dʒən.əl/
remote /rɪˈməʊt/
self-catering
/ˌselfˈkeɪ.tər.ɪŋ/

spectacular
/spekˈtæk.jʊ.lə/

tropical /ˈtrɒp.ɪ.kəl/
unheard-of /ʌnˈhɜːd.ɒv/
wasteful /ˈweɪst.fəl/

ADVERBS
drastically /ˈdræs.tɪk.li/

NOUN PHRASES
adventure holiday
aerobics class
aerobics routine
aerobics workout
beach holiday
cycling accident
cycling enthusiast
cycling helmet
dance partner
dance move
dance step
family holiday
football pitch
football tournament
holiday destination
holiday insurance
holiday resort
holiday season
international flight
martial arts instructor
martial arts fighter
martial arts expert
package holiday
tennis lesson
tennis coach
tennis court
two-week break
two-week holiday
swimming goggles
walking tour
walking boots
walking pace

VERB PHRASES
activate muscles
be good for you
be low on sth
book a holiday
burn off calories
call sth off
cancel a holiday
catch up with gossip
close sth off
creep along
cut sth off
do sb a favour
get out and about
hang back (from doing sth)
include sb in your plans
make minor adjustments
put sb off sth

ring off
set off
start off
switch sth off
trigger off sth
wear off

Unit 39
NOUNS
accountability
/əˌkaʊn.təˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/

analysis /əˈnæl.ə.sɪs/
analyst /ˈæn.ə.lɪst/
channel /ˈtʃæn.əl/
consumer /kənˈsjuː.mə/
consumption
/kənˈsʌmp.ʃən/

device /dɪˈvaɪs/
dominance /ˈdɒm.ɪ.nəns/
domination
/ˌdɒm.ɪˈneɪ.ʃən/

emergence /ɪˈmɜː.dʒəns/
expense /ɪkˈspens/
explosion /ɪkˈspləʊ.ʒən/
explosive /ɪkˈspləʊ.sɪv/
expression /ɪkˈspreʃ.ən/
freedom /ˈfriː.dəm/
libel /ˈlaɪ.bəl/
material /məˈtɪə.ri.əl/
navigation /ˌnæv.ɪˈgeɪ.ʃən/
privacy /ˈprɪv.ə.si/
proposal /prəˈpəʊ.zəl/
rival /ˈraɪ.vəl/
sanction /ˈsæŋk.ʃən/
storage /ˈstɔː.rɪdʒ/
subscriber /səbˈskraɪ.bə/
subscription /səbˈskrɪp.ʃən/
analyse /ˈæn.əl.aɪz/

VERBS
block /blɒk/
bypass /ˈbaɪ.pɑːs/
consume /kənˈsjuːm/
dominate /ˈdɒm.ɪ.neɪt/
emerge /ɪˈmɜːdʒ/
explode /ɪkˈspləʊd/
renew /rɪˈnjuː/
reveal /rɪˈviːl/
prohibit /prəˈhɪb.ɪt/
prove /pruːv/
publish /ˈpʌb.lɪʃ/
subscribe /səbˈskraɪb/
sue /suː/

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mobile device
navigation device
news coverage
nuclear device
portable device
press freedom
public interest
storage device
targeted information
television channel

ADJECTIVES
analytic /ˌæn.əlˈɪt.ɪk/
analytical /ˌæn.əˈlɪt.ɪ.kəl/
consumable
/kənˈsjuː.mə.bəl/

digital /ˈdɪdʒ.ɪ.təl/
dominant /ˈdɒm.ɪ.nənt/
electronic /ɪˌlekˈtrɒn.ɪk/
emergent /ɪˈmɜː.dʒənt/
emerging /ɪˈmɜː.dʒɪŋ/
expert /ˈek.spɜːt/
explosive /ɪkˈspləʊ.sɪv/
handheld /ˌhændˈheld/
in-depth /ˈɪn.depθ/
innovative /ˈɪn.ə.və.tɪv/
investigative

VERB PHRASES

/ɪnˈves.tɪ.gə.tɪv/

labour-saving
/ˈleɪ.bəˌseɪ.vɪŋ/

mechanical /məˈkæn.ɪ.kəl/
mobile /ˈməʊ.baɪl/
oversubscribed
/ˌəʊ.və.səbˈskraɪbd/

sensitive /ˈsen.sɪ.tɪv/
targeted /ˈtɑːɡɪtɪd/
undersubscribed
/ˌʌndəsəbˈskraɪbd/

unfiltered /ʌnˈfɪl.təd/

ADVERBS

Unit 40

directly /daɪˈrekt.li/
fundamentally

NOUNS

/ˌfʌn.dəˈmen.təl.i/
honestly /ˈɒn.ɪst.li/
politically /pəˈlɪt.ɪ.kli/
thoroughly /ˈθʌr.ə.li/
undoubtedly /ʌnˈdaʊtɪdli/

wholeheartedly
/ˌhəʊlˈhɑː.tɪd.li/

NOUN PHRASES
communication device
diplomatic channels
electronic device
explosive device
human rights
freedom of expression
handheld device
in-depth news analysis
internet blog
investigative journalism
labour-saving device
mechanical device
media channel

be free from accountability
be given priority
be politically sensitive
do sth at sb’s expense
do sth without fear of
sanction
fight for dominance/
domination
have access to sth
renew a subscription
reveal sources
revise a law
shop around
stay up-to-date
subscribe to
tune in

agriculture /ˈæg.rɪ.kʌl.tʃə/
balance /ˈbæl.əns/
bill /bɪl/
construction
/kənˈstrʌk.ʃən/

contractor /kənˈtræk.tə/
coverage /ˈkʌv.ər.ɪdʒ/
description /dɪˈskrɪp.ʃən/
drill /drɪl/
education /ˌed.jʊˈkeɪ.ʃən/
enquiry /ɪnˈkwaɪə.ri/
entertainment
/en.təˈteɪn.mənt/

estate /ɪˈsteɪt/
ethic /ˈeθ.ɪk/
executive /ɪgˈzek.jʊ.tɪv/
expectations
/ˌek.spekˈteɪ.ʃənz/

extraction /ɪkˈstræk.ʃən/
festival /ˈfes.tɪ.vəl/
harvest /ˈhɑː.vɪst/
high street /ˈhaɪ.striːt/

hospitality /ˌhɒs.pɪˈtæl.ə.ti/
import /ɪmˈpɔːt/
influx /ˈɪn.flʌks/
jobseeker /ˈdʒɒbˌsiː.kə/
insurance /ɪnˈʃɔː.rəns/
labour /ˈleɪ.bə/
labourer /ˈleɪ.bər.ə/
loyalty /ˈlɔɪ.əl.ti/
manufacture
/ˌmæn.jʊˈfæk.tʃə/
market /ˈmɑː.kɪt/
migrant /ˈmaɪ.grənt/
mineral /ˈmɪn.ər.əl/
mining /ˈmaɪ.nɪŋ/
offer /ˈɒf.ə/

opportunity
/ˌɒp.əˈtjuː.nə.ti/

payout /ˈpeɪ.aʊt/
pesticide /ˈpes.tɪ.saɪd/
pit /pɪt/
policy /ˈpɒl.ə.si/
premium /ˈpriː.mi.əm/
produce /prəˈdjuːs/
promotion /prəˈməʊ.ʃən/
prospect /ˈprɒs.pekt/
queue /kjuː/
redundancy /rɪˈdʌn.dən.si/
retail /ˈriː.teɪl/
satisfaction
/ˌsæt.ɪsˈfæk.ʃən/

security /sɪˈkjʊə.rɪ.ti/
site /saɪt/
technology /tekˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/
tractor /ˈtræk.tə/
unemployment
/ˌʌn.ɪmˈplɔɪ.mənt/

venue /ˈven.juː/
wholesale /ˈhəʊl.seɪl/
workforce /ˈwɜːk.fɔːs/
workload /ˈwɜːk.ləʊd/
youth /juːθ/

VERBS
acquire /əˈkwaɪə/
bother /ˈbɒð.ə/
churn /tʃɜːn/
dictate /dɪkˈteɪt/
dismiss /dɪˈsmɪs/
disturb /dɪˈstɜːb/
fire /faɪə/
regret /rɪˈgret/
resign /rɪˈzaɪn/
retire /rɪˈtaɪə/
sack /sæk/
thrive /θraɪv/

ADJECTIVES
corporate /ˈkɔː.pər.ət/
freelance /ˈfriː.lɑːns/
industrial /ɪnˈdʌs.tri.əl/
non-existent
/ˌnɒn.ɪgˈzɪs.tənt/

ADVERBS
virtually /ˈvɜː.tju.ə.li/

NOUN PHRASES
call centre
child labour
customer services
doom and gloom
equal opportunities
freelance work
general office skills
head office
industrial action
job description
job market
job offer
job opportunity
job satisfaction
job security
labour market
migrant labour
minimum wage
public services
retirement age
work clothes
work colleague
work environment
work ethic
work experience
work-life balance
work permit
work space
youth unemployment

VERB PHRASES
be fired
be made redundant
be out of work
be passionate about sth
be sacked
be virtually non-existent
climb the corporate ladder
churn out sth
cover costs
fill a gap
have prospects
lay sb off

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not bother sb much
pick up
spring up
take over from sb
try in vain

Unit 41
NOUNS
crash /kræʃ/
crisis /ˈkraɪ.sɪs/
debt /det/
downturn /ˈdaʊn.tɜːn/
expenditure
/ɪkˈspen.dɪ.tʃə/

free fall /ˈfriː.fɔːl/
income /ˈɪn.kʌm/
inflation /ɪnˈfleɪ.ʃən/
investment /ɪnˈvest.mənt/
investor /ɪnˈves.tə/
logo /ˈləʊ.gəʊ/
non-essentials
/ˌnɒn.ɪˈsen.tʃəlz/

succeed /səkˈsiːd/
survey /ˈsɜː.veɪ/
tumble /ˈtʌm.bl/
weaken /ˈwiː.kən/
worsen /ˈwɜː.sən/

alarming /əˈlɑː.mɪŋ/
bust /bʌst/
disconcerting
/ˌdɪskənˈsɜːtɪŋ/

disturbing /dɪˈstɜː.bɪŋ/
jumpy /ˈdʒʌm.pi/
overall /ˌəʊ.vəˈrɔːl/
productive /prəˈdʌk.tɪv/
troubling /ˈtrʌb.lɪŋ/
worldwide /ˌwɜːldˈwaɪd/

ADVERBS
dramatically
/drəˈmæt.ɪ.kəl.i/

uncontrollably
/ˌʌn.kənˈtrəʊ.lə.bli/

tightly /ˈtaɪt.li/

NOUN PHRASES

VERBS

be out of the woods
be in a mess
be in free fall
build a relationship
cut sth to the bone
eke out
establish a business
establish a relationship
focus on sth
get jumpy
go bust
have advantages over sb/sth
hit hard
inch up
keep up payments
keep a check on
maintain a relationship
make ends meet
pay off (debts)

10

Unit 42

ADJECTIVES

partner /ˈpɑːt.nə/
partnership /ˈpɑːt.nə.ʃɪp/
pension /ˈpen.ʃən/
profit /ˈprɒf.ɪt/
rate /reɪt/
recession /rɪˈseʃ.ən/
retailer /ˈriː.teɪ.lə/
slump /slʌmp/
spending /ˈspen.dɪŋ/
stock /stɒk/
sword /sɔːd/

climb /klaɪm/
cut /kʌt/
eke /iːk/
establish /ɪˈstæb.lɪʃ/
finance /ˈfaɪ.næns/
flourish /ˈflʌr.ɪʃ/
inch /ɪntʃ/
invest /ɪnˈvest/
launch /lɔːntʃ/
lower /ˈləʊ.ə/
maintain /meɪnˈteɪn/
produce /prəˈdjuːs/
prosper /ˈprɒs.pə/
rate /reɪt/
reduce /rɪˈdjuːs/
rocket /ˈrɒk.ɪt/
slash /slæʃ/
soar /sɔː/

set up a business
seek out
shoot up

a double-edged sword
an alarming rate
cost of living
credit crunch
economic decline
interest rate
pension fund
stock market

VERB PHRASES

NOUNS
aloe /ˈæl.əʊ/
amphibian /æmˈfɪb.i.ən/
ant /ænt/
antennae /ænˈteniː/
bark /bɑːk/
basis /ˈbeɪ.sɪs/
beak /biːk/
bud /bʌd/
burrow /ˈbʌr.əʊ/
bush /bʊʃ/
calf /kɑːf/
chick /tʃɪk/
claw /klɔː/
climate /ˈklaɪ.mət/
coal /kəʊl/
colony /ˈkɒl.ə.ni/
construction
/kənˈstrʌk.ʃən/

cosmetic /kɒzˈmet.ɪk/
cricket /ˈkrɪk.ɪt/
crocodile /ˈkrɒk.ə.daɪl/
crop /krɒp/
cub /kʌb/
den /den/
ecosystem /ˈiː.kəʊˌsɪs.təm/
electricity /ɪˌlekˈtrɪs.ɪ.ti/
enclosure /ɪnˈkləʊ.ʒə/
existence /ɪgˈzɪs.təns/
extinction /ɪkˈstɪŋk.ʃən/
fang /fæŋ/
feather /ˈfeð.ə/
foal /fəʊl/
fossil /ˈfɒs.əl/
frog /frɒg/
glue /gluː/
gills /ɡɪlz/
globe /gləʊb/
grain /greɪn/
grub /grʌb/
habitat /ˈhæb.ɪ.tæt/
herd /hɜːd/
hive /haɪv/
honey /ˈhʌn.i/
ingredient /ɪnˈgriː.di.ənt/
kennel /ˈken.əl/
kitten /ˈkɪt.ən/
leaf /liːf/

lizard /ˈlɪz.əd/
mackerel /ˈmæk.rəl/
mammal /ˈmæm.əl/
material /məˈtɪə.ri.əl/
medicine /ˈmed.ɪ.sən/
newt /njuːt/
owl /aʊl/
pack /pæk/
paw /pɔː/
pod /pɒd/
pollen /ˈpɒl.ən/
pollination /ˌpɒl.əˈneɪ.ʃən/
proportion /prəˈpɔː.ʃən/
pup /pʌp/
reptile /ˈrep.taɪl/
roots /ruːts/
salmon /ˈsæm.ən/
scales /skeɪlz/
seed /siːd/
shark /ʃɑːk/
shelter /ˈʃel.tə/
shoal /ʃəʊl/
snake /sneɪk/
soap /səʊp/
species /ˈspiː.ʃiːz/
sting /stɪŋ/
swallow /ˈswɒl.əʊ/
swarm /swɔːm/
theorist /ˈθɪə.rɪst/
theory /ˈθɪə.ri/
timber /ˈtɪm.bə/
toad /təʊd/
trunk /trʌŋk/
vertebrate /ˈvɜː.tɪ.brət/
vulture /ˈvʌl.tʃə/
whale /weɪl/
willow /ˈwɪl.əʊ/
wolf /wʊlf/
yew /juː/

VERBS
breed /briːd/
buzz /bʌz/
clone /kləʊn/
groom /gruːm/
growl /graʊl/
hatch /hætʃ/
hibernate /ˈhaɪ.bə.neɪt/
hiss /hɪs/
hoot /huːt/
howl /haʊl/
lay /leɪ/
mate /meɪt/
migrate /maɪˈgreɪt/
nest /nest/

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poach /pəʊtʃ/
pollinate /ˈpɒl.ə.neɪt/
prey /preɪ/
purify /ˈpjʊə.rɪ.faɪ/
rattle /ˈræt.l/
rear /rɪə/
scramble /ˈskræm.bl/
shed /ʃed/
slaughter /ˈslɔː.tə/
snarl /snɑːl/
theorise /ˈθɪə.raɪz/
vaccinate /ˈvæk.sɪ.neɪt/

ADJECTIVES
aquatic /əˈkwæt.ɪk/
arid /ˈær.ɪd/
carnivorous /kɑːˈnɪv.ər.əs/
declining /dɪˈklaɪnɪŋ/
domestic /dəˈmes.tɪk/
economic /iː.kəˈnɒm.ɪk/
exotic /ɪgˈzɒt.ɪk/
extinct /ɪkˈstɪŋkt/
fluffy /ˈflʌf.i/
forked /fɔːkt/
furry /ˈfɜː.ri/
harsh /hɑːʃ/
humid /ˈhjuː.mɪd/
medicinal /məˈdɪs.ɪ.nəl/
mild /maɪld/
nocturnal /nɒkˈtɜː.nəl/
omnivorous /ɒmˈnɪv.ər.əs/
pollinated /ˈpɒl.əneɪ.tɪd/
prescribed /prɪˈskraɪbd/
protected /prəˈtektɪd/
scaly /ˈskeɪ.li/
sharp /ʃɑːp/
temperate /ˈtem.pər.ət/
theoretical /θɪəˈret.ɪ.kəl/
venomous /ˈven.ə.məs/
vital /ˈvaɪ.təl/

ADVERBS
commonly /ˈkɒm.ən.li/

NOUN PHRASES
animal rights
aquatic plant
aquatic animal
arid climate
clean air
cold air
cold climate
domestic animal
endangered animal
food production

exotic plant
exotic animal
flowering plant
fresh air
food web
fossil fuel
furry animal
harsh climate
humid air
humid climate
marine animal
medicinal plant
mild climate
prescribed drugs
temperate climate
thin air
the water cycle
wild plant
wild animal

poison /ˈpɔɪ.zən/
profile /ˈprəʊ.faɪl/
proliferation

VERB PHRASES

articulate /ɑːˈtɪk.jʊ.lət/
automatic /ˌɔː.təˈmæt.ɪk/
casual /ˈkæʒ.ju.əl/
dependable /dɪˈpen.də.bl/
face-to-face /ˌfeɪs.təˈfeɪs/
former /ˈfɔː.mə/
frustrating /frʌsˈtreɪ.tɪŋ/
handwritten /ˌhændˈrɪt.ən/
heartfelt /ˈhɑːt.felt/
heartrending /ˈhɑːtˌren.dɪŋ/
informal /ɪnˈfɔː.məl/
loyal /ˈlɔɪ.əl/
multiple /ˈmʌl.tɪ.pl/
mutual /ˈmjuː.tʃu.əl/
permanent /ˈpɜː.mə.nənt/
scathing /ˈskeɪ.ðɪŋ/
scribbled /ˈskrɪb.əld/
social /ˈsəʊ.ʃəl/
soppy /ˈsɒp.i/
supportive /səˈpɔː.tɪv/
tedious /ˈtiː.di.əs/
thoughtful /ˈθɔːt.fəl/

beat about the bush
breed crops
do sth single-handed
go to seed
nip sth in the bud
provide (sb with) sth
take sth for granted
turn over a new leaf

Unit 43
NOUNS
aspect /ˈæs.pekt/
buddy /ˈbʌd.i/
chore /tʃɔː/
chum /tʃʌm/
component /kəmˈpəʊ.nənt/
concentration
/ˌkɒn.sənˈtreɪ.ʃən/

condolence /kənˈdəʊ.ləns/
contact /ˈkɒn.tækt/
credential /krɪˈden.ʃəl/
ease /iːz/
feature /ˈfiː.tʃə/
forum /ˈfɔː.rəm/
illusion /ɪˈluː.ʒən/
invoice /ˈɪn.vɔɪs/
mate /meɪt/
member /ˈmem.bə/
network /ˈnet.wɜːk/
pal /pæl/
petition /pəˈtɪʃ.ən/
pleasure /ˈpleʒ.ə/

/prəˌlɪf.ərˈeɪ.ʃən/

recipient /rɪˈsɪp.i.ənt/
relationship /rɪˈleɪ.ʃən.ʃɪp/
reputation /ˌrep.jʊˈteɪ.ʃən/
resignation /ˌrez.ɪgˈneɪ.ʃən/

VERBS
befriend /bɪˈfrend/
convey /kənˈveɪ/
create /kriˈeɪt/
express /ɪkˈspres/
reconnect /ˌriːkəˈnekt/
share /ʃeə/
socialise /ˈsəʊ.ʃəl.aɪz/
usurp /juːˈsɜːp/

ADJECTIVES

ADVERBS
hastily /ˈheɪ.stɪ.li/

NOUN PHRASES
automatic response
casual friendship
childhood friend
ease of use
fair-weather friend
former friend
greeting card
hastily scribbled (note)

informal greeting
letter of condolence
letter of resignation
long distances
multiple recipients
mutual friend
personal friend
poison-pen letter
text message
true friend
social networking site

VERB PHRASES
be a lost art
be a pleasure to be around
be on the move
brighten up
cannot be bothered
come across as
create a new identity
create an illusion
create an impression
dominate the conversation
do sth in person
end a friendship
establish your credentials
establish a network
establish a reputation
express feelings
get in touch with your
emotions
get in touch with reality
require concentration
organise a social event
pick up a skill
pick up an illness
pick up the phone
pick sb up
share your thoughts
share a passion
share your view
socialise with sb
take sb/sth seriously
ramble on for hours

Unit 44
NOUNS
agriculture /ˈæg.rɪ.kʌl.tʃə/
biodiversity
/ˌbaɪ.əʊ.daɪˈvɜː.sɪ.ti/

coastline /ˈkəʊst.laɪn/
conservation
/ˌkɒn.səˈveɪ.ʃən/

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cultivation /ˌkʌl.tɪˈveɪ.ʃən/
defoliation
/ˌdiː.fəʊ.liˈeɪ.ʃən/

deforestation
/diːˌfɒr.ɪˈsteɪ.ʃən/

density /ˈden.sɪ.ti/
ecosystem /ˈiː.kəʊˌsɪs.təm/
erosion /ɪˈrəʊ.ʒən/
estuary /ˈes.tjʊə.ri/
extinction /ɪkˈstɪŋk.ʃən/
fishery /ˈfɪʃ.ər.i/
formation /fɔːˈmeɪ.ʃən/
habitat /ˈhæb.ɪ.tæt/
identification
/aɪˌden.tɪ.fɪˈkeɪ.ʃən/

identity /aɪˈden.tɪ.ti/
intensification
/ɪnˌten.sɪ.fɪˈkeɪ.ʃən/

intensity /ɪnˈten.sɪ.ti/
landfill /ˈlænd.fɪl/
modification
/ˌmɒd.ɪ.fɪˈkeɪ.ʃən/

organism /ˈɔː.gən.ɪ.zəm/
overfishing /ˌəʊ.və.ˈfɪʃ.ɪŋ/
overgrazing /ˈəʊ.vər. ɡreɪzɪŋ/
overpopulation

renew /rɪˈnjuː/
replace /rɪˈpleɪs/
restore /rɪˈstɔː/
simplify /ˈsɪm.plɪ.faɪ/
solidify /səˈlɪd.ɪ.faɪ/

ADJECTIVES
abstract /ˈæb.strækt/
agricultural
/ˌæg.rɪˈkʌl.tʃər.əl/
/ˌbaɪ.əʊ.dɪˈgreɪ.dɪ.bl/

costly /ˈkɒst.li/
dense /dens/
eroded /ɪˈrəʊdɪd/
erosive /ɪˈrəʊ.sɪv/
fertile /ˈfɜː.taɪl/
inland /ˈɪn.lənd/
intense /ɪnˈtens/
intensive /ɪnˈten.sɪv/
introduced /ˌɪn.trəˈdʒuːst/
invasive /ɪnˈveɪ.sɪv/
modified /ˈmɒdɪfaɪd/
native /ˈneɪ.tɪv/
nuclear /ˈnjuː.klɪə/
overpopulated

/ˌəʊ.vəˌpɒp.jəˈleɪ.ʃən/

/ˌəʊ.vəˈpɒp.jʊ.leɪ.tɪd/

populated /ˈpɒp.jəleɪ.tɪd/
recyclable /ˌriːˈsaɪ.klə.bl/
renewable /rɪˈnjuː.ə.bl/
regenerated

/ˌpjʊə.rɪ.fɪˈkeɪ.ʃən/
/ˌriː.fɒr.ɪˈsteɪ.ʃən/

regeneration
/rɪˌdʒen.ərˈeɪ.ʃən/
salinity /səˈlɪn.ɪ.ti/

simplification
/ˌsɪm.plɪ.fɪˈkeɪ.ʃən/
soil /sɔɪl/

solidification
/səˌlɪd.ɪ.fɪˈkeɪ.ʃən/
symbol /ˈsɪm.bəl/
threaten /ˈθret.ən/
weed /wiːd/

VERBS
erode /ɪˈrəʊd/
install /ɪnˈstɔːl/
intensify /ɪnˈten.sɪ.faɪ/
modify /ˈmɒd.ɪ.faɪ/
overpopulate
/ˌəʊ.vəˈpɒp.jə.leɪt/

populate /ˈpɒp.jʊ.leɪt/
purify /ˈpjʊə.rɪ.faɪ/
refresh /rɪˈfreʃ/
regenerate /rɪˈdʒen.ər.eɪt/
12

be threatened with
extinction
be wasteful of (energy)
save the planet
wear sth away
wipe out species

Unit 45

biodegradable

population /ˌpɒp.jʊˈleɪ.ʃən/
purification
reforestation

VERB PHRASES

/rɪˈdʒen.əreɪ.tɪd/

unwanted /ʌnˈwɒn.tɪd/
urban /ˈɜː.bən/
wasteful /ˈweɪst.fəl/

NOUN PHRASES
agricultural land
coastal erosion
commercial agriculture
habitat modification
green living
intensive agriculture
invasive species
local farmer
marine population
native species
nuclear accident
oil spill
programme of regeneration
renewable resource
river mouth
soil erosion
urban development
waste treatment

NOUNS
advance /ədˈvɑːns/
aftershock /ˈɑːf.tə.ʃɒk/
anatomy /əˈnæt.ə.mi/
ancestor /ˈæn.ses.tə/
anthropology
/ˌæn.θrəˈpɒl.ə.dʒi/

antibiotic /ˌæn.ti.baɪˈɒt.ɪk/
archaeology /ˌɑː.kiˈɒl.ə.dʒi/
asteroid /ˈæs.tər.ɔɪd/
astronomy /əˈstrɒn.ə.mi/
atmosphere /ˈæt.mə.sfɪə/
battery /ˈbæt.ər.i/
behaviour /bɪˈheɪ.vjə/
bone /bəʊn/
breakthrough /ˈbreɪk.θruː/
carnivore /ˈkɑː.nɪ.vɔː/
characteristic
/ˌkær.ɪk.təˈrɪs.tɪk/

chemical /ˈkem.ɪ.kəl/
chromosome
/ˈkrəʊ.mə.səʊm/

comet /ˈkɒm.ɪt/
conclusion /kənˈkluː.ʒən/
custom /ˈkʌs.təm/
dig /dɪg/
disappearance
/ˌdɪs.əˈpɪə.rəns/

disease /dɪˈziːz/
discovery /dɪˈskʌv.ər.i/
drawback /ˈdrɔː.bæk/
earthquake /ˈɜːθ.kweɪk/
ecology /ɪˈkɒl.ə.dʒi/
emission /ɪˈmɪʃ.ən/
expectancy /ɪkˈspek.tən.si/
finding /ˈfaɪn.dɪŋ/
funding /ˈfʌn.dɪŋ/
galaxy /ˈgæl.ək.si/
genetics /dʒəˈnet.ɪks/
heredity /həˈred.ə.ti/
humidity /hjuːˈmɪd.ɪ.ti/
hurricane /ˈhʌr.ɪ.kən/
instinct /ˈɪn.stɪŋkt/

intelligence /ɪnˈtel.ɪ.dʒəns/
invention /ɪnˈven.ʃən/
joint /dʒɔɪnt/
magma /ˈmæg.mə/
memory /ˈmem.ər.i/
meteorology
/ˌmiː.ti.ərˈɒl.ə.dʒi/

microchip /ˈmaɪ.krəʊ.tʃɪp/
mind /maɪnd/
mutation /mjuːˈteɪ.ʃən/
nebular /ˈneb.jə.lə/
obstacle /ˈɒb.stɪ.kl/
orbit /ˈɔː.bɪt/
organ /ˈɔː.gən/
outcome /ˈaʊt.kʌm/
penicillin /ˌpen.əˈsɪl.ɪn/
petrol /ˈpet.rəl/
phenomenon
/fəˈnɒm.ɪ.nən/

prediction /prɪˈdɪk.ʃən/
pressure /ˈpreʃ.ə/
prey /preɪ/
psychology /saɪˈkɒl.ə.dʒi/
range /reɪndʒ/
reaction /riˈæk.ʃən/
remains /rɪˈmeɪnz/
sanitation /ˌsæn.ɪˈteɪ.ʃən/
seismology /saɪzˈmɒl.ə.dʒi/
settlement /ˈset.l.mənt/
shortage /ˈʃɔː.tɪdʒ/
spine /spaɪn/
taboo /təˈbuː/
technology /tekˈnɒl.ə.dʒi/
tremor /ˈtrem.ə/
tribe /traɪb/
variation /ˌveə.riˈeɪ.ʃən/
vein /veɪn/
venom /ˈvenəm/
volcano /vɒlˈkeɪ.nəʊ/
warfare /ˈwɔː.feə/
zoology /zuːˈɒl.ə.dʒi/

VERBS
ascertain /ˌæs.əˈteɪn/
cause /kɔːz/
conduct /kənˈdʌkt/
contradict /ˌkɒn.trəˈdɪkt/
demonstrate
/ˈdem.ən.streɪt/

determine /dɪˈtɜː.mɪn/
disprove /dɪˈspruːv/
erupt /ɪˈrʌpt/
hypothesise
/haɪˈpɒθ.ə.saɪz/

maintain /meɪnˈteɪn/

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observe /əbˈzɜːv/
overcome /ˌəʊ.vəˈkʌm/
predict /prɪˈdɪkt/
prove /pruːv/
review /rɪˈvjuː/
speculate /ˈspek.jʊ.leɪt/
suggest /səˈdʒest/
trigger /ˈtrɪg.ə/
undertake /ˌʌn.dəˈteɪk/

VERB PHRASES

ADJECTIVES
catastrophic
/ˌkæt.əˈstrɒf.ɪk/

clinical /ˈklɪn.ɪ.kəl/
effective /ɪˈfek.tɪv/
nervous /ˈnɜː.vəs/
nuclear /ˈnjuː.klɪə/
scientific /ˌsaɪənˈtɪf.ɪk/
significant /sɪgˈnɪf.ɪ.kənt/
unexpected

be vulnerable to disease
carry out research
cause a chemical reaction
conduct research
overcome a problem
set off a chemical reaction
take in (what sb says)
take off (commercially)
take sb off (medication)
take on (staff)
take over (a business)
take sb through (a
procedure)
take sb up (on an offer)
take sth up (as a career)
trigger a chemical reaction
undertake research

/ˌʌn.ɪkˈspek.tɪd/

vulnerable /ˈvʌl.nər.ə.bl/

NOUN PHRASES
birth control
branch of science
cause and effect
chemical reaction
climate change
clinical trial
common characteristic
countless lives
digital device
electric lighting
family car
food production
gas emissions
healthcare
laser surgery
life expectancy
major obstacle
medical advances
modern life
nervous system
nuclear energy
petrol tank
scientific breakthrough
significant advance
significant breakthrough
significant development
significant discovery
significant drawback
space shuttle
space station
unexpected finding
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