Tải bản đầy đủ

Handbook of business interest associations firm size and governance


Handbook of Business Interest
Associations, Firm Size and
Governance

Business interest associations have an important role in public policy,
industrial relations, and economic governance. Despite their relevance they
are under-researched both theoretically and empirically.
Traxler and Huemer’s innovative Handbook of Business Interest
Associations combines unique theoretical approaches with empirical research.
Part I offers a theory of business associations which centres on firm size as
the key explanatory variable. Part II consists of an analysis of 15 countries
and Part III contains a cross-national comparative study designed to test the
hypotheses of Part I.
Throughout the book a unique set of data on membership, structures,
activities and resources is introduced that make this book essential reading
for scholars across a range of disciplines, such as organization studies,
industrial relations, industrial sociology and political science, as well as for
practitioners in related fields.
Franz Traxler is Professor of Industrial Sociology at the University of Vienna
and was recently the President of the Austrian Sociological Association.

Gerhard Huemer is currently working for the European Crafts and SME
Association, UEAPME, where he is responsible for policy co-ordination,
public relations and strategic concepts for future developments.



Handbook of Business Interest
Associations, Firm Size and
Governance
A comparative analytical approach
Edited by
Franz Traxler and Gerhard Huemer


First published 2007
by Routledge
2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN
Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada
by Routledge
270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa
business
© 2007 Editorial matter and selection, Franz Traxler and
Gerhard Huemer; individual chapters, the contributors
This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007.
“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s
collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.”
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or
reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical,
or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including
photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or
retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
A catalog record for this book has been requested
ISBN 0-203-96107-2 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN10: 0–415–42466–6 (hbk)
ISBN10: 0–203–96107–2 (ebk)

ISBN13: 978–0–415–42466–0 (hbk)
ISBN13: 978–0–203–96107–0 (ebk)


Contents

List of illustrations
List of contributors
Acknowledgements
List of abbreviations
PART I

1 Introduction

vii
x
xiii
xiv

1
3

F RA N Z T RAX L E R

2 The theoretical and methodological framework of analysis

10

F RA N Z T RAX L E R

PART II

3 Austria

37
39

F RA N Z T RAX L E R

4 Belgium

64

PAT R I C K K E N IS AND FRANZ TRAXLE R

5 Denmark

85

C A R S T E N J ØRGE NSE N AND FRANZ TRAXLE R

6 Finland

107

J U HA HI E TA N E N AND FRANZ TRAXLE R

7 France
S A B I N E S AU R UGGE R

122


vi

Contents

8 Germany

141

J Ü RG E N R . G ROTE , ACH IM LANG AND FRANZ TRAXLER

9 Greece

177

A L I K I M OU R I KI AND FRANZ TRAXLE R

10 Ireland

192

F RA N Z T RAX L E R WITH E DE L WALSH E

11 Italy

204

A L E S S I A VAT TA

12 Luxembourg

230

PAT RI C K K E N IS AND FRANZ TRAXLE R

13 The Netherlands

245

PAT RI C K K E N IS AND FRANZ TRAXLE R

14 Portugal

258

R E I N H A R D N AUM ANN WITH M ARIA DA PAZ CA MPOS LIMA

15 Spain

279

R OS A N ON E L L AND JOAQUIM M . M OLINS LÓPEZ-RODÓ

16 Sweden

299

A N N I KA B E R G AND FRANZ TRAXLE R

17 United Kingdom

315

J U S T I N G R E E NWOOD AND FRANZ TRAXLE R

PART III

349

18 Business associability, activities and governance:
cross-national findings

351

F RA N Z T RAX L E R , B E RND B RANDL AND SUSANNE PERNIC KA

Appendix: variable definitions
References
Index

407
409
428


Illustrations

Figures
8.1
8.2
8.3

The structure of BDA
The structure of ZDH
Cooperation and competition within and among two clusters
of associations
15.1 Voluntary business associations in Spain: the links between the
national and territorial level

156
158
166
292

Tables
2.1
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5.1
5.2
5.3
6.1
7.1

The number of companies and employment by firm size, 2003
13
The cross-sectoral associations in Austria: basic data, 2002
48
The WKÖ: member companies and their employees by firm
size, 2001
50
IV and WKÖ: activities
53
IV and WKÖ: human and financial resources, 2002
56
The cross-sectoral associations in Belgium: basic data, 2003/4
73
UNIZO: distribution of direct and indirect member companies
by number of employees
77
VBO/FEB, CSPO/CENM, UNIZO and UCM: activities
79
VBO/FEB, CSPO/CENM, UNIZO and UCM: allocation of
resources (financial and staff) to interest representation and
services
80
VBO/FEB, CSPO/CENM, UNIZO and UCM: human and
financial resources
82
The cross-sectoral associations in Denmark: basic data, 2003
91
Affiliates of DA 2004 – listed according to share of total wage
sum
96
The development of DA membership, 1896–2004
101
The cross-sectoral associations in Finland: basic data, 2003
112
Cross-sectoral associations in France: basic data, 2002
129


viii List of illustrations
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
9.1
10.1
11.1
11.2
11.3
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
13.1
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
15.1
15.2
15.3
16.1
16.2
17.1
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4

The development of ZDH: lower-level affiliates and company
members
Number of industrial enterprises by company size
Collective bargaining coverage (private sector)
The cross-sectoral associations in Germany: basic data, 2001
Cross-sectoral associations in Germany: activities
Cross-sectoral associations in Germany: human and financial
resources, 2002/3
The cross-sectoral business associations in Greece: basic data,
2003/4
The cross-sectoral associations in Ireland: basic data, 2003
The cross-sectoral business associations in Italy: basic data,
2002
The sectoral composition of Confindustria, 31 December 2002
Activities performed by Confindustria, Confcommercio and
Confartigianato
UEL and its affiliates: basic data, 2002/3
UEL, FDA and the Chamber of Crafts: affiliates and density,
2002/3
UEL, FDA and the Chamber of Crafts: activities
UEL, FDA and the Chamber of Crafts: human and financial
resources
The cross-sectoral associations in the Netherlands: basic data,
2003/4
The cross-sectoral associations in Portugal: basic data, 2004
The activities of CIP, CCP, AIP, and CPPME
Number of persons employed by the employer associations,
1996
The financial development of the employer associations
The revenues of the employer associations by hierarchical
level
The cross-sectoral associations at national and territorial
level in Spain: basic data, 2002/3
Activities of the associations in Spain
Human resources, 2002/3
The cross-sectoral associations in Sweden: basic data,
2003/4
The membership structure of SAF and SN
The cross-sectoral associations in the UK: basic data, 2003/4
The systems of cross-sectoral national business associations
(EU-15), 2003
The determinants of associability
The formal definition of SMEs by the SME associations, 2003
Membership strength and staff: the principal associations and
the largest SME association, 2002/3

142
144
150
155
163
169
184
197
212
218
222
237
238
240
242
250
265
270
273
274
274
285
287
296
304
307
329
353
356
358
361


List of illustrations
18.5 Associational properties: a statistical comparison of the
principal association and the largest SME association
18.6 The principal association and the largest SME association:
organizational properties
18.7 The cross-sectoral national business associations by type of
interest representation (EU-15), 2003
18.8 The determinants of bargaining and organizational reforms
18.9 Representational activities
18.10 Service activities: the principal associations and the largest
SME associations in comparison
18.11 Domain change: enlargement and mergers
18.12 Composition of revenues: the principal associations and the
largest SME associations in comparison
18.13 Organizational reforms (OR)

ix
364
365
370
375
378
382
392
395
398


Contributors

Annika Berg is a graduate journalist, with a law degree (LLM). She has been
employed for the last seven years at the National Institute of Working Life
(Arbetslivsinstitutet).
Bernd Brandl is Assistant Professor of Industrial Sociology at the University of
Vienna. His research focus is on industrial relations, labour market issues
and empirical methods. Publications include: ‘Industrial relations, social
pacts and welfare expenditures’, British Journal of Industrial Relations,
2005, Vol. 43: 635–58 (with F. Traxler).
Maria da Paz Campos Lima is a member of the research centre DINAMIA/
ISCTE in Lisbon
Justin Greenwood is Professor of European Public Policy at the Robert
Gordon University, Aberdeen. He is the author of numerous titles on
EU public affairs, including Representing Interests in the European Union
(Macmillan, 1997).
Jürgen R. Grote holds the Marie Curie Chair at the Institute of Political
Science of the Charles University in Prague. His most recent publication
is Governing Interests: Business Associations Facing Internationalization
(with W. Streeck, V. Schneider, and J. Visser), (Routledge, 2006).
Juha Hietanen works as a freelance researcher in Helsinki. His major research
interests are industrial relations and social responsibility issues.
Gerhard Huemer is the Director of Economic and Fiscal Policy for the
European Crafts and SME Association, UEAPME. His research interests
concentrate on the preconditions for advancing the interests of small and
medium-sized enterprises at national and European level.
Carsten Jørgensen is an information officer and web-editor at FAOS,
University of Copenhagen. His scholarly work centres on Danish labour
market relations within the framework of the European Industrial
Relations Observatory (EIRO).


List of contributors

xi

Patrick Kenis is a Professor at the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences
at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. He is also a Fellow at Tias Business
School. His research interest focuses on the organizational and network
responses in different areas.
Joaquim M. Molins López-Rodó is Professor of Political Science at the
Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona and Director of the PhD Program
‘Analysing and governing complex societies’. He has published widely in
the area of business associations.
Achim Lang is a postdoctoral research fellow at Darmstadt University of
Technology. In 2005 he received his doctoral degree at the University of
Konstanz. His research interests include business and politics, governance
and social network analysis.
Aliki Mouriki is a researcher at the Institute of Social Policy in the National
Centre for Social Research, Athens. Her research interests focus on
employment and industrial relations issues, in particular on flexible
work, working time, female employment, equal opportunities, and social
dialogue.
Reinhard Naumann works in the research centre DINAMIA/ISCTE,
Lisbon. His main subjects are industrial relations and organized interests
in Portugal. Publications include ‘Portugal’ (with A. Stoleroff), in B.
Ebbinghaus and J. Visser (eds) Trade Unions in Western Europe since
1945, (Macmillan, 2001).
Rosa Nonell is Professor of Economic Policy at the University of Barcelona.
She has focused her research on interest groups and public policy. Recent
publications include: ‘Regulation and competition in pharmaceutical
market’ (with J.R. Borrell and A. Costas), in J. Puig-Junoy (ed.) The Public
Financing of Pharmaceuticals (Routledge, 2005).
Susanne Pernicka is Assistant Professor of Industrial Sociology at the
University of Vienna. Her research focus is on comparative industrial
relations, with special emphasis on non-standard employment. Recent
publications include: ‘Organising dependent self-employed workers’,
European Journal of Industrial Relations, 2006, Vol. 12: 123–40.
Sabine Saurugger is Professor of Politics at the Institut d’Études Politiques de
Grenoble. Publications include Les Groupes d’Intérêt. Action Collective
et Strategies de Representation (with Emiliano Grossman), and articles in
such journals as Political Studies, Journal of European Public Policy, and
Revue Française de Science Politique.
Franz Traxler is Professor of Industrial Sociology at the University of Vienna.
His research focuses on comparative industrial relations and interest
groups. He is author and editor of numerous articles and books, including


xii

List of contributors
National Labour Relations in Internationalized Markets (with Sabine
Blaschke and Bernhard Kittel), (Oxford University Press, 2001).

Alessia Vatta is a researcher in the Department of Political Science at the
University of Trieste, where she also teaches comparative politics and
European public policy analysis. She has written on interest groups,
concertation and neo-corporatism.
Edel Walshe completed a Master of Business Studies at the National
University of Ireland Galway. Her current reserach interests concentrate
on inter-firm R&D colloaborations.


Acknowledgements

This book is the outcome of a comparative project, initiated by UEAPME and
funded by the European Commission, Directorate General for Employment,
Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. The EU grants also enabled us to
organize two meetings. At a workshop in July 2004 in Brussels, our research
group discussed preliminary findings. To present key results of the project,
a conference was held in December 2004 in Vienna, bringing together
members of the research group, officials of the European Commission, and
representatives from business interest associations of most of the European
countries.
We are grateful to the participants in this conference for their useful
comments which helped refine our analyses and elaborate the chapters of
this volume. We wish to acknowledge support from Martin Behrens who
offered data on the German employer associations from his own research. We
are especially obliged to Werner Teufelsbauer, who attended not only both
meetings, but also made valuable written comments on research questions
and drafts of papers. Liliane Volozinskis provided support in both scholarly
and administrative respects. Wolfgang Streeck kindly granted permission to
reproduce Figure 8.2 from his article in W.D. Coleman and H.J. Jacek (eds),
1989, Regionalism, Business Interests and Public Policy (London, Newbury
Park, CA and New Delhi: Sage).We also thank Renate Schmid at the Institute
of Industrial Sociology of the University of Vienna for her work on the final
editing of the book.
Franz Traxler
Gerhard Huemer


Abbreviations

Countries
A
B
DK
FIN
F
GER
GR
IRL
I
LUX
NL
P
SP
S
UK

Austria
Belgium
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Ireland
Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Portugal
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom

Other abbreviations
AA
ABI
ACFCI
ACL
ACOSS
ACSCP
ACT
AE
AEB
AEP
AES
AFNOR

Arbetsgivaralliansen
Associazione Bancaria Italiana
Assemblée des Chambres Françaises de Commerce et
d’Industrie
Associação Comercial de Lisboa
Agence Centrale des Organismes de Sécurité Sociale
Acordo de Concertação Social de Curto Prazo
Acordo Colectivo de Trabalho
Acordo de Empresa
Asociación Española de Banca
Associação Empresarial de Portugal
Acordo Económico e Social
Association Française de Normalisation


List of abbreviations
AGCI
AI-BOA
AIP
AIPortuense
ALE
AMCHAM
APCM
APED
APEQ
API
APM
ASSEDIC
ASU
AWM
AWVN
BAK
BCC
BCCI
BDA
BDI
BDS-DGV
BFH
BIV
BMKB
BRC/CCS
BTI
BVMW
CA
CAO
CAP
CAPEB
Casartigiani
(CASA)
CBENM-BCSP
CBI

xv

Associazione Generale delle Cooperative Italiane
Asfaltindustriens og Benzin- og Oliebranchens
Arbejdsgiverforening
Associação Industrial Portuguesa
Associação Industrial Portuense
Business and Industrial Advisory Committee of OCDE
and Latin-American Organization of Business
American Chamber of Commerce Ireland
Assemblée Permanente des Chambres des Métiers
Associação Portuguesa de Empresas de Distribuição
Associação Portuguesa das Empresas Químicas
Associazione provinciale della Piccola e Media Industria
Association for the Progress in Management
Association pour l’Emploi dans l’Industrie et le
Commerce
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Selbständiger Unternehmer
Aktionsgemeinschaft Wirtschaftlicher Mittelstand
Algemene Werkgevers Vereniging Nederland
Bundesarbeitskammer
British Chambers of Commerce
Belgian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
Bundesvereinigung der deutschen Arbeitgeberverbände
Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie
Bundesverband der Selbständigen – Deutscher
Gewerbeverband
Bundesvereinigung der Fachverbände des Deutschen
Handwerks
Bundesinnungsverband
Borgstellingstregeling voor het Midden- en Kleinbedrijf
Bijzondere Raadgevende Commissies/Commissions
Consultative Spéciale
British Trade International
Bundesverband Mittelständische Wirtschaft
Chambres de l’Agriculture
Collectieve Arbeids Overeenkomst
Confederação dos Agricultores de Portugal
Confederation of Craft Enterprises of the Construction
Sector
Confederazione Autonoma dei Sindacati Artigiani
Conféderation Bruxelloise des Entreprises Non
Marchandes/Brusselse Confederatie van Social Profit
Ondernemingen
Confederation of British Industry


xvi List of abbreviations
CCI
CCP
CCT
CCTE
CECOT
CEOE
CEP
CEPTA
CEPYME
CES
CESRW
CGAD
CGPME
CGTP
CIDEM
CIF
CIP
CIU
CJD
CLAAI
CLP
CM
CNA
CNAMS
CNEL
CNPF
COELL
Confapi (CAP)
Confartigianato
(CAR)
Confcommercio
(CCO)
Confcooperative
(CCOO)

Chambers of Commerce of Ireland; Chambres de
l’Industrie et du Commerce
Confederação do Comércio e Serviços de Portugal
Contrato Colectivo de Trabalho
Chamber of Commerce, Training and Enterprise
Confederación Empresarial de Terrassa
Confederación Española de Organizaciones
Empresariales
Conselho Empresarial de Portugal
Confederación de Empresarios de Tarragona
Confederacion Española de Pequeñas y Medianas
Empresas
Consejo Económico y Social; Conselho Económico e
Social; Conseil Économique et Social
Conseil Économique et Social de la Region Wallone
Confédération Générale de l’Alimentation en détail
– Section Artisanale
Confédération Générale du Patronat des Petites et
Moyennes Entreprises
Confederação Geral dos Trabalhadores Portugueses
Centro de Innovación y Desarrollo Empresarial
Construction Industry Federation
Confederação da Indústria Portuguesa
Convergencia i Unió
Centre des Jeunes Dirigants
Confederazione delle Libere Associazioni Artigiane
Italiane
Comité de Liasion Patronal
Chambres de Métiers
Confederazione Nazionale dell’Artigianato e della
Piccola e Media Impresa; Confederação Nacional de
Agricultura
Confédération Nationale de l’Artisanat, des Métiers et
des Services
Consiglio Nazionale dell’Economia e del Lavoro
Conseil National du Patronat Français
Confederación de Empresarios de Lleida
Confederazione Italiana della Piccola e Media Industria
Confederazione Generale Italiana dell’Artigianato
Confederazione Generale del Commercio, del Turismo,
dei Servizi e delle Piccole e Medie Imprese
Confederazione Cooperative Italiane


List of abbreviations

xvii

Confesercenti (CE) Confederazione Italiana Esercenti Attività Commerciali,
Turistiche e dei Servizi
Confetra
Confederazione Generale Italiana dei Trasporti e della
Logistica
Confindustria (CI) Confederazione Generale dell’Industria Italiana
Conftrasporto
Confederazione del Trasporto, della Spedizione e della
Logistica
Confturismo
Confederazione del Turismo
COPCA
Consorcio de Promoción Comercial de Catalunya
COPYME
Confederación de Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas
CPCS
Comissão Permanente de Concertação Social
CPPME
Confederação Portuguesa das Micro, Pequenas e
Médias Empresas
CRB/CCE
Centrale Raad voor het Bedrijfsleven/Conseil Centrale
de l’Economie
CSCC
Consejo Superior de Cámaras de Comercio
CSPO/CENM
Confederatie van Social Profit Ondernemingen/La
Confederation des Entreprises Non Marchandes
CSWV
Centraal Sociaal Werkgevers Verbond
CTP
Confederação do Turismo Português
DA
Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening
DB
Dansk Byggeri
DHKT
Deutscher Handelskammertag
DHS
Dansk Handel Service
DI
Dansk Industri
DIHK
Deutscher Industrie- und Handelskammertag
DIRCE
Directorio Central de Empresas del Instituto Nacional
de Estadística INE
DM
Danske Malermestre
DMA
Danske Mediers Arbejdsgiverforening
DTB
Dansk Textil & Beklædning
DTI
Department of Trade and Industry
EGSSE
National General Collective Labour Agreement
EK
Elinkeinoelämän Keskusliitto
EKEP
National Centre for Vocational Orientation
ELINYAE
Hellenic Institute for Health and Safety at Work
EMIRE
European Employment and Industrial Relations
Glossaries
EOMMEX
National Organization of Small and Medium-sized
Handicraft Production Firms
ESBA
European Small Business Association
ESEE
National Confederation of Hellenic Commerce
ESRBG/CESRB
Economische en Sociale Raad voor het Brussels Gewest/
Conseil Economique et Social de la Région Bruxelloise


xviii List of abbreviations
ESSEEKA
ETHIC
EUROPMI
FADVIG
FAS
FDA
Federalimentare
Federchimica
Federmeccanica
FEDIL
FEPIME
FF
FFB
FIEH
FOEG
FORCEM
FPB
FR
FSB
FVIB
GA
GSEE
GSEVEE
HORESCA
HRZKMO/
CSIPM
HTS
HVR
HWK
HwO
IAPMEI
IATP
IBEC
ICTU
Idea
IEA

National System Associating Vocational Education and
Training with Employment
Entreprises de Taille Humaine Independente et
Croissance
European Committee for Small and Medium-Sized
Enterprise Companies
Foreningen af Danske Virksomheder i Grønland
National Training and Employment Authority
Fédération des Artisans
Federazione Italiana dell’Industria Alimentare
Federazione Nazionale dell’Industria Chimica
Federazione Sindacale dell’Industria Metalmeccanica
Italiana
Fédération des Industriels Luxemburgeois
Federación de Empresarios de la Pequeña y Mediana
Empresa
FöretagarFörbundet
Fédération française du bâtiment
Fédération intersyndicale des établissements
d’hôpitalisation privée
Confederación de Empresarios de Girona
Fundación para la Formación Continua
Forum of Private Business
Företagarnas Riksorganisation, briefly Företagarna
Federation of Small Businesses
Federatie voor Vrije en Intellectuele Beroepen
Grafisk Arbejdsgiverforening
General Confederation of Greek Workers
General Confederation of Greek Small Business and
Trades
Fédération Nationale des Hôteliers Restaurateurs et
Cafetiers de Luxembourg
Hoge Raad voor de Zelfstandigen en de Kleine en
Middelgrote Ondernemingen/Conseil Supérieur des
Indépendants et des PME
Handels, Transport og Serviceerhvervene
Håndværksrådet
Handwerkskammer
Handwerksordnung
Instituto de Apoio às Pequenas e Médias Empresas
Imposition Additionnelle à la Taxe Professionnelle
Irish Business and Employers’ Confederation
Irish Congress of Trade Unions
Arbetsgivarförbundet för Ideella Organisationer
Irish Exporters Association


List of abbreviations
IHK
IKA
ILO
INE
INPS
IoD
ISME
ISTAT
IV
KEEE
KFO
KHN/CCI
KHS
KKK
KNOV
KvK
LAEK
Legacoop (LC)
LHV
LIV
LO
LTO
MBL
MEDEF
MKB
MTL
NAR/CNT
NCMV/OBPME
NCOV
NCPP
NCW
NESC
NESDO
NESF
NGCLA
NKWV
NUTEK
OAED
OEEK
OFT
ÖGB
ÖGV

xix

Industrie- und Handelskammer
Social Security Foundation
International Labour Organization
Instituto Nacional de Estadística
Istituto Nazionale per la Previdenza Sociale
Institute of Directors
Irish Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Association
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica
Industriellenvereinigung
Union of Hellenic Chambers of Commerce and
Industry
Kooperationens förhandlingsorganisation
Belgische Kamers van Koophandel/Chambres Belges de
Commerce et d’Industrie
Kreishandwerkerschaft
Keskuskauppakamari
Koninklijke Nederlandse Ondernemers Verbond
Kamer van Koophandel
Employment and Vocational Training Fund
Lega Nazionale Cooperative e Mutue
Landeshandwerksvertretung
Landesinnungsverband
Landsorganisationen
Land- en Tuinbouw Organisatie Nederland
Medbestämmandelagen
Mouvement des Entreprises de France
Midden- en Kleinbedrijf
Maaseudun Työnantajaliitto
Nationale Arbeidsraad/Conference Nationale du Travail
Nationaal Christelijk Middenstandsverbond/
Organisation Belge des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises
Nederlands Christelijk Ondernemers Verbond
National Centre for Partnership and Performance
Nederlands Christelijk Werkgeversverbond
National Economic and Social Council
National Economic and Social Development Office
National Economic and Social Forum
National General Collective Labour Agreement
Nederlands Katholiek Werkgeversverbond
Verket för näringslivsutveckling
Manpower Employment Organization
Organization for Vocational Education and Training
Office of Fair Trading
Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund
Österreichischer Genossenschaftsverband


xx List of abbreviations
OKE
OLAMP
OMED
ÖRV
PIMEC-SEFES
PKLWK
PRMATT
PT
PTK
RSA
RSU
SAF
SAK
SAMA
SBS
SCDI
SER
SERV
SEV
SFA
SI
Sinf
SN
STATEC
STK
SY
TAF
TCO
TECs
TEKNIQ
TKL
TT
TUC
UCM
UEAPME
UEL
UFENM
Ufi
UGT
UIMM

Economic and Social Committee
Organización Latinoamericana de la Micro, Pequeña y
Mediana Empresa
Mediation and Arbitration Organization
Österreichischer Raiffeisenverband
Pequeña y Mediana Empresa de Cataluña
Präsidentenkonferenz der Landwirtschaftskammern
Union for Temporary Work
Palvelutyönantajat
Privattjänstemannakartellen
Rappresentanza sindacale aziendale
Rappresentanza sindacale unitaria
Svenska Arbetsgivareföreningen
Suomen Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö
Sammenslutningen af Mindre Arbejdsgiverforeninger i
Danmark
Small Business Service
Scottish Council for Development and Industry
Sociaal Economische Raad
Sociaal-Economische Raad van Vlaanderen
Federation of Greek Industries
Small Firms’ Association
Sveriges Industriförbund
Svensk Industriförening
Svenskt Näringsliv
Service Central de la Statistique et des Études
Économiques
Suomen Työnantajain Keskusliitto
Suomen Yrittäjät
Trade Association Forum
Tjänstemännens Centralorganisation
Training and Enterprise Councils
Danish Mechanical and Electrical Contractors’
Association
Teollisuuden Keskusliitto
Teollisuuden ja Työnantajain Keskusliitto
Trade Union Congress
Union des Classes Moyennes
European Association of Craft, Small and MediumSized Enterprises
L’Union des Entreprises Luxembourgeoises
L’Union Francophone des Entreprises Non-Marchande
University for Industry
União Geral de Trabalhadores
Union des Industries et Métiers de la Métallurgie


List of abbreviations
UNCASS
UNCI
UNEDIC
UNET
UNICE
Unioncamere
UNIZO
UNPMC
UNPMI
UNPS
UPA
UPH
UTPMC
UTPMI
UTPS
UVA
UWE
VBN/FIB
VBO/FEB
VCSPO
VDMA
VESOC
VEV
VNO
VNO-NCW
VNW
VOB/UEB
Voka
VPCW
WKÖ
ZDH

xxi

Union Nationale des Caisses de Sécurité Sociale
Unione Nazionale delle Cooperative Italiane
Union Nationale pour l’Emploi dans l’Industrie et le
Commerce
Union Nationale des Entreprises de Travail Temporaire
Union of Industrial and Employers’ Confederations of
Europe
Unione Italiana delle Camere di Commercio, Industria,
Artigianato e Agricoltura
Unie van Zelfstandige Ondernemers
Union Nationale des PME du Commerce
Union Nationale de la Petite et Moyenne Industrie
Union Nationale des Prestataires des Services
Union Professionnelle Artisanale
Union des Hôpitaux Privés
Union Territoriale des PME du Commerce
Union Territoriale de la Petite et Moyenne Industrie
Union Territoriale des Prestataires de Services
Utvecklingsavtalet
Union Wallonne des Entreprises
Verbond van de Belgische Nijverheid/Union de
l’Industrie Belge
Verbond van Belgische Ondernemingen/Fédération des
Entreprises de Belgique
Vlaamse Confederatie van Social Profit Ondernemingen
Verband Deutscher Maschinenbau- und
Anlagenhersteller
Vlaams Economisch en Sociaal Overlegcomité
Vlaams-economisch Verbond
Verbond van Nederlandse Ondernemingen
Verbond van Nederlandse Ondernemingen (VNO)Nederlands Christelijk Werkgeversverbond (NCW)
Verbond van Nederlandse Werkgevers
Verbond voor Ondernemingen te Brussel/Union des
Entreprises de Bruxelles
Vlaams Network voor Ondernemingen
Verbond van Protestants-Christelijke Werkgevers
Wirtschaftskammer Österreich
Zentralverband des Deutschen Handwerks



Part I



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×