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Oxford grammar for schools 4

Oxford

Grammar
forSchools

O X FO R D


Oxford

Grammar
for Schools

Martin Moore

O XFO RD
UNIVERSITY PRESS


O XFO RD


l.'Si IVMtSITY ['liK-;'-

Great ClajMttidtill Street. Oxford, o x * 6 q i ', United Kingdom
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first published In 2014

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ACKNOWI.Fl>r,I:MItNTS
iltuimuionjljy;Judy Brown pp.7,16,31.35, -16.71, at. 1 0h, 106.12 -1 ,139.
MS (Ex 3}. 159.166; ileatherClarke |>p.29|!:x 81,55, 73, 78 (Rx ■], M , 123,
123(Ex t). 136.143 (Prepositions of place), 149, 158: Janies Ifart pp.26, UiUl-x 10 }.
42, 58.86,98, 118 , 155.163; Sean Ijongcrolt pp. 18.33,48.65, S3, 87, 112, 121,
142, 146, 0 2 ; Oxford University Press |)p.lt>7,169; Andy Peters pp.6 , it , 15, 2 b.
24, 30.33,41.43. 32.37,61,73, 78{teporn?il Speech}, 84.89,5ft. 103,103.110,
116 , 120, 123 (desert island), 127.132, 140,144,148.133.1 36; Jo Taylor pp,9, 38.
1(12 ,107. 139
VVf WouldoJso Nkc to thunk the/olto4ying$r permission te repreduce tite/bifowinj;

jifiotogruphs; Atamy pp.94 (Jim Wileman), 154 (credit cardi'nolieastsofLorre),
(thips/VUyor rischflr), (diet Lima ry/D. fhustj. (swimming liatjAnton Starikov),
(keyboard/¿foanir/lgor Tereibov/Zoonar GmbH), 137 (iiinkyibnd London/Paul
Williams). 139 fiony french); Corhis p, 143 (George Tiedemami/uistoriral);
Getty images pp,17 (John Umd/Marv ftomaiielli.fblend linages). 60 (Bob Thomas/
PijpperftdoJy 7b (Andy Burlianasi/ArT1), 72 (Kyu OIi/E+J, 131 (KidStockJISlend
images); Royalty-free pp. 17 (Riraido Junqneii'a). 32 rkangaroo/Phoiodisc),
32 (tiger/PhcittKlisc). 80 (Tliinkslock). 134 (jamflolm FOJtx); Science Photo Library
p.2-8 iDetlev van Ravenswaay): SbiiUerslock pp.19 (Victor Tones), 23 (Gail
Johnson). 32 (jprilla/bric Isieloq), (pengnin/iailtsde), 34 ¡Nataiki).41 (Jwep Pena
LlorblLS), 64 (doishock), 68 (Good In a). 93 (Uigclien). 101 (Goodin*). 109 (woman/
hmrtc mw ). (traffic
Adisay, vS3(jsrtswu},


Introduction
Oxford Grammar for Schools helps students develop a
detailed understanding of gram m ar form and use in
context, and inspires them to have fun with Eng[ish
through personalized activities, gam es and role play.
The gram m ar is introduced or revised through easyto-read tables and illustrated presentations with clear

At the end of the book there are five pages of extra

examples, all level-appropriate, The exercises build

in class with any coursebook to support and reinforce

from controlled activities up to more com municative
and productive skilis-based activities. In each unit there

their gram m ar study, The Teacher's Book includes all

information for the information gap activities, a
reference section containing useful form tables, and an
irregular verb list.
Students can use the Oxford Grammar for Schools series

are several speaking activities where students work

the answers and audio scripts.There are also tests for
every Student's Book unit, and two review tests which

with each other to use English with improved accuracy

can be used at the end of a school term or whenever

and confidence. The extended writing activities also

appropriate.

encourage students to use language in realistic
situations.

Student's DVD-ROM

Each unit begins with a Can do' statement, which
summarizes w hat students wilt be able to achieve on
completion of the u nit At the end of each unit is a self­
evaluation table. Students should be encouraged to
rate their progress in each exercise, which helps them
to take responsibility for their own learning and also
increases motivation.

The Student's DVD-ROM Includes all the exercises in
the Student's Book, as well as all the audio recordings
for the listening an d pronunciation activities. Students
can also access an d print out extra interactive
activities, giving them motivating additional practice
for hom ew ork.The teacher can also use the DVD-ROM
on an Interactive whiteboard in class.

Key to the symbols
O o .o

A

{0.0 = track number)

Listening activity
Speaking activity
Gom e

/

Extended writing activity

©

Pronunciation activity

*

Introductory exercise

*
*

M oderately challenging exercise

«
*
*

Most challenging exercise

A difficulty rating is given to each exercise. The scale of difficulty is relative to each unit,
so there are exercises with one, two, and three stars in every unit.

Introduction

3


Contents
1

Nouns, quantities and articles

Countable, uncountable and plural nouns
Quantities: a/an/some; container words
Articles: The/a/an/no article

2

Some and any; indefinite
pronouns

Some/any/no; requests and offers
Indefinite pronouns: sam e-/any-/every-/na’'

11

3

Quantifiers

Much, many, a lot of, a few, a little
Too much, too many, (not) enough

15

4

Personal pronouns; impersonal
there and it/they

Personal pronouns
Impersonal it/they and there

20

S

Demonstratives and possessives

Demonstrative pronouns: this/that/these/those; one/ones
Possessive adjectives; possessive pronouns; possessive's

24

R evisio n !

Units 1-5

6

27

6

Present simple and continuous

Present simple and continuous contrast

30

7

Past simple

Past simple: regular verbs
Past simple: be
Past simple: irregular verbs
Time expressions: in, last, yesterday, on, ago

35

8

Past continuous

Past continuous: time expressions
Past continuous or past simple?
When/while

41

9

Present perfect

Present perfect: time expressions (unfinished); gone vs been
Present perfect with just, alread y, yet and still
Present perfect with since and for

45

10

Present perfect and past simple

Present perfect and past simple contrast

52

11

Past perfect

Past perfect vs past simple; conjunctions when/by the time/
before/after/the first time

57

12

The future

Be going to + the infinitive
Will + the infinitive
S h a ll...?
Present continuous for future
Will vs going to

61

_____________________________________

Revision 2

Units 6-12

______________

67

13

To + the infinitive and the -ing
form

To + the infinitive
-ing form: go + -ing; -ing as subject
Verbs with to + the infinitive or -ing

73

14

Reported speech

Tense changes
Pronoun changes
Say vs tell
Time and place references

78

Revision 3

Units 13-14

32

15

Con, could, be able to

Can, could, be able to: ability
Can and could: permissions and requests

84

16

Must, have to, should, needn't

Must, have to: necessity and obligation
Mustn't, don't have to, needn't: permission and obligation
Should, must: advice and recommendation

89

4

Contents


Revision 4

Units 15-16

94

17

Question words

What, when, where, who, why, how
What vs which
Whose vs who's
How 4 adjective/adverb
Subject and object questions

96

18

Question tags

Pronunciation and meaning: checking information;
helping conversation

103

19

Relative pronouns

Who, which, that: subject and object relative pronouns
Relative clauses with when and where

105

20

Connectors

And, but, or
Because, so, although
When, while

110

Revision 5

U nits 17-20

114

21

Prepositions of place

Zero conditional
First conditional

116

22

Second conditional

Second conditional
First vs second conditional

120

23

I wish

I wish + past simple
I wish + would

123

Revision 6

Unit 21-23

125

24

Comparison: adjectives and
adverbs

Comparative and superlative adjectives
Not a s ... as; less ... than
Comparison of adverbs

127

25

Position: adjectives and adverbs

Position of adjectives
Position of adverbs
Too and enough

132

Revision 7

Units 24-25

138

26

Prepositions of time

At, in, an
After, before, during, for
By, fro m ... until

140

27

Prepositions of place and
movement

In, at, on 4 place
Prepositions of place
Prepositions of movement

144

28

Expressions with prepositions

By, for, in, on, with

148

R evisio n s

Units 26-28

151

29

Active and passive

Active vs passive
Present simple passive
By 4 agent

153

30

Past passive

Past simple passive

156

Revision 9
Revision 10

Units 29-30

158

All units

160

Extra information

168

Reference

173

Irregular verb list

176

Contents

5


Nouns, quantities and articles
! can use countable and uncountable nouns and articles*

Countable, uncountable and plural nouns

Spelling rules
Most nouns:
pencil - pencils

car - car

Nouns ending in -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x:
glass - glass ■ box - box
Nouns ending in-or
piano - piano
radio - radio
There are two exceptions:
potato - potato?
tomato - tomato
Nouns ending in consonant + -y: -»
strawberry - s trawberr
city - citi
But nouns ending in vowel + -y:
toy - toyi day - day
Nouns ending in -f or -fe:~*
tea f-iea res k n ife-kn i
Countable nouns have singular and plural forms.
one ruler two rulers
one woman three women

A few nouns have irregular plurals,
man -4 men
fish fish
woman s women
mouse mice
child -* children
goose -* geese
person people
foot feet
sheep -* sheep
tooth teeth

Uncountable nouns only have a singular form. We
cannot count them.
one-homework twenties
waters water moneys money

Write the words in the correct place*

O

apple burger cheese coffee egg fruit
grape oil orange pasta rice salt
sandwich toast vegetable water
Countable

6

Uncountable

Nouns, quontities ond articles

0 1.1 Circle the correct answer. Then listen
and check,

O

► I like fast car / c a r s .
1 Have you got any bread / breads?
2 I often eat grape / grapes for lunch.
3 Do you lister to music / musics in the car?
4 Tony doesn't enjoy exam / exams.
5 They don't understand the homework /
homeworks.
6 Have you got any information / informations
about the museum?
7 l can't find my money / moneys,
8 Lucy bought some T-shirt /T-shirts for her holiday,
9 He arrived late because of the traffic / traffics.
10 I offered him some fruit/fruits.


Write the plural form if the noun is countable.
► baby
► rice
1
2
3
4
5
6

bebLfs

station ..
knife
rain
party
money
dress

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

.

petrol
person
advice
tooth
education
child
journey
electricity

O 1*2

What are they talking about?
Listen and number from 1-8.

a

b

Quantities
We use a or an with singular countable nouns.
I'd like an orange.
Have you got a phone?
We use a before a consonant sound and an before a
vowel sound.
a computer a house
a university (starts with l)k consonant sound)
an apple an island
an hour {starts with /at>/ vowel sound)
We don't usually use a or an with uncountable nouns.
I'd like -a cheese.
We use some with uncountable nouns and plural
countable nouns.
We've got some homework tonight
They need som e books.
If we want to count uncountable nouns, we
sometimes use a word for a container {bottle, cup)
or quantity {kilo, litre) with of. See page 173 fora list
of words.

Complete the sentences with the words in the
box. You can use words more than once.
a

an

a cup

a kilo

► I'd like to listen to
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

some
music.

My cousins live in ________ apartment.
Please p u t________ butter on my sandwiches,
Can you buy m e _________of cheese?
Sill has g o t________ old watch.
I'dlike________ water.
Mrs Jackson is ________ science teacher,
Would you fike________ of tea?
The police officer w ants________ information
about the accident.
9 That's________ long email,
10 They need ______ new equipment for the gym.

J 6 Match the beginnings and ends of the sentences.
► Have you got a bag of d _ ?
1 Let's get her a box o f_____ .
2 Check in the fridge. I don't think we've got any
_____+

3 Can you get me a n _____ ?
4 I need two packets o f_____ .
5 There isn't an y_____ .
a
b
c
d
e
f

milk
biscuits
chocolates
flour
oil
apple

Unit 1

7


Articles: the, a/an or no article
A/an

The

We use a/an when we talk about something and
we don't know which one, or it isn't important
which one.

We use the when we talk about something and the
speaker and the listener know which one we are
talking about,

Id tike a sandwich , please.
What sort would you like? We've got cheese or chicken.

Would you like the cheese or the chicken sandwich?
Could 1have the cheese sandwich , please?

Have you got a laptop? (= any laptop. The speaker
doesn't know which one.)

Did you bring the laptop? (=The speaker and the listener
both know which laptop they are talking about.)

We use a/an when we talk about something for
the first time.

We use the when we talk about something for
the second time,

She's got a bicycle. The bicycle is blue.

She's got a bicycle. The bicycle is blue.

We also use a/an when we are talking about
someone's job and when we mean one'
He's an actor . She's a teacher.
a hundred people an hour

We also use the before ordinal numbers in dates,
especially when we are speaking.
the third o f January the tenth o f May
We use the when we talk about musical instruments.
1play the piano. She plays the guitar.

No article
In some cases, we do not use a/an or the with a noun.
We do not use articles with plural nouns or uncountable
nouns in general, when we mean 'all'
Fruit is good for you. The fruit is good for you.
Nurses work in h os pi tois. 1be-nurses work in hospitals,
Homework is important.
We do not use articles with names of people, cities,
most countries, streets, languages or school subjects.
Emily lives in Australia.
My school is on Oaktree Road. My school is on the Oaktree Road.
1speak Russian . / speak the Russian She unders tands Arabic.
1study maths. 1study tbe-maths. 1enjoy physics.

Complete the sentences to describe these jobs.
architect doctor dentist farmer hairdresser
waiter police officer shop assistant

mechanic

► Doc-tor^________________ help sick people to get better.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
S

8

_________________________ repair cars and lorries.
__________________________ cut people's hair.
__________________________grow food and look after animals,
__________________________catch criminals and protect people.
_________________________ serve food and drinks In restaurants.
__________________________ design houses and other buildings.
__________________________sell products In shops.
look after people's teeth.

Nouns, quontities and articles


»8

© O i ■3 Read the information, then listen and
repeat the words.

©

A, an and the are normally not stressed
They have'weak'vowel sounds.

9

£11

Look at the picture below for one minute.
Cover the picture, then ask and answer
questions about these things with
your partner.
apple banana brown bag blue book
bottle of water cat computer guitar
jacket lamp red bag red pen phone
purse television tennis racket white book

a =h/
before a consonant sound

a concert
a postcard

an =/an/
before a vowel sound

an actor
an exam

the = Mo/
before a consonant sound

the market
the radio
the university

t h e - Mi/
before a vowel sound

the airport
the umbrella

is t htre

¡eÉtte?

No, there tstVt
a lûiïirtÆkcti.

y&s, tiofire Is. a apple.
The apple is. ov^ the table,
is there a bar^a^a?

© O i .4 Tick (✓ ) the correct sound. Listen and
check. Then listen and repeat.
► ____ new coat
hi 0
/an/ 0

5 ____ amazing game
hi 0
/an/ 0

1 ____ easy question
hi 0
/on/ 0

6 ____ important
point
/ôa/ □
m □

2 ____ first prize
mo/ 0
m □
3 ____ brilliant film
hi 0
/an/ 0
4 ____old school _
/ôo/ □
Mi/ n

7 ____small problem
hi 0
hnl 0
8 ____usual song

/03/ 0

Mi/ [

£ 1 0 Circle the correct word.
► 'I'd like a / t h e drink/ 'Water or juice?'
1 'There are some books and a magazine.'
'Can I read a / the magazine?'
2 My dad is an / the engineer.
3 The fridge is in a / th e kitchen.
4 'Can i borrow a / t h e pen?' 'Yes. Wouid you like
blue or black?'
5 'Is there a / the computer in your classroom?'
'No, there isn't.'
6 'Can 1 have a / the banana?' 'Sorry,That banana
is for your dad.'
7 'I'm reading a new book.' 'What is a / the book
about?'
8 'Where is a / the car?' 'It's over there.'
9 'How long is the journey?' 'An / The hour and
fifteen minutes.'
10 I don't know an / the answer to this question.

£ 1 2 o 1.5 Number the sentences from 1 to 6.
Then listen and check.
a

On the desk is a computer and next
to it is a lamp.

b ____

There is a big bedroom and a small
bedroom.

c ____

The computer has a webcam.

d

My house has got two bedrooms.

±

e

1use the webcam when 1talk to my
cousin in Australia.

f ____

The small bedroom belongs to me
and it has got a small bed, a desk and
a wardrobe.

Unit 1

9


Write about your partner, using the
information from exercise 14.

Complete the sentences with the or - (no article).
► We normally eat
pasta twice a week.
1 The summer holiday starts o n ________ tenth
of July.
2 We make._______ .p ap erfro m _________ wood.
3 Don't look directly a t ________ sun. it's dangerous.
4 W as________ fish good yesterday?
5 Mike sp eaks________ German a n d _________ Turkish.
6 We have________ science at eleven o'clock on
Mondays.
7 Which shoes do you prefer? 1like________ red ones.
8 Jill plays_________piano beautifully.
9 Mary lives o n _________Bridge Road.
10 Do you have________ sugar in your coffee?

::1 4

vudey
bom owthe twelfth of .septem-ber.
S b i lives a t ...

£ 1 7 0 1 . 7 Complete the dialogue with a, an, some,
the or - (no article),Then listen and check,
Henry
Paul
Henry
Paul

o i.6

Listen and complete the table.
Use cr, an, the or - (no article).
Date of birth

Address

Henry
Paul

the seventh
of August

Henry
Paul

Avenue
father is

Parents'jobs

mother is
Henry
Paul

Favourite
subjects

ns

Musical
Instrument

plavs

Future plans

to be

Henry

Work in pairs. Ask your partner questions
and write the Information in the table.
----------------------------------------- 1
Date of birth

j

Address
Parents'jobs
Favourite
subjects
Musical
instrument
Future plans
Whew were you. bom., vld ey?
o n the twelfth o f September.

10

Nouns, quantities ond articles

How are you, Paul?
I've got
aw
exam next week, so I'm
a bit nervous.
You aren't normally nervous.
I know, but I want to becom e1________
doctor, s o 2________ exam is very important.
Really?
Yes, it's the most important subject for
3________ doctors,
So, are you studying hard?
Yes, I'm doing *________ revision at the
moment. But I've got *________ problem.
My cousins from *________ Australia are
going to be here for a week and ! want to
spend some time with them.
When do they arrive?
O n 7_________ seventh. The day before
0________ exam. What do you think? Are
’ ________ exams more important than
1C________ families?
That's difficult. You need to talk to your
parents.


Some and any; indefinite pronouns
I can use some, any and indefinite pronouns.

Some and any

We use some and any with uncountable nouns
{bread, money) or plural countable nouns (apples, shoes).
(We use a/an with singular countable nouns.)
We normally use some in affirmative sentences,
and any in negative sentences and questions.
I'd like som e chips.
There isn't any bread.
Have you got any homework?

We can sometimes use any in affirmative sentences,
to mean it doesn't matter which!
'Which bus do I take?' 'You can take any bus. They all
go to the town centre!
We sometimes use no for emphasis instead of
n o t ... any.
There isn't any bread left. ** There's no bread left!

But we can use some in questions if we are making
a request or an offer,
Can I have some water?
Would you like some help?
Circle the correct word.

Read the answers and write the questions.

► I've got any / some water in my bag.

► )£ ttoere
mille. Ln the -fylcigte?__________________
Yes, there ts some milk in the fridge.
1
?
Yes, please. I'd like some coffee,
2
?
No. They haven't got any money.
3 __________________________________________________________ ?
No. There aren't any fish in the lake.
4 __________________________________________________________ ?
Sure. You can have some paper.
5 __________________________________________________________ ?
Yes. She's got some new friends.
6 __________________________________________________________ ?
Yes.There are some empty tables.
7 __________________________________________________________ ?
No, sorry. You can't have any ice cream,
8 __________________________________________________________ ?
No, thanks. ] wouldn't like any lemonade.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

There aren't any i som e computers in this room,
My mum eats an / some egg for breakfast.
There aren't any / some tomatoes in our fridge.
8e careful.There's any / some ice on the road.
! haven't got a / any pen. Can you lend me one?
My dad doesn't do any / some work at the
weekends.
I've downloaded a / some new music onto my
iPod.
Our teacher gave us a n y } some good advice
before the exam.
i would like any / some fruit for lunch.
l haven't got a / any money in my pocket,

Unit 2

11


Write the second sentence so that it m eans the
same as the first. Use no.

1 6 0 2 . 1 Complete the dialogue with some, any, a, * .
an, or no. Then listen and check,
^ 1^

► There isn't any salt in my pasta.
There's vw> salt in
-pasta._________________

Mum:

We've got some
dinnertonight.

1 He hasn't got any equipment.

Oscar:

Would you tike 1________ help?

Mum:

Yes, please. I'm making spaghetti but
there's *1
2_3
4_______ pasta in the cupboard.

Oscar:

OK. I'll go to the supermarket and buy
1_________spaghetti. Do we need A_______
other food?

Mum:

Let's think. I've g o t56
________ meat,
6_________tomatoes a n d 7_8________ onion.
So we don't n e e d a________ more food.
But we haven't g o t9________ drinks.

Circle the correct option.

Oscar:

► I need to go to the shops. We've / We haven't
got any bread.

OK. I'll g e t10*________ juice. What type would
you like?

Mum:

G e t 11_________type of juice. I don't mind.

Oscar:

OK, I'm going to Fred's house first and then
I'll go to the supermarket

Mum:

There's u ________ time to go to Fred's house.
I need those things immediately,

Oscar:

OK,

2 There weren't any buses yesterday.
3 There isn't any water in the pool.
4 We haven't got any time for shopping.
5 I haven't got any minutes on my phone.

*4

1 'Which film should we watch?'
'You can / can't choose any DVD. I don't mind'
2 You can / can't have any sandwich.They ail cost
the same.
3 I can't make a cake. There are / aren't any eggs.
4 He's very unhealthy. He eats / doesn't eat any
vegetables.
5 'Where can 3get that book?'
'it's easy. You can / can't buy it in any bookshop.'
6 There's / There isn't any time to have breakfast.
You're late for school.
7 She's got / She hasn't got any interest in football,
but she likes basketball.
8 Ask / Don't ask me any question and I will answer ft.
Complete the sentences with the words in
the box. Use a, an, any, some or no at least
once.
apple cheese coffee soup eggs
homework information jacket money
knives plates trainers sugar

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

12

Can I have some inform ation about train times?
Have you got________ to wear for the tennis lesson?
There a re ________ and forks on the table.
We haven't g o t________ so we can't buy the tickets.
'is there
. in your iunchbox?"Yes, a nice red
juicy one.'
Shall 1make yo u_________sandwiches?
Are th e re ________ ? I want to make an omelette,
There's_________in this drink. It's heaithy.
Would you like________ for lunch? It's cold today.
Have you g o t________ ? You have school
tomorrow,
Put o n __________It's raining.

some and cmy; indefinite pronouns

friends coming here for

Work in pairs. Read the instructions and
write a dialogue. Use some, any, a a nd an.
Act out the dialogue with your partner.
Student A:

Say you're making dinner.

Student B:

Offer to help.

Student A:

Ask student B to go to the shop and
buy food.

Student B:

Ask student A what they need.

Student A:

Say you have meat, peppers and
onions but you don't have carrots or
rice.

Student B:

Say you will get carrots and rice; ask if
student A has drinks.

Student A:

Say you haven't got cola; ask stud ent B
to buy cola.

Student B:

Say you will buy cola.

I'm, H®|ftlel*v0

kvow.

W ould ijou- LLfce s,om£ hekp?


Indefinite pronouns

S9

We use indefinite pronouns when we talk about an
unknown thing (something), person (someone,
somebody) or place (somewhere).
There's someone of the door, i don't know who it is.
Did you do anything on Sunday?
I can't find it anywhere.
some-

any-

every-

► .s c w i one is talking to your dad. Who is it?
1 He's really lazy. He didn't d o ________ thing
yesterday.
2 ________ body enjoyed the film. It was terrible,
3 'There's________ thing on the roof of the house,'
4

no-

someone
somebody

anyone
anybody

everyone
everybody

no one
nobody

something

anything

everything

nothing

somewhere

anywhere

everywhere

nowhere
_____________ J

5
6
7
8
9
10

We use pronouns with some- in affirmative sentences
and pronouns with any- in negative sentences and
questions. See page 11 for the rules.
-one and -body have the same meaning,
Som eone/Som ebody wants to talk to you.
We use a singular verb with every- and no-.
is everything OK?
No one enjoys exams.
We normally use only one negative word.
We
see anything , We---------see
;.
said anything. .................................. 1
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2

1 8 Circle the correct word.
► I can't find my pen anything / anywhere
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Wed like something / som eone to drink.
Everyone / Everywhere is looking at us,
I'm bored. There's nothing / no one on TV,
Can anything / anybody answer this question?
They want to go something / som ewhere in
Europe for their holidays.
1don't like exams. I always forget everything /
everyone.
All the cafes are closed, There's n o w h e re !
nobody to eat.
Be quiet! Don't say anything / anyone.
Can som eone/som ew here dose the window,
please?
It wasn't funny. Nobody / Nothing laughed-

0 2 . 2 Complete the words with some-, any-,
or no-. Then listen and check.

:n o

It's a cat!'
I went to Pat's house but there wasn't________ one
there.
My town is boring.There's_______ where to go in
the evening.
't can hear________ body's phone.'
'It's mine.Thanks!'
'How much does it c o st?''________ thing. It's free!'
_________one can do that. It's easy.
Can we g o ________ where quiet?
'I don't like sport, books or computer games,'
'Do you lik e ________ thing?'

o 2.3

Listen to the interviews with Gemma and
John and com pletethe table with names and
words from the box.
in another town basketball dance fishing
flute football golf painting piano
at a sports centre swimming tennis
Gemma's family

Who does
what sport?

John's family

bas feet baLL

Where?

Who plays
what
instrument?
Other
activities?

Complete these questions with indefinite
pronouns. Then ask and answer the
questions with a partner.
D oes_________________ in your family do sport?
is there_________________ to do sport near your house?
D oes_________________ in your family play a musical
instrument?
Does anyone d o _________________ else?

Unit 2

13


o 2.4 Complete the dialogue with the words in
the box.Then listen and check.
anything anywhere everyone
nothing someone something
May

>14

Say a sentence using an indefinite
pronoun. Your partner guesses if it's
true or false.

everything
somewhere

&t>hieojịịỊ£ ív<ị. Krty f a ruiLy has 0 reew cues.

Hi, Jill. How was your holiday? Did you go
anywhere nice?

Jill

Yes, we went to Fethiye in Turkey.

May

How was it?

Jill

1________ was perfect.The weather was
brilliant, the people were friendly and the
hotel was nice.

May

Did you do

interesting?

Jill

At the start of the week we were really tired,
so we did 3_________ We just sat by the pool.
T h e n 4________ told US that we could hire a
boat, so we went sailing every day.

May

That sounds lovely. And what was the food
like?

Jill

It was great, My favourite w a s 5
called Pilii; Dolma. You make it with chicken
and spices, it was delicious.

May

So did*

Jill

Yes. We all loved it. But I don't think we ll
go back. My parents prefer to g o 7
different every year.

enjoy the holiday?

Write a letter about a bad holiday. Use the
phrases below, with indefinite pronouns.
Invent other information.

I thlwte.that's fflUe. ! dairt/t ttútrtJe
flirt,yoirt,e CkV yũirt,r-fflmXLirt has arse® eyes,

There's ivíthLwg ¿VV rtty pứcleet.
I thLirtJe that's true. There's twkhivLQ iiA,
yữirtr poCnteet,

£ 1 5 Circle the correct option.
► Everyone was / were very tired,
1 I saw anybody / somebody famous yesterday.
2 There's / There are nothing in the cupboard.
3 She ate a / some bread and cheese.
4 We went som ething / somewhere very
interesting.
5 They didn't find / found nothing under the chair,
6 He's funny, Anyone / Everyone likes him.
7 Can I have any / some salt, please?
8 Don't phone anyone / anything after 10 p.m.
9 Everything is / are very expensive.
10 I've / 1haven't got no money!

was ttrrib le
w A S ixrvfrUtvdLw
stayed

old aiA.d w.ruÀpm,-fartabLe

d id n 't do

excltiryg

there was

Lirtifi resting ta v is it

d id n 't

Krtéét

flti

Seif-evaluation

Jrt¿c¿

bfld

_________ewjayed it

r w as Dirt, ViüLleíflH Last Wfidte. Every til Ltrtg was

tcrribLfi.
14
15

14

some and ony; indefinite pronouns

Rate your progress.


Quantifiers
I can talk about quantity.

Much , many, a lot of, a few, a little

We use much, m any a lot of, a few and a little to talk
about quantity.
We use a lot of or lots of to mean a iarge quantity
We use them in affirmative sentences (except in
formal written English, where we can use, for example,
a (large) number of).
We've got a lot o f cafés in our town.
We normally use much and many in negative sentences
and questions.
She hasn't got much money.
Do you watch many films?
How much milk do you drink1
We use a lot of or lots of with countable and
uncountable nouns. We use singular verbs
with uncountable nouns and plural verbs with
countable nouns.
There's lots o f food to eat.
There are a lot o f pictures in this book.
Uncountable
nouns

We use a little and a few to mean a small quantity.
We use them in affirmative sentences and requests
or offers.
t need a little help with my homework.
Would you like a few chips?

Countable
nouns

a lot of / lots of

a lot of / lots of

a lithe

a few

Negative

not much

not many

Questions

much

many

Affirmative

Circle the correct option.

We can sometimes use quantifiers without nouns,
when it is dear what we mean.
7s there much bread left?' 'No. Not much.1
'How many people were at the concert?' 'A fot.'
I

_ ,,j

► Lots of my friends live / lives near my sch o o l.^ ^ ^
There is 1 are a lot of lemonade in your fridge,
There is / are a lot of dirty socks in your bedroom.
A lot of their music is / are very loud.
Lots of famous footballers drive / drives fast cars.
There was / were lots of rain yesterday,
A lot of children study f studies English.
A lot of information about computers is / are
difficult to understand.
S There is /a re lots of kangaroos in Australia,
9 Lots of coffee come / comes from Africa.
10 There was / were a lot of biscuits in the
cupboard.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0 3*1 Complete the sentences with much or
many. Then listen and check*
► We haven't got w-u.ah coffee,
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

There weren't________ cars i n the car park.
Do you g e t________ snow in your country?
I don't need_________money,
D id ________ people go swimming yesterday?
There aren't________ things to do here.
'Do they speak French?' 'No, N ot________
They didn't e a t_________cake,
There aren't________ trees in this park.
Did your teacher give y o u ________ advice about
the exam?
10 I can't s e e ________ boats on the sea.

Unit3

15


Write questions with you and much or many.
spend / time on the internet
ü p you.
rn.uc.ln
play / football

5 send /text messages
__7
?

6 know ! people from other countries

?

7 eat/fast food

7

have got/cousins

7

do / homework
_?
8 have got / money in your pocket

1

have got/com puters at your school

i

Ask and answer questions from exercise 3*
I>p you.

Look at the pictures. Complete the sentences
with a few, a little or a lot of .

vhhc M tLirvui ptv thfi

Y&s. i s ^ d a Lot o f tli'u.e oiA, the iv^tir^ek.

Rewrite negative sentences as affirmative, and
affirmative sentences as negative.
► They haven't got many books.
Tfo¿y'vi a c t olot o f
books.

► There's a lot o f ___________________ snow.
1 There a re _____________________________ cars.

► There's a lot of work to do.
isn't: vhhcM
work to do.1
1 There are lots of mountains in this area.
_____________________________ mountains in this area.
2 We haven't got much time.
time.
3 This car uses a lot of petrol,
petrol.
4 Vicky has got lots of friends,
_____________________________ friends.
5 There weren't many difficult questions,
difficult questions,
6 She watches a lot of television,
television.
7 A lot of children enjoy cooking.
children enjoy cooking.

4 There's_____________________________ work.
5 There a re _____________________________ people.

S There isn't much sugar in this coffee.
sugar in this coffee.
9 There's a lot of snow here at the moment.
______________________________snow here at the
moment.
6 There a re _____________________________ children.
7 There's_____________________________ water.

16

Quontifiers and pronouns


Ask and answer the questions in
exercise 9 with a partner*

Complete the text with words from the box.
lots of much a-few
many little a lot of

a few

some

some
tv >you.

Mum, I need a little help for *
a
minutes.
I've g o t 1______________ packing to do and there isn't
2 ______________ time before the next bus. Please
could you help me pack my shirts? I need to take
J______________ T-shirts for two weeks, but! only need
1______________ jumpers.

8

have

breakfast?

i have a Lot of breakfast, r
a tot
o f toast with jHÍufe a Little yoghu.rt,
a few ^Utñs. of f ruto, a
i drlu-k
tots e f tea.

0 3 2 Listen to Katy talking about what she eats
and drinks. Complete the table with not much,
not many, a lot of, a few, a little, no.
breakfast

potatoes

orange juice

biscuits

toast

fruit

meat

water

chicken

tea

fish

coffee

pasta

fizzy
drinks

rice
:>

Read the questions. Then write about the
things you eat and drink. Answer all the
questions.

Ï
*
*
*
*

Do you have much breakfast?
Do you eat much meat or fish?
Do you prefer pasta, rice or potatoes?
Do you eat many sweet things (biscuits,
cake, etc.)?
* Do you eat much fruit? Do you eat many
vegetables?
* What do you drink?
r have a tot of breakfast, i eat a tot of toast with
jfliu , a Little yoghurt, a -few ■ptoc-es of fru it, aud
r d riu k tots of tea.

Too much , too many and enough
We use too much and too many with nouns to say
that there is a bigger quantity than we want or need.
The bus is going to be late.
There's too much traffic.
We use too much with uncountable nouns and
too many with countable nouns. We use them in
affirmative sentences.
You put too much sugar in my coffee.
There are too many books. I can't carry them all.
We use enough to say that there is the correct
quantity. We use not enough to say that there is a
smaller quantity than we want or need - it is the
oppos ite of too much/many. We use enough with
uncountable and countable nouns.
'It costs £25. Have you got enough m oney7' Yes. I've
got £30
'Can I sit down?' Tm sorry. There aren't enough chairs/
We can sometimes use too much/many and (not)
enough without nouns, when it is clear what we
mean.
'Here's some cake/ 'That's too much. I can't eat alt that.'
'Would you tike some more coffee?' 'No, thank you. I've
had enough/
We can also use too and enough with adjectives,
See Unit 25.

Unit 3

17


*1 1 Look at the pictures. Circle the correct option.

m

Complete the sentences with too
much, too many , enough or not
enough .
► We can't get on the bus. There
are tog_t?u.a^j_
people.
1 There's__________________
luggage. You can't take alf that.

2 'Can ! make some coffee?' 'No,
there's__________________ time. We
have to leave immediately.'
3 There's enough / isn't enough
snow.

3 Would you like more
chips?' 'No, thanks. I've got

4 There's__________________ traffic.
We're going to be late,
5 'Where are we meeting? And
what time?' '1 don't know.
There's__________________
information.'
6 Tm really hot!''You're wearing
clothes.'
1 There are enough / aren't
enough fingers.

4 There's enough / isn't enough
money.

7 'It's a long way to
London.' 'Don't worry. We've
g o t__________________ petrol.'
8 There are__________________
advertisements at the cinema.
You have to wait a long time for
the film to start.
9 'Does Jill d o _________
homework?' 'Yes, She's a very
good student.'

2 There are enough / aren't
enough computers.

5 There a re en oug h t a ren't
enough players.

in 3 0 3 . 3 Listen to Emma talking about environmental problems.
Write sentences about her opinions, using too much , foo many
or not enough.
► fti ert s

maun h

1

2
3
4
5

6

7

18

Quantifiers and pronouns

c 1ea n a ir.
pollution,
cars and lorries,
bicycles,
trees,
electricity.
televisions and computers,
solar power.

10 He's feeling sick. He drank
cola.


14

Student A says a sentence using too
much, too many or not enough. Student B
changes the sentence to give the
opposite meaning. Use the words in the
box or your own ideas.

In winter, there's1'much snow and that's great for
skiing. But in the summer there's 12not enough
rain, so you can't do outdoor activities very often.
► 7here are
► ^

buses cafés chips clothes exams films
food homework money noise paper
shoes shops snow time traffic

l
2
3
4 .
S

M y sister has got too m^rwy shoes.
M y sister hasn't got e^ow.g)o shoes.
it! 6
f haven't got e^vjugVi ps-per.
tV| got too vw-upt -poifser.

IS

Some of the bold words are incorrect. Write the
correct words or tick ( s ) if the words are correct.

W
f /

.

6
7
8
9 .
10
11
12

Read the text in exercise 15 agai n.
Then write about your town.

cafés cinemas houses noise people
pollution rain shops snow supermarkets
traffic trees parks roads
There are a Lot of good tk m g s about Hey towko.
There a r t ...

There's a lot of good things about my town.
First, it's a beautiful place, with lots of parks and
trees. There are also ’a lot mountains near the
town, and in winter you can see 2much snow.
Second, there isn't 3enough traffic, so it's quiet
and we don't get 4much pollution.
There are, however, Ea little bad things. 6There
aren't much to do in the evening. There isn't a
cinema; there are only 7a few cafes; and “there are
many clothes shops, so we have to go to the next
town to buy clothes. Fortunately, there are “many
supermarkets, so we always have 10enough food!

Unit3

19


Personal pronouns;
impersonal there and it/they
I can use personal and impersonal pronouns.

Personal pronouns

Singular

Plural
Pronouns refer to nouns. We often use them to avoid
repeating a noun.
Subject

Verb

Object

Helen

knows

Lucy and Ben.

She

likes

them.

■1 Choose the correct pronoun.
She / Her is a teacher.
1 Our grandmother lives with w e /u s.
2 They / Them weren't at school today,
3 I / me am reading an interesting book,
4 Id like to meet h e / him.
5 This pen belongs to she / her.
6 Can w e / u s go to the park?
7 Jane and Sarah didn't wait for they / them.
8 Where does he / him live?
9 Harry sat down next to I / me.
10 ! think she / her is funny.

20

Personal pronouns; impersonal there and it/theg

Subject

Object

l

me

you

you

he

him

she

her

it

it

we

us

you

you

they

them

We always use a subject with a verb.
Helen knows Lucy and Ben. She likes them. Ukesdh&n
We use it for things and animals.
I've got a new phone. It's really nice.
This is my horse. Would you tike to ride it?

2

Read Lucy's sentences about her friends, Anna
and To m. Complete the sentences with the
correct pronouns.
► Mrs Fox has two children: Anna and Tom. mgjj
are in my class,
1 Anna is very nice. I lik e ________ a lo t
2 Tom bought a new pen, but he lo st________
yesterday.
3 Anna and I are friends__________often do our
homework together,
4 Anna and Tom were at the shopping centre on
Saturday. I s a w ________ at the bookshop.
5 Tom likes computer games__________plays them
every day.
6 Anna and Tom visited the Khalifa Tower last year.
's incredibly tali!
7 I was late yesterday, but Anna waited for_________
8 Tom has two good friends, Robert and Fred. They
goto school w ith _________
9 Anna's got dark hair b u t________ s got blue eyes,
10 Mrs Brown is one of our teachers. She teaches
________ history.


YY-r-

Read the text and look at the pronouns in bold.
Write the noun for each pronoun.
My name's Jack, I am IS years old and I live in
Manchester. ’ It is a big city in England and I love
2it.
I've got a brother called Bill. 3He is also 15 years
old,That's because “we are twins. Actually, *he is
ten minutes older than ^me!
Bill and I go to the same school, but I don't see
7him in lessons because the teachers p u teus in
different classes.
My best friends are Ben and Richard, I see 9them
every weekend, because ’^theyplay basketball
in the same team as me.
► facte
1
2
3
4
5 .

6
7 _
8
9
10
.

% 6 0 4 . 2 Complete the dialogue with subject and
object pronouns.Then listen and check.

Work in pairs. Student A says the name
of a famous person or people. Student B
says a sentence using a pronoun.
she's from, Am erica.

Kim

Hi, Jane, How are yoivc

?

Jane

1________ 'm fine. What are you doing?

Kim

I'm going to Emily's house,

Jane

Emily? B u t 3________ ,'s still at school,

Kim

Are you sure? I spoke to her this morning
and she agreed to m eet3________ at four
o'clock at her house.

Jane

Well, I s a w _________at school She was with
Beth,s________ were talking to Mr Salmon.

Kim

Who's he? I don't kno w s_________

Jane

7________ 's the music teacher. Beth and Emily
play in the orchestra, I think he was talking
t o 0________ about the music concert,

Kim

OK. So, Emily isn't at her house now. What
should I do?

Jane

Come to my house , 9________ can do our
homework together.

Kim

Do you understand 10________ ?

Jane

Yes.

Kim

I don't. Maybe you can h e lp 11________ !

Jsaw ELkw, Di'v t v yesterday,
ihey'irt {ootíoữLUrs.

Unit 4

21


Impersonal it/they and there
We sometimes use it as an impersonal subject. In
these cases, it doesn't mean a person or a thing,
We use it to talk about:
the weather
Its sunny.
a.
thetime
Its half past th ree.

dates
Its Thursday.
Its the tenth o f February,
d ista nee
Its 120 kilometres to London.

We use impersonal there + be to say that something
exists,The real subject comes after the verb.
There's a book under your chair.
There are some new computers in our classroom.

18

0 4 . 3 Listen to two students playing the
guessing gam e'W here in the world am I?'
Complete the chart using full sentences.

Weather
Distance
from London
Population
Interesting
sights
City

We often use impersonal there + be with some or
with numbers.
There are 30 people in my class.
There was some cheese in the fridge.

Now play the game with your
partner. Student A looks at page 168
for information. Student B looks at
page 170. Ask and answer questions
and complete the chart. Can you guess
the place?

There or it/they!
We use impersonal there + be when we talk
about something for the first time, When we talk about
it a second time, we use it or they.
There's a spider in the bathroom. (= new information)
Its very big! (We know you're talking about the
spider now)
There are a lot of advertisements on TV (= new
information)
/ think they're boring. (We know'they'means the
advertisements)

22

Beijing (China) Dubai (UAE)
New Delhi (Endia] New York (USA)
London time

Weather
Distance
from London

► There's / it's the fourteenth of July

Interesting
sights

Personal pronouns; impersonal there and it/they

Student ß

Local time

Population

There's/it's quarter past six.
There's / it's hot and sunny today.
There's / It's a good film on at the cinema.
There's/It's Friday today.
There's / It's someone at the door.
There are / It's four kilometres to my school,
There w a s/It was windy yesterday,
There's / It's some oil on your trousers!
There was / It was a pencil on the desk,
There was / It was the seventeenth on Sunday,

12 p.m.
Student A

Circle the correct option.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

it's 2 p.m-,

Local time

City
w h it t

U

it

y £ > u r tûw iA ,?

It's SÊVfit't o'&to&k, i-l'Vtkfi 1M.0Yvdtag,


1 0 Complete the sentences with there, it, they and
.
is, are , was or were.
► There are
Nepal. Then art
the world.

a lot of mountains in
the highest in

1

a football match on TV
very exciting,

yesterday.
2 I go to a small school.
eight teachers.
very good.
3
today.
my country.
4
fridge, but
didn't drink it.
5
desk yesterday, but
there nowl

all
a festival in my town
the biggest in
. some milk in the
old, so I

Si*

O

Correct the words in bold.

un

1 Sally's mum is a doctor. He works at the hospital.
2
3
4
there are yours.
5 I like films. But rr
cinema. ________
6 My grandmothe
country. ________
7
like to come with them?
8 There are five kilometres to the city centre.

three books on the
9
10

1 2 Read Katy's em aiI to her new pen friend.
Complete the text. Write one word in each gap.

Write an email to a pen friend. Describe
your town and your family.

Dear Jill
lrd like to be your pen friend. Let me tell ljqu.
about myself
1________ live in Inverness. 2_________ is a small city in
Scotland.3________ are 60,000 people in the city,
I like4_______ here.

...

f'd titee to be
about mijsel-f

L e t me teLL ijo u

i Live Lia. ...

Today,5________ is sunny. But in the winter6_________
rains a lot and sometimes snows.

7________ are some interesting places near Inverness.
e________ is about 250 km to Edinburgh, the capital
of Scotland, a n d 9
only 25 km to Loch Ness,
with its famous monster.
w________ are five people in my family. My dad is
called Peter and 11.
. is a teacher. My mum is
called Linda and 12_
_ is a hairdresser. I've got
a sister cal led Sally; she is two years older than
13_________ !'ve got a brother called John; I'm three
years older th an 14_________ They are annoying
sometimes but l like1£_________
Please write to ™________ . about your life in Australia.
A re17________ ka ngaroos near your town?
Best wishes
Katy

r---------------------------------------------------------Self-evaluation Rate your progress.
»
1
2
3
A
5
6
7

5-~u

8
9
10
11
12
13

Unit 4

23


Demonstrativesand possessives
I can use demonstratives and possessives to describe and identify nouns.

Demonstrative Pronouns; one and ones
We use this and these for things that are near us.
This jacket isn't the rightsize.
We use that and those for things that are not near us.
That jacket over there is a nice colour!
We can also use this and these for things that are
happening now.
I'm enjoying this film.
We can also use that and those for things that aren't
near in time.
I didn't understand those questions in maths yesterday.
We can use demonstrative pronouns without nouns.
Tm looking for some new shoes.' JTry these.'
'There's a yellow sports car outside your house.'
That belongs to my unclef
We can use one or ones so that we don't repeat
a noun. We often use it with a demonstrative pronoun
or an adjective.
'Wouldyou like a sandwich V 'Yes. I'd like that one.'
'How much are the jea n s?' 'The black ones or the
blue ones?'
We can ask the question Which o n e (s)...?
'Can I try the T-shirt?' 'Which one?' ' The red one /

Complete the sentences with tfus, th a t these
or those.
► m at

film was great, I really enjoyed it,

1 ________ is my bike over there.
2 JAre you enjoying your dinner?' Yes_________
food is delicious.'
3 'Where a re ________ boys?' 1 can't see them now.'
4 ________ . chips here are for you.
5 Do you remember________ day at the beach
last year?
6 'Why are you w earing________ gloves?' 'My hands
are cold.'
7 I'm trying to do my homework, b u t! don't
understand________ question.
8 '________ are my grandparents.' 'Hello. Nice to
meet you.'

24

Demonstratives and possessives

t

2

O 5.1 Complete the sentences with a word from
the box and one or ones. Then listen and check.
big

black

old

red

that

this

► This book is interesting but that
there is cheaper.

those
________ over

1 The blue shirt is OK but 3prefer the
2 'Do you want these sweets?' No. I want
r

3 I don't want a small cup. I'd like a ___________________
4 Which horse is faster?The white one or the
________________ ?

5 The new chairs at school are really
uncomfortable. I prefer t h e ___________________
6 'Which is your bike?' '__________________ here.'


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