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Automotive mechanics (volume i)(part 5, chapter33) service and maintenance

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589

Chapter 33

Service and maintenance

Servicing new vehicles
New vehicle services
Scheduled maintenance services
Maintenance items
Service intervals
Special services
General service and repairs

Lifting and jacking
Towing and recovering
Technical terms
Review questions


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590 part five maintenance
A number of different types of services are performed
on motor vehicles. The types of service and the
requirements are outlined in this chapter. Also
included are methods of handling vehicles during
servicing.

Servicing new vehicles
There are two services that are performed on new
vehicles. One of these is a predelivery service, where
the vehicle is prepared for sale and delivery. The other
is a first service after delivery and when the vehicle
has covered around 2000 km.
Predelivery service
A predelivery service is performed on a new vehicle
prior to it being delivered to the customer. During this
service, the complete vehicle is checked to ensure that
everything is operating correctly and that the vehicle is
clean and ready for delivery.
Adequate predelivery service is essential if owner
complaints are to be avoided. Corrections and adjustments that are made before the vehicle is delivered do
not concern the owner who, in any case, is unaware of
them.
This is not the case with problems that arise once
the vehicle has been delivered. The owner is very
much aware of these, as even small problems can

cause inconvenience, while large or persistent
problems can cause dissatisfaction with the vehicle.
A predelivery inspection includes items related to
the exterior of the vehicle, the interior of the vehicle,
the underside of the vehicle and the engine compartment. It also includes a road test to check vehicle
performance.
Predelivery schedule
A general predelivery schedule is shown in Table 33.1.
This lists a number of items that should be checked
under each of the headings previously mentioned.

New vehicle services
The first service is usually performed on a new vehicle
after it has travelled 2000 km. During this service,
items that are liable to settle-in during initial vehicle
operation are checked and adjusted.
This service inspection is provided free of cost to
the vehicle owner, except for the oil filter, oils and
greases.

Warranty
New vehicles are covered by a manufacturer’s
warranty. This is for a specified period of months or
years, and for a maximum number of kilometres,
whichever occurs first.
During this period, the manufacturer, through the
dealer, will either repair or replace any parts found to
be defective through faulty workmanship or material.
Warranties do not cover damage or failures caused by
negligence or lack of maintenance.

Scheduled maintenance services
The term maintenance refers to work that is performed
to retain the various parts of the vehicle in a normal
operating condition.
Scheduled maintenance refers to maintenance that
is done on a regular basis according to a schedule.
Scheduled maintenance not only prevents breakdowns,
but also extends the service life of the vehicle
components.
Maintenance schedules vary for different vehicles,
but an example of the items that are included in a
schedule is shown as Table 33.2. These are for a
passenger car or light commercial vehicle.
The schedule is for each 15 000 km or each twelve
months, whichever comes first, although some vehicles
have a schedule for each 10 000 km or six months.
The sections of the schedule are divided into a
number of related parts, such as: engine, fuel system,
ignition system, battery and electrical, and so on.
The schedule shown is a very general one and there
will be variations for particular vehicles. Some of these
will depend on whether the vehicle is a front-wheel
drive or a rear-wheel drive, whether it has manual or
automatic transmission, whether the engine has a
carburettor or fuel injection and whether it has a petrol
or a diesel engine.
Schedule codes
In the schedule, the various operations that have to be
carried out are designated by codes, and this avoids
lengthy descriptions. The codes consist of the letters A,
I, L, R and T, which are interpreted as follows:
A – Adjust
Carry out recommended adjustments according to
specifications. This can apply to precise adjustments
such as engine valve adjustment, or resetting or
repositioning a small part.


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chapter thirty-three service and maintenance

table 31.1

Predelivery inspection list

VEHICLE EXTERIOR

UNDER BONNET – ENGINE RUNNING AND AT NORMAL
TEMPERATURE



Tighten wheel nuts



Adjust tyre pressures to specifications



Check wheel covers



Inspect body weather strips



Inspect glass and exterior bright parts

INTERIOR OF VEHICLE



Check paint for damage



Check operation of ignition switch and steering lock



Check fit of doors and panels



Check operation of the parking brake and gear lever



Check operation of bonnet-release and lock



Check inhibitor switch (automatic transmission)



Check headlamps, parking lamps and rear lamps



Check operation of interior lights from all switches



Check turn-signal lamps and warning-hazard
operation



Check instruments, indicator and warning-light
operation



Check operation of electric windows and mirrors



Check operation of window winders and door locks



Check horn, windscreen wiper and washer



Check operation of radio and antenna



Check other audio equipment as fitted



Check front-seat controls for operation



Check seat belts, retractors and emergency locking



Inspect upholstery, interior trim and finish

VEHICLE ON HOIST


Check manual transmission oil level



Check rear-axle oil level (rear-wheel-drive vehicle)



Check tyres for damage



Inspect steering linkage and suspension



Inspect fuel lines and connections



Inspect hydraulic brake lines, hoses and fittings



Check exhaust system mountings



Check all underside hardware for looseness or
damage



Check automatic transmission fluid level



Check ignition timing



Check idle speed and CO at idle

ROAD TEST


Check clutch operation

UNDER BONNET – ENGINE STOPPED



Check brake operation



Check engine oil level



Check steering of vehicle



Check brake master-cylinder reservoir, and
connections for leaks



Check gearshifts, manual and automatic
transmissions



Check clutch master cylinder reservoir (hydraulic
clutch control)



Check operation of meters and gauges



Check general engine performance



Check manual transaxle oil level (front-wheel-drive
vehicle)



Check for squeaks, rattles or unusual noises



Check heater and defroster operation



Check radiator and coolant reservoir levels



Check air-conditioner operation



Check cooling system and heater hoses and
connections



Check oil level in steering box (where appropriate)



Check power steering reservoir



Check all drive belts for tension



Check throttle linkage or cable



Check windscreen-washer reservoir level



Check battery terminals and electrolyte level



Check all other hoses, fittings and components

AFTER ROAD TEST


Remove protective covers from interior



Check provision of handbook, tools and spare tyre



Check and clean vehicle as necessary

591


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592 part five maintenance
I – Inspect

2. Manifold bolts

Perform a visual inspection, or check and correct any
faults that are found by adjusting or renewing as
necessary.

Bolts or nuts that attach the manifolds to the cylinder
head are checked for tightness to ensure that there are
no leaks. Also the bolts or nuts that secure the exhaust
pipe to the manifold flange are checked.

■ A visual inspection implies a close examination of
the particular part for wear, deterioration or
damage.

3. Drive belts

This applies to lubricating ball joints and linkages and
also to applying lubricant to such items as cables and
controls. It also relates to repacking of bearings with
grease.

Driving belts for the fan, alternator, air conditioner and
power steering should be checked for wear, deterioration and adjustment. Belts in doubtful condition
should be renewed.
Check the deflection of the belt at a point midway
between pulleys, and adjust the belt tension if the
deflection is excessive.

R – Renew or change

4. Engine oil

Some parts, such as filters, are designed to be discarded
and replaced with a new part at regular intervals. This
applies to air filters, oil filters and fuel filters.
Engine oil is changed at regular intervals. In some
instances, transmission oil is also changed.
Certain parts may have a limited service life, and
the manufacturer will recommend that such parts are
renewed at a particular service period. Spark plugs
are an example.

The engine oil should be drained and the oil filter
changed at scheduled intervals. The crankcase is then
refilled with the correct quantity of new oil of the
recommended grade and type.
After refilling, start the engine and check for leaks
around the oil filter seal. After stopping the engine, the
oil level should be checked and, if necessary, topped
up.
The schedule shows that the oil should be changed
at each 15 000 km or twelve months, but for some
vehicles, the periods are 10 000 km or six months.
More frequent oil changes are recommended for
severe driving conditions.

L – Lubricate

T – Tighten
This applies mainly to the bolts and nuts on the
chassis, body, steering and suspension. Nuts and bolts
are checked for tightness. Some have to be tightened to
a specified torque.
A check of the tightness of engine bolts and nuts,
such as manifold bolts and engine mounting bolts, may
be recommended.

Maintenance items
The following paragraphs outline each of the items
listed in the maintenance schedule (Table 33.2). The
paragraphs are numbered and these correspond with
the item number in the maintenance schedule.

■ These are described later in the section ‘Service
intervals’.
5. Oil filter
The oil filter is removed and replaced with a new filter
at the same time that the oil is changed. The filter
removes small particles of foreign matter from the oil
as it is being circulated in the lubricating system. If the
filter is not replaced, it would eventually clog up.
After the engine oil has been changed and the
engine started, the filter and the oil pan plug should be
checked to ensure that there are no oil leaks.

Engine

6. Oil leaks

1. Valve clearance

The engine should be checked for oil leaks from the
filter, valve cover, oil pan, and crankcase seals.

The valve clearances are checked and adjusted to
specifications. This is usually done with the engine
warm.
This item only refers to engines with screw-type
adjustments. It does not generally apply to engines
with hydraulic tappets or bucket-type tappets.

7. Cooling system
Check the coolant level in the reservoir and top up if
not at the correct level. Coolant should be above the
minimum mark in the reservoir.


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chapter thirty-three service and maintenance

table 33.2

Maintenance schedule (general)
SERVICE INTERVALS
KILOMETRES ¥ 1000

2

MONTHS

Engine
1. Valve clearance
2. Manifold bolts
3. Drive belts
4. Engine oil
5. Oil filter
6. Oil leaks
7. Cooling system
8. Engine coolant

15

30

45

60

KILOMETRES ¥ 1000

12

24

36

48

MONTHS

A
T
A
R
R
I
I

I
R
R
I
I

I

I

I
I

I
I

I

I

I
I
I

I
I

Ignition system – petrol
20. Spark plugs
21. Distributor and cables
22. Ignition timing

I
I
A

I
I

Battery and electrical
23. Battery
24. Lighting
25. Instruments
26. Power windows and mirrors

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

Fuel system – petrol
9. Idle speed
10. Air cleaner
11. Choke operation*
12. Fuel filter
13. Fuel lines
14. Fuel tank cap
Fuel system – diesel
15. Fuel lines
16. Fuel filters
17. Air cleaner
18. Injectors
19. Injection timing

SERVICE INTERVALS

A
T
I
R
R
I
I
R

I
R
R
I
I

I
R
I
R
I
I

I

I
R
I
I
I

I

R
I
A

I
I

I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

I
I

I
I

Code:
A = adjust
I = inspect
* as appropriate for the particular vehicle
Note: On completion of 60 000 km, the schedule is repeated

A
T
I
R
R
I
I
R
I
R
I
R
I
I
I
R
I
I
I
R
I
A
I
I
I
I

Emission controls*
27. Emission hoses
28. Charcoal canister
29. PCV system
30. Other emission controls
Brakes and transmission
31. Brake fluid
32. Brake lines and hoses
33. Brake linings and pads
34. Brake pedal
35. Parking brake
36. Clutch*
37. Manual transmission
38. Automatic transmission
39. Drive line
40. Final drive
Steering and suspension
41. Steering linkage
42. Wheel alignment
43. Steering box or housing*
44. Front suspension
45. Front-wheel bearings*
46. Rear-wheel bearings*
47. Rear suspension
48. Tyres and wheels
Other items
49. Bolts and nuts on body
and chassis
50. Exhaust system

L = lubricate

Check cooling-system hoses and connections.
Hoses that are swollen or cracked should be renewed.
The check should include all heater hoses as well as
cooling hoses.
The radiator core should be checked for obstructions
that could reduce the flow of air. To clean the core, air
can be blown through the core from the rear.
Check the water pump for leaks and the fan for
condition.

2

I

15

30

45

60

12

24

36

48

I
I

I

I
I

I

I
I

I

I
I

I

I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

R
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

R
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I

I
I
I
I

I

I

I
I

I
I

I
A
I
I
L
L
I
I

I
I

I
A
I
I
L
L
I
I

T
I

T
I

T
I

T
I

T
I

R = renew or change

I

I

T = tighten

8. Engine coolant
Coolant should be drained and the system flushed
when scheduled. While doing this, the heater temperature control should be moved to the hot position so that
coolant will drain from the heater.
The system should be refilled with coolant consisting of deionised water or rainwater, with the correct
amount of antifreeze and corrosion inhibitor added.
■ A similar mixture should be used for topping up
the cooling system. Adding water only will dilute the
coolant.


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594 part five maintenance
Fuel system – petrol

16. Fuel filters

9. Idle speed

Clean or replace filters as required and drain water
from the sedimentor. Then prime and bleed the system.
Check the filter seals and plugs for leaks.

Check that the engine idles evenly at an appropriate
speed. If it is necessary to adjust the idle speed it
should be set in accordance with the emission-control
information for the particular vehicle.
This information is shown on a decal which is
attached to a body panel in the engine compartment.
The information is also shown in the vehicle owner’s
manual and in service manuals.

17. Air cleaner
Renew or clean the air cleaner, including any
precleaner that is fitted. Check air hoses and ducts to
ensure that unfiltered air cannot leak into the intake
system.

10. Air cleaner

18. Injectors

Visually inspect the air cleaner and then clean carefully by blowing lightly with air. If the filter is dirty or
damaged, it should be replaced. Replace the filter as
recommended in the schedule for the particular
vehicle.

Check the operation of the injectors at the specified
periods. Operation can be checked on the vehicle, but
for major maintenance, injectors must be removed for
bench testing and setting on an injector tester.

11. Choke operation

Check as scheduled for the particular engine. It is not
normally a routine procedure.

On a carburettor engine, the manual choke should
be checked, ensuring that the cable is correctly
adjusted.
The operation of an automatic choke can be
checked by noting the position of the choke valve
when the engine is cold and also when hot.
12. Fuel filter
If a line filter is fitted, it should be replaced as
scheduled. On installation, ensure that inlet and outlet
hoses are correctly installed and that there are no fuel
leaks.
13. Fuel lines
Carry out a general check of the fuel system hoses,
pipes and connections. Check for damage, deterioration and possible leaks.
14. Fuel tank cap
The fuel cap should be in good condition and of the
correct type. The washer should seal on the filler neck
of the tank. If a cap has to be replaced, it must be the
same as the original.
Fuel system – diesel
15. Fuel lines
Check connections to the filter, fuel pump and
injection pump. Check injector pipes for tightness and
leaks.

19. Injection timing

Ignition system – petrol
20. Spark plugs
Clean and test the spark plugs. Adjust the spark plug
gap. Fit new plugs at the specified periods or when
doubtful under test.
Some spark plugs are designed for extended periods
of service and are only replaced each 40 000 km.
■ New spark plugs must be of the same type and have
the same heat range as the originals.
21. Distributor and cables
Clean the outside of the distributor cap and ensure that
the HT cables are tight. Direct ignition systems do not
require servicing except for ensuring that the coil is
clean and that the cables are in good condition.
For ignition systems with contact points, remove
the cap and clean inside and also clean the rotor.
Inspect the cap for cracks or damage. When the cap is
installed, ensure that the ends of the spark plug cables
are pushed firmly into the cap.
Inspect the contact points for wear and pitting and
adjust. Renew if necessary. Check dwell and reset the
ignition timing.
Check the timing with a timing light and adjust as
necessary.
Check the vacuum or other ignition advance
mechanism for operation. This can usually be done in
conjunction with ignition timing.


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chapter thirty-three service and maintenance

22. Ignition timing

Brakes and transmission

Check the ignition timing where specified. Some
systems are preset and do not require service checks.

31. Brake fluid

595

Battery and electrical

Check the fluid reservoir for the correct fluid level.
Change the fluid in the system at the service period
specified.

23. Battery

32. Brake lines and hoses

Inspect the battery case for damage and the terminals
for looseness and corrosion.
Clean the battery and carrier with a solution of
baking soda and water, taking care that none of the
solution enters the battery. Apply a coating of grease to
the battery terminals.
Check the level of the electrolyte in the battery and
measure its density with a hydrometer. Top up the cells
with deionised water.

Inspect brake lines and hoses for leaks. Check that the
hoses are clear of the wheels and other components.

24. Lighting
Check the operation of all the lights, including
indicator lights, hazard warning and stop light.
25. Instruments
A visual check should be made of the indicator lights,
warning lights and instruments to ensure that they are
all operating.
26. Power windows and mirrors
Check the operation of the power windows and
mirrors, also the door locks.
Emission controls
27. Emission hoses
Inspect the hoses and connections of the emissioncontrol components for condition and fitment.
28. Charcoal canister
Check connections to the canister, or replace the
canister if this is specified for the particular vehicle.

33. Brake linings and pads
For disc brakes, check the pads for wear and the discs
for scoring. If worn, renew the pads. If badly scored,
have the discs ground.
With drum brakes, check the linings for wear and
the drums for scoring. Drums can be ground if scoring
is excessive. Adjust the brake shoes if an adjustment is
provided.
34. Brake pedal
Check the pedal free play and also the pedal travel.
Make the check with the engine running so that the
brake booster is in operation. Also check the operation
of the brake booster.
If the vehicle has drum brakes with adjusters, make
the necessary adjustments if the brake pedal goes too
close to the floor.
35. Parking brake
Apply the parking brake to check its distance of travel.
Adjust if the travel is excessive.
36. Clutch
Check the clutch-pedal free play, or the free play of the
release lever at the clutch housing. Adjust if required.
For a clutch with hydraulic control, check the fluid
level in the master cylinder and top up if necessary.
Check for hydraulic leaks. Change the fluid where
specified.
37. Manual transmission

29. PCV system
Check for correct operation of the positive crankcase
ventilation valve. Clean or replace as necessary.
30. Other emission controls
There are many variations in the design and range of
emission controls. These include exhaust gas
recirculating (EGR) and air injection systems.
For this reason, information should be obtained
from the relevant workshop manual.

Check the level of the oil in the transmission or
transaxle, and top up if necessary. Check for oil leaks.
There are different methods of checking the oil
level. With transmissions it is checked by removing a
level plug, but some transaxles have different methods.
Where specified, change the transmission oil.
38. Automatic transmission
Check the level of the automatic transmission fluid.
This should be done with the transmission hot. The


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596 part five maintenance
level should be above the low marks on the dipstick. If
the level is low, check for leaks.
■ Check the colour and odour of the fluid. Fluid that
is dark in colour or has a burnt odour should be
changed.
39. Drive line
Check the drive line components of the particular
vehicle. Different arrangements will be used for rearwheel-drive, front-wheel-drive and four-wheel-drive
vehicles.
Check propeller shaft universal joints for looseness
and wear. Check the condition of the boots of constantvelocity joints. Check drive-shaft seals for signs of
leaks.
Provision is made for lubrication of universal joints
on some light commercial vehicles and four-wheeldrive vehicles. This should be performed as scheduled.
40. Final drive
Check the rear-axle oil level. Check for leaks at
gaskets and seals. Check that the vent on the rear axle
housing or differential housing is clear.
■ With front-wheel drives, the final drive is part of
the transaxle assembly and does not require
separate service.

44. Front suspension
Check suspension ball joints for wear and inspect the
boots for damage. Where provision is made, lubricate
the suspension ball joints.
Check the shock absorber or strut for leaks, and
check the condition of the shock absorber mountings.
Inspect other parts of the suspension for wear and
damage.
45. Front-wheel bearings
At the scheduled service, clean and repack the frontwheel bearings with grease. This applies mainly to
rear-wheel-drive vehicles with tapered roller bearings.
Many front-wheel bearings are packed with grease and
cannot be dismantled for servicing.
46. Rear-wheel bearings
With some front-wheel-drive vehicles, the rear-wheel
bearings can be cleaned and repacked in a similar way
to the front-wheel bearings noted above. Other rearwheel bearings cannot be dismantled.
The rear-wheel bearings of rear-wheel-drive
vehicles are usually sealed and cannot be serviced.
This applies to both rigid rear axles and independent
rear suspension.
47. Rear suspension

Check the rotational free play of the steering wheel.
Check the linkage ball joints for looseness and wear.
Lubricate the ball joints if there is provision to do so.

Check the bushes and mountings of the rearsuspension parts. Bounce the vehicle to check shock
absorber operation. Check the shock absorber rubber
bushes. Look for signs of oil around a shock absorber
that could indicate that it is inoperative. If necessary,
disconnect or remove the shock absorber to check its
operation.

42. Wheel alignment

48. Tyres and wheels

Check the alignment of the steering and suspension as
scheduled, or if tyre wear indicates misalignment. Also
check the front-end alignment if steering is difficult or
if steering or suspension parts are renewed.

Inspect the tyres for cuts, bruises and for sharp objects
embedded in the tread. Check tyre inflation.
Check for tyre wear and, if the need is indicated,
carry out a front-end alignment.
Where recommended, or where the tyre wear is not
uniform, rotate the tyres to even up the wear.
Inspect the wheels for rim damage, and check the
wheel nuts for tightness.

Steering and suspension
41. Steering linkage

■ The rear wheels should also be checked for
alignment if there is irregular tyre wear.
43. Steering box or housing
Check a worm-type steering box for oil level and
possible leaks. With a rack-and-pinion steering, check
the condition of the boots – there is no check for
lubrication.
For power steering, check the fluid level and
operation of the system.

Other items
49. Bolts and nuts on body and chassis
Check and generally tighten all bolts and nuts which
secure various parts to the body, chassis or subframes.
Use a torque wrench where a torque is specified.


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597

50. Exhaust system

Clutch

Check the various parts of the exhaust system for
condition and possible leaks at the pipe joints.
Check the mountings for condition and check that
there is clearance between the parts of the exhaust
system and the body or suspension.

A vehicle used for towing or short trips will have
greater use made of its clutch and gears. The clutch
adjustment and operating mechanism (cable or
hydraulic) will probably require more frequent
attention because of this.

Service intervals
The service intervals, that is, the periods between
scheduled maintenance services, are shown in Table
33.2 as 15 000 km or twelve months. These are the
intervals for a passenger or light commercial vehicle
operating under normal conditions.
For a vehicle operating under what are classed as
severe driving conditions, the service interval on
some items is reduced to half that shown in the
schedule. Severe driving conditions can include the
following:
1. towing a caravan or trailer
2. repeated short trips or infrequent use
3. operating on dusty roads
4. operating in rough, sandy or muddy conditions
5. driving for a prolonged period in extremely cold
weather.
Items requiring more frequent service
Some items of the schedule that could require more
frequent service because of severe operating conditions
are listed below.
■ Severe operating conditions could apply during a
particular service period only, where a vehicle is
being used in other than its normal conditions.
Engine oil and filter
The engine oil deteriorates much more rapidly under
the severe conditions noted, and so the oil and oil filter
should be changed more frequently than normal. The
engine oil also deteriorates on a time basis because
certain chemicals in the oil continue to do their job
whether the engine is running or not.

Brakes
Brakes are used to a greater extent than usual during
towing and on short trips. Brake pads and linings will
therefore wear more rapidly and require more frequent
inspections. This also applies to rough or dusty
conditions where dust and grit could cause more rapid
wear.
Steering and suspension
Steering and suspension components are subjected to
increased shock loads in rough driving conditions. For
this reason, ball joints should be checked for wear and,
where provision is made, lubricated more often than
usual.
Boots on suspension and steering parts should be
checked for damage.
Transmission oils
Where greater loads are imposed on transmission
lubricants, an oil change period is usually specified.
Under severe conditions, automatic transmission fluid
should be changed periodically, preferably before its
colour becomes dark or it has a burnt odour.
Drive line and final drive
Universal joints should be inspected for looseness and
wear that could result from increased loads. Lubricant
in the final drive should be checked or changed as
specified.
Boots on universal joints of front-wheel-drive
vehicles should be inspected for deterioration and
damage.
Chassis and body bolts
Rough conditions produce vibration that could loosen
bolts and nuts on the body or chassis.

Air filter

Wheels and tyres

The engine air filter is designed to collect dust and
prevent it from entering the engine, but under severe
conditions, the filter could become restricted and so
reduce the flow of air to the engine.

Wheel nuts should be checked for tightness, and tyres
should be checked for damage and wear. Abnormal
tyre wear could be caused by severe operating
conditions.


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598 part five maintenance

Special services
Some components require maintenance for particular
purposes. These can be seasonal requirements, checks
before or after a long trip, or checks or adjustments
following vehicle damage.
Some maintenance items are required on a seasonal
basis. Air-conditioning service and cooling-system
service are likely to be carried out just before summer.
In very cold climates, the antifreeze in the cooling
system would be checked before winter.
Batteries perform better in warmer conditions, so
battery and related electrical service is more likely to
be required at the onset of winter.
Vehicle recall service
In certain instances, new vehicles are recalled for a
particular service. This occurs where a vehicle manufacturer considers that a component of the vehicle is
below the normal standard.
The owners of vehicles of the make and model
concerned are advised, and the vehicle is returned to
the dealer for the recall repair or service. Recalls are
associated with safety, premature wear, or possible
failure of a component.

General service and repairs
This type of service includes a variety of maintenance
items and repairs. These are carried out as they occur,
compared with scheduled services which are planned.
The need for service can arise because of wear and tear
from normal use, or from a component failure.
Service and repairs can also be required because of
accident damage, lack of maintenance, operating
conditions or driver abuse.

be used as a general guide. However, for particular
vehicles, the maker’s recommendations should always
be followed.
■ Jacking or lifting at locations other than those
recommended by the manufacturer could bend body
panels or distort parts of the suspension or
subframe.
Using the vehicle jack
Figure 33.1 shows a pantograph jack being used under
the door sill panel of a passenger car. This type of jack
is often supplied with the vehicle. The jack is being
used at the nominated jacking point at the rear of the
sill to raise a rear wheel. A similar location at the front
of the sill is used to raise a front wheel.
The jacking points are identified on some vehicles
by beads on the sill flange. This part of the sill is
reinforced to accept the load, but other parts of the sill
will bend if the jack is used there.
Screw-type jacks are supplied with some light
commercial vehicles. Where the vehicle has a rigid
rear axle, the jack can be used under the rear-axle
housing close to the wheel being raised (Figure 33.2).
The front can be raised by placing the jack under the
front crossmember.
When using a vehicle jack, the vehicle should be on
as level a surface as possible, the parking brake should
be applied and the transmission should be in low gear,
or in park for an automatic transmission. The wheel
diagonally opposite the one being raised should be
chocked.
Workshop floor jacks
A workshop jack can be used under sill panels at the
same locations as a vehicle jack, providing a suitable

Lifting and jacking
Vehicles have specified jacking points at which they
can be lifted and supported. The locations vary with
different models of vehicles but, in general, are those
parts of the body and suspension which are strong
enough to support the weight of the vehicle without
damage.
Jacking and lifting includes using the jack supplied
with the vehicle, using workshop floor jacks, using
stands to support the vehicle, and raising the vehicle on
a hoist.
Examples of the use of jacks and hoists are
included in the following paragraphs, and these can

figure 33.1

Pantograph-type vehicle jack located at the
jacking point under the sill panel MITSUBISHI


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chapter thirty-three service and maintenance

figure 33.2

599

Screw-type vehicle jack located under a rearaxle housing

pad is placed between the top of the jack and the sill to
prevent damage to the paint and the panel.
The use of a workshop floor jack and safety stands
is illustrated in Figure 33.3. If the complete vehicle is
to be raised, then the rear of the vehicle should be
raised and supported before the front is raised.
1. Figure 33.3(a) shows the jack located at the centre
of the front crossmember and being used to raise
the front of the vehicle. The suspension lower
control arms are not used as a jacking point.
2. When the vehicle is raised, safety stands are placed
under the body subframe as shown in Figure
33.3(b).
3. Figure 33.3(c) shows the rear of the vehicle being
raised, with the workshop jack located at the centre
of the rear crossmember.
4. In Figure 33.3(d) the rear of the raised vehicle is
being supported by safety stands located under the
body subframe.
■ It can be seen that the suspension components are
not used for jacking.
The jacking point for a rigid rear axle is shown in
Figure 33.4. The jack is located under the centre of the
rear-axle housing and is being used to raise both rear
wheels. When raised, the vehicle can be supported by
stands placed under each side of the axle housing.
Safety stands
Jacks are used to raise the vehicle. Safety stands
should then be placed under the vehicle in suitable
locations as shown in Figure 33.3 and used to support
the vehicle.

figure 33.3

Jacking and support locations
(a) jack under front crossmember (b) stands
under subframe (c) jack under rear crossmember (d) stands
under subframe MAZDA


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600 part five maintenance
Vehicles with rigid axles, at either front or rear, can be
supported under the centre of the axle, or at each side
of the axle.
Where the vehicle has coil springs and control arms
at the front, then the vehicle could be supported at the
outer ends of the control arms.
Passenger cars with independent suspension can be
supported at four locations under the sill panels. An
example of this is illustrated in Figure 33.6, where the
pad on the arm of a hoist is located under the rear of a
sill panel.
figure 33.4

A workshop jack located under a rear-axle
housing MITSUBISHI

■ The use of safety stands is a basic safety requirement when working on a raised vehicle.
Hoisting
A number of different types of hoists are used for
lifting vehicles. A hoist can be designed with two side
rails, with platforms or with arms.
Hoists are made with a single post, with two posts
or with four posts (Figure 33.5). With the exception of
some platform (drive-on) hoists, they all have adjustable pads or blocks of some kind that can be positioned
to suit the lifting locations of different vehicles.
The lifting locations are, in general, the same as
those used for jacking and supporting the vehicle.

figure 33.6

Pad on the arm of a hoist located under the
rear end of a sill panel

With a double-post hoist, pads would be located in
a similar manner at four locations: at the front of the
sill panels, and also at the rear of the sill panels, as
shown in Figure 33.7.

figure 33.7

The arms of a double-post hoist located at
the jacking points (viewed from underneath)
DAIHATSU

Towing and recovering
figure 33.5

Types of car hoists

HYUNDAI

Passenger and smaller light commercial vehicles
suffering from accident damage or engine or


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chapter thirty-three service and maintenance

mechanical problems are recovered by tow trucks.
Immobilised vehicles can be towed, but they are
usually carried on a truck with a flat tray body.
These tow trucks have a tilt-tray body and winching
gear. The tray body is tilted so that the rear is on the
ground and the winch is able to pull the immobilised
vehicle onto the tray. The tray is then returned to its
normal position, complete with the immobilised
vehicle (Figure 33.8(a)).
Larger commercial vehicles, which will not fit on a
tilt-tray tow truck, are carried on a low loader. The
vehicle to be transported is loaded with the aid of
winching and lifting gear and ramps at the rear of the
low loader.
Towing with wheels on the ground
In an emergency, where a vehicle has to be moved, it
can be towed with all four wheels on the ground and
also with only two wheels on the ground. However,

(a) Using flat bed truck

this should only be done for a short distance. The
exception to this is constant four-wheel drive vehicles.
Such vehicles can only be towed with all wheels off
the ground using a dolly under the front or rear wheels
(Figure 33.8(b) and (c)).
There are certain precautions and limitations which
must be observed if damage to the transmission or
other components is to be avoided. The preferred
method in all cases is to have the vehicle carried on a
flat top or low loader.

Technical terms
Service, predelivery, warranty, schedule, scheduled
maintenance, maintenance schedule, inspection,
service intervals, seasonal, recall, jacking point,
pantograph jack, screw jack, sill panel, safety
stands, hoist, single-post hoist, double-post hoist,
service life, recovery, flat top, tilt tray.

Review questions
1.

State the different types of services that can be
performed on a vehicle.

2.

What is the purpose of a predelivery service?

3.

List some of the safety items that would be
checked on a predelivery inspection.

4.

List the items relating to the transmission, drive
line, wheels and tyres that would be checked
during a predelivery inspection.

5.

What lubricants and other liquids would be
checked during a predelivery service?

6.

What is meant by maintenance?

7.

What is a maintenance schedule?

8.

According to the maintenance schedule in Table
33.2, indicate how frequently the following
items would be given attention:
(a) engine oil and filter
(b) engine coolant change
(c) battery
(d) brake fluid change.

9.

What type of inspection would be given to the
wheels and tyres?

10.

What would be inspected on the drive line and
shafts?

(b) Towing with wheel lift type truck
from front

from rear

(c) Towing with sling type truck

(rear towing is also possible)

figure 33.8

Tilt-tray recovery vehicle

601


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602 part five maintenance

11.

What would be inspected on the steering
system?

14.

How would automatic transmission fluid be
checked?

12.

What is meant by severe driving conditions, as
far as vehicle maintenance is concerned?

15.

What type of precautions should be observed if
a vehicle is to be raised with a jack or hoist?

13.

What are some of the items that would require
more frequent service for a vehicle operating
under severe conditions?

16.

Why should stands always be placed under a
raised vehicle?



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