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Individual finance Book

Individual Finance
v. 1.0


This is the book Individual Finance (v. 1.0).
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ii



Table of Contents
About the Authors................................................................................................................. 1
Acknowledgments................................................................................................................. 3
Dedications ............................................................................................................................. 4
Preface..................................................................................................................................... 5
Chapter 1: Personal Financial Planning......................................................................... 10
Individual or “Micro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking ............................................................... 14
Systemic or “Macro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking ................................................................ 20
The Planning Process................................................................................................................................... 29
Financial Planning Professionals ............................................................................................................... 39

Chapter 2: Basic Ideas of Finance .................................................................................... 43
Income and Expenses................................................................................................................................... 44
Assets............................................................................................................................................................. 52
Debt and Equity ............................................................................................................................................ 57
Income and Risk ........................................................................................................................................... 63

Chapter 3: Financial Statements...................................................................................... 65
Accounting and Financial Statements ....................................................................................................... 66
Comparing and Analyzing Financial Statements ..................................................................................... 79
Accounting Software: An Overview ........................................................................................................... 98

Chapter 4: Evaluating Choices: Time, Risk, and Value ............................................. 104
The Time Value of Money ......................................................................................................................... 105
Calculating the Relationship of Time and Value .................................................................................... 108
Valuing a Series of Cash Flows.................................................................................................................. 115
Using Financial Statements to Evaluate Financial Choices ................................................................... 126
Evaluating Risk ........................................................................................................................................... 132

Chapter 5: Financial Plans: Budgets ............................................................................. 138
The Budget Process.................................................................................................................................... 139
Creating the Comprehensive Budget ....................................................................................................... 143
The Cash Budget and Other Specialized Budgets ................................................................................... 155
Budget Variances ....................................................................................................................................... 160
Budgets, Financial Statements, and Financial Decisions ....................................................................... 167

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Chapter 6: Taxes and Tax Planning............................................................................... 171

Sources of Taxation and Kinds of Taxes .................................................................................................. 172
The U.S. Federal Income Tax Process ...................................................................................................... 179
Record Keeping, Preparation, and Filing................................................................................................. 191
Taxes and Financial Planning ................................................................................................................... 199

Chapter 7: Financial Management ................................................................................ 204
Your Own Money: Cash.............................................................................................................................. 206
Your Own Money: Savings ........................................................................................................................ 208
Other People’s Money: Credit ................................................................................................................... 217
Other People’s Money: An Introduction to Debt .................................................................................... 231

Chapter 8: Consumer Strategies .................................................................................... 237
Consumer Purchases.................................................................................................................................. 238
A Major Purchase: Buying a Car ............................................................................................................... 254

Chapter 9: Buying a Home............................................................................................... 266
Identify the Product and the Market ....................................................................................................... 267
Identify the Financing ............................................................................................................................... 280
Purchasing and Owning Your Home ........................................................................................................ 291

Chapter 10: Personal Risk Management: Insurance.................................................. 298
Insuring Your Property ............................................................................................................................. 300
Insuring Your Health ................................................................................................................................. 311
Insuring Your Income................................................................................................................................ 323

Chapter 11: Personal Risk Management: Retirement and Estate Planning ......... 333
Retirement Planning: Projecting Needs .................................................................................................. 334
Retirement Planning: Ways to Save ......................................................................................................... 342
Estate Planning........................................................................................................................................... 352

Chapter 12: Investing ....................................................................................................... 359
Investments and Markets: A Brief Overview........................................................................................... 360
Investment Planning ................................................................................................................................. 371
Measuring Return and Risk....................................................................................................................... 380
Diversification: Return with Less Risk ..................................................................................................... 387

Chapter 13: Behavioral Finance and Market Behavior............................................. 393
Investor Behavior....................................................................................................................................... 394
Market Behavior ........................................................................................................................................ 403
Extreme Market Behavior ......................................................................................................................... 408
Behavioral Finance and Investment Strategies ...................................................................................... 414

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Chapter 14: The Practice of Investment....................................................................... 421
Investment Information............................................................................................................................ 422
Investing and Trading ............................................................................................................................... 431
Ethics and Regulation ................................................................................................................................ 437
Investing Internationally: Risks and Regulations................................................................................... 446

Chapter 15: Owning Stocks ............................................................................................. 453
Stocks and Stock Markets ......................................................................................................................... 455
Stock Value ................................................................................................................................................. 463
Common Measures of Value ..................................................................................................................... 468
Equity Strategies ........................................................................................................................................ 476

Chapter 16: Owning Bonds .............................................................................................. 481
Bonds and Bond Markets........................................................................................................................... 482
Bond Value.................................................................................................................................................. 491
Bond Strategies .......................................................................................................................................... 503

Chapter 17: Investing in Mutual Funds, Commodities, Real Estate, and
Collectibles ......................................................................................................................... 508
Mutual Funds.............................................................................................................................................. 509
Real Estate Investments ............................................................................................................................ 522
Commodities and Collectibles................................................................................................................... 527

Chapter 18: Career Planning .......................................................................................... 536
Choosing a Job ............................................................................................................................................ 538
Finding a Job ............................................................................................................................................... 547
Leaving a Job............................................................................................................................................... 562

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About the Authors
Rachel S. Siegel, CFA
Rachel S. Siegel, chartered financial analyst (CFA), has
been a professor of finance, economics, and accounting
at Lyndon State College since 1990. She has also taught
as an adjunct faculty member at Trinity College
(Vermont), Granite State College (New Hampshire),
Springfield College (Massachusetts), the University of
Vermont, and in Tel Aviv, Israel, for Champlain College.
Siegel is a member of the Vermont CFA Society, the CFA Photograph by David G. Ballou.
Institute, and the Board of Scholars of the Ethan Allen
Institute, as well as a voting member of the National
Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. She has served
as a consultant on investment strategy to the Vermont
Land Trust and to other private clients.
Siegel’s column “Follow the Money” has been a regular feature of the Northstar
Monthly since 2001.
Originally from Providence, Rhode Island, Siegel earned a BA in English literature
(1980) and an MBA (1989) from Yale University. She lives in Barnet, Vermont.

Carol Yacht, Business Educator and Author
Carol Yacht is a business educator and textbook author.
Yacht’s best-selling textbook, Computer Accounting with
Peachtree (McGraw-Hill/Irwin), is in its fourteenth
edition. She has also written textbooks for QuickBooks,
Microsoft Dynamics GP, Microsoft Office Accounting,
Excel, and Carol Yacht’s General Ledger.
Yacht’s writing career started in the classroom. To help her students learn new
business and technology concepts, Yacht created instructional material. Her first
book was published in 1979. Yacht is committed to teaching, learning, sharing, and
writing. She is a frequent presenter at conferences.

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About the Authors

Yacht teaches Accounting Information Systems at the University of South Florida
Sarasota-Manatee, College of Business, Executive and Professional Education
Center. She has also taught on the faculties of California State University–Los
Angeles, West Los Angeles College, Yavapai College, and Beverly Hills High School.
She is also the Accounting Section Editor for the Business Education Forum, a
publication of the National Business Education Association; serves on the AAA
Commons Editorial Board; and is a member of the Microsoft Dynamics Academic
Advisory Council.
In 2005, Yacht received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American
Accounting Association Two-Year College Section. She is also a recipient of the
Business Education Leadership Award from the State of California.
Yacht received her MA from California State University–Los Angeles, BS from the
University of New Mexico, and AS from Temple University.
Yacht is married to the artist Brice Wood. Her son, Matthew Lowenkron, is an
accountant, and her stepdaughter, Jessica Wood, is a writer.

2


Acknowledgments
I am very grateful to Jeff Shelstad, Mary Ellen Lepionka, Shannon Gattens, and the
staff at Unnamed Publisher. Friends and family have been more than patient
throughout; their faith has been unfailing and their support has been vital. I am
thankful for the inspiration of several great teachers, notably Stan Gartska, Stephen
A. Ross, Jon Ingersoll, and Barbara Stanhope. Most of all, I have been fortunate to
have been taught by hundreds of students, of all ages and stages, from whom I have
learned so much.
—Rachel S. Siegel

3


Dedications
This text is dedicated to my parents, Jason and Tovia Siegel.

4


Preface
This text has an attitude: that in addition to providing sources of practical
information, it should introduce you to a way of thinking about your personal
financial decisions. This should lead you to thinking harder and farther about the
larger and longer consequences of your decisions. Many of the more practical
aspects of personal finance will change over time, as practices, technologies,
intermediaries, customs, and laws change, but a fundamental awareness of ways to
think well about solving financial questions can always be useful. Some of the more
practical ideas may be obviously and immediately relevant—and some not—but
decision-making and research skills are lasting.
You may be enrolled in a traditional two- or four-year degree program or may just
be taking the course for personal growth. You may be of any age and may have
already done more or less academic and experiential learning. You may be a
business major, with some prerequisite knowledge of economics or level of
accounting or math skills, or you may be filling in an elective and have no such
skills. In fact, although they enhance personal finance decisions, such skills are not
necessary. Software, downloadable applications, and calculators perform ever more
sophisticated functions with ever more approachable interfaces. The emphasis in
this text is on understanding the fundamental relationships behind the math and
being able to use that understanding to make better decisions about your personal
finances.
Entire tomes, both academic texts and trade books, have been and will be written
about any of the subjects featured in each chapter of this text. The idea here is to
introduce you to the practical and conceptual framework for making personal
financial decisions in the larger context of your life, and in the even larger context
of your individual life as part of a greater economy of financial participants.

Structure
The text may be divided into five sections:
1. Learning Basic Skills, Knowledge, and Context (Chapter 1 "Personal
Financial Planning"–Chapter 6 "Taxes and Tax Planning")
2. Getting What You Want (Chapter 7 "Financial Management"–Chapter 9
"Buying a Home")

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Preface

3. Protecting What You’ve Got (Chapter 10 "Personal Risk Management:
Insurance"–Chapter 11 "Personal Risk Management: Retirement and
Estate Planning")
4. Building Wealth (Chapter 12 "Investing"–Chapter 17 "Investing in
Mutual Funds, Commodities, Real Estate, and Collectibles")
5. How to Get Started (Chapter 18 "Career Planning")
This structure is based on the typical life cycle of personal financial decisions,
which in turn is based on the premise that in a market economy, an individual
participates by trading something of value: labor or capital. Most of us start with
nothing to trade but labor. We hope to sustain our desired lifestyle on the earnings
from labor and to gradually (or quickly) amass capital that will then provide
additional earnings.

Learning Basic Skills, Knowledge, and Context (Chapter 1 "Personal Financial
Planning"–Chapter 6 "Taxes and Tax Planning")
Chapter 1 "Personal Financial Planning" introduces four of its major themes:
• Financial decisions are individual-specific (Section 1.1 "Individual or
“Micro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking").
• Financial decisions are economic decisions (Section 1.2 "Systemic or
“Macro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking").
• Financial decision making is a continuous process (Section 1.3 "The
Planning Process").
• Professional advisors work for financial decision makers (Section 1.4
"Financial Planning Professionals").
These themes emphasize the idiosyncratic, systemic, and continuous nature of
personal finance, putting decisions within the larger contexts of an entire lifetime
and an economy.
Chapter 2 "Basic Ideas of Finance" introduces the basic financial and accounting
categories of revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities, and net worth as tools to
understand the relationships between them as a way, in turn, of organizing
financial thinking. It also introduces the concepts of opportunity costs and sunk
costs as implicit but critical considerations in financial thinking.

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Preface

Chapter 3 "Financial Statements" continues with the discussion of organizing
financial data to help in decision making and introduces basic analytical tools that
can be used to clarify the situation portrayed in financial statements.
Chapter 4 "Evaluating Choices: Time, Risk, and Value" introduces the critical
relationships of time and risk to value. It demonstrates the math but focuses on the
role that those relationships play in financial thinking, especially in comparing and
evaluating choices in making financial decisions.
Chapter 5 "Financial Plans: Budgets" demonstrates how organized financial data
can be used to create a plan, monitor progress, and adjust goals.
Chapter 6 "Taxes and Tax Planning" discusses the role of taxation in personal
finance and its effects on earnings and on accumulating wealth. The chapter
emphasizes the types, purposes, and impacts of taxes; the organization of resources
for information; and the areas of controversy that lead to changes in the tax rules.

Getting What You Want (Chapter 7 "Financial Management"–Chapter 9
"Buying a Home")
Chapter 7 "Financial Management" focuses on financing consumption using current
earnings and/or credit, and financing longer-term assets with debt.
Chapter 8 "Consumer Strategies" discusses purchasing decisions, starting with
recurring consumption, and then goes into detail on the purchase of a car, a more
significant and longer-term purchase both in terms of its use and financing.
Chapter 9 "Buying a Home" applies the ideas developed in the previous chapter to
what, for most people, will be the major purchase: a home. The chapter discusses its
role both as a living expense and an investment, as well as the financing and
financial consequences of the purchase.

Protecting What You’ve Got (Chapter 10 "Personal Risk Management:
Insurance"–Chapter 11 "Personal Risk Management: Retirement and Estate
Planning")

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Preface

Chapter 10 "Personal Risk Management: Insurance" introduces the idea of
incorporating risk management into financial planning. An awareness of the need
for risk management often comes with age and experience. This chapter focuses on
planning for the unexpected. It progresses from the more obvious risks to property
to the less obvious risks, such as the possible inability to earn due to temporary ill
health, permanent disability, or death.
Chapter 11 "Personal Risk Management: Retirement and Estate Planning" focuses
on planning for the expected: retirement, loss of income from wages, and the
subsequent distribution of assets after death. Retirement planning discusses ways
to develop alternative sources of income from capital that can eventually substitute
for wages. Estate planning also touches on the considerations and mechanics of
distributing accumulated wealth.

Building Wealth (Chapter 12 "Investing"–Chapter 17 "Investing in Mutual
Funds, Commodities, Real Estate, and Collectibles")
Chapter 12 "Investing" presents basic information about investment instruments
and markets and explains the classic relationships of risk and return developed in
modern portfolio theory.
Chapter 13 "Behavioral Finance and Market Behavior" then digresses from classical
theory to take a look at how both personal and market behavior can deviate from
the classic risk-return relationships and the consequences for personal financial
planning and thinking.
Chapter 14 "The Practice of Investment" looks at the mechanics of the investment
process, discussing issues of technology, the investor-broker relationship, and the
differences between domestic and international investing.
Chapter 15 "Owning Stocks", Chapter 16 "Owning Bonds", and Chapter 17
"Investing in Mutual Funds, Commodities, Real Estate, and Collectibles" look at
investments commonly made by individual investors and their use in and risks for
building wealth as part of a diverse investment strategy.

How to Get Started (Chapter 18 "Career Planning")

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Preface

Chapter 18 "Career Planning" brings the planning process full circle with a
discussion on how to think about getting started, that is, deciding how to approach
the process of selling your labor. The chapter introduces the idea of selling labor as
a consumable commodity to employers in the labor market and explores how to
search and apply for a job in light of its strategic as well as immediate potential.

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Chapter 1
Personal Financial Planning
Introduction
Bryon and Tomika are just one semester shy of graduating from a state college.
Bryon is getting a degree in protective services and is thinking of going for
certification as a fire protection engineer, which would cost an additional $4,500.
With his protective services degree many other fields will be open to him as
well—from first responder to game warden or correctional officer. Bryon will have
to specialize immediately and wants a job in his state that comes with some
occupational safety and a lot of job security.
Tomika is getting a Bachelor of Science degree in medical technology and hopes to
parlay that into a job as a lab technician. She has interviews lined up at a nearby
regional hospital and a local pharmaceutical firm. She hopes she gets the hospital
job because it pays a little better and offers additional training on site. Both Bryon
and Tomika will need additional training to have the jobs they want, and they are
already in debt for their educations.
Tomika qualified for a Stafford loan, and the federal government subsidizes her
loan by paying the interest on it until six months after she graduates. She will owe
about $40,000 of principal plus interest at a fixed annual rate of 6.8 percent. Tomika
plans to start working immediately on graduation and to take classes on the job or
at night for as long as it takes to get the extra certification she needs. Unsubsidized,
the extra training would cost about $3,500. She presently earns about $5,000 a year
working weekends as a home health aide and could easily double that after she
graduates. Tomika also qualified for a Pell grant of around $5,000 each year she was
a full-time student, which has paid for her rooms in an off-campus student co-op
housing unit. Bryon also lives there, and that’s how they met.
Bryon would like to get to a point in his life where he can propose marriage to
Tomika and looks forward to being a family man one day. He was awarded a service
scholarship from his hometown and received windfall money from his
grandmother’s estate after she died in his sophomore year. He also borrowed
$30,000 for five years at only 2.25 percent interest from his local bank through a
family circle savings plan. He has been attending classes part-time year-round so he
can work to earn money for college and living expenses. He earns about $19,000 a

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

year working for catering services. Bryon feels very strongly about repaying his
relatives who have helped finance his education and also is willing to help Tomika
pay off her Stafford loan after they marry.
Tomika has $3,000 in U.S. Treasury Series EE savings bonds, which mature in two
years, and has managed to put aside $600 in a savings account earmarked for
clothes and gifts. Bryon has sunk all his savings into tuition and books, and his only
other asset is his trusty old pickup truck, which has no liens and a trade-in value of
$3,900. For both Tomika and Bryon, having reliable transportation to their jobs is a
concern. Tomika hopes to continue using public transportation to get to a new job
after graduation. Both Bryon and Tomika are smart enough about money to have
avoided getting into credit card debt. Each keeps only one major credit card and a
debit card and with rare exceptions pays statements in full each month.
Bryon and Tomika will have to find new housing after they graduate. They could
look for another cooperative housing opportunity or rent apartments, or they could
get married now instead of waiting. Bryon also has a rent-free option of moving in
temporarily with his brother. Tomika feels very strongly about saving money to buy
a home and wants to wait until her career is well established before having a child.
Tomika is concerned about getting good job benefits, especially medical insurance
and family leave. Although still young, Bryon is concerned about being able to
retire, the sooner the better, but he has no idea how that would be possible. He
thinks he would enjoy running his own catering firm as a retirement business some
day.
Tomika’s starting salary as a lab technician will be about $30,000, and as a fire
protection engineer, Bryon would have a starting salary of about $38,000. Both have
the potential to double their salaries after fifteen years on the job, but they are
worried about the economy. Their graduations are coinciding with a downturn.
Aside from Tomika’s savings bonds, she and Bryon are not in the investment
market, although as soon as he can Bryon wants to invest in a diversified portfolio
of money market funds that include corporate stocks and municipal bonds.
Nevertheless, the state of the economy affects their situation. Money is tight and
loans are hard to get, jobs are scarce and highly competitive, purchasing power and
interest rates are rising, and pension plans and retirement funds are at risk of
losing value. It’s uncertain how long it will be before the trend reverses, so for the
short term, they need to play it safe. What if they can’t land the jobs they’re
preparing for?
Tomika and Bryon certainly have a lot of decisions to make, and some of those
decisions have high-stakes consequences for their lives. In making those decisions,
they will have to answer some questions, such as the following:

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

1. What individual or personal factors will affect Tomika’s and Bryon’s
financial thinking and decision making?
2. What are Bryon’s best options for job specializations in protective
services? What are Tomika’s best options for job placement in the field
of medical technology?
3. When should Bryon and Tomika invest in the additional job training
each will need, and how can they finance that training?
4. How will Tomika pay off her college loan, and how much will it cost?
How soon can she get out of debt?
5. How will Bryon repay his loan reflecting his family’s investment in his
education?
6. What are Tomika’s short-term and long-term goals? What are Bryon’s?
If they marry, how well will their goals mesh or need to adjust?
7. What should they do about medical insurance and retirement needs?
8. What should they do about saving and investing?
9. What should they do about getting married and starting a family?
10. What should they do about buying a home and a car?
11. What is Bryon’s present and projected income from all sources? What
is Tomika’s?
12. What is the tax liability on their present incomes as singles? What
would their tax liability be on their future incomes if they filed jointly
as a married couple?
13. What budget categories would you create for Tomika’s and Bryon’s
expenses and expenditures over time?
14. How could Tomika and Bryon adjust their budgets to meet their shortterm and long-term goals?
15. On the basis of your analysis and investigations, what five-year
financial plan would you develop for Tomika and Bryon?
16. How will larger economic factors affect the decisions Bryon and
Tomika make and the outcomes of those decisions?
You will make financial decisions all your life. Sometimes you can see those
decisions coming and plan deliberately; sometimes, well, stuff happens, and you are
faced with a more sudden decision. Personal financial planning is about making
deliberate decisions that allow you to get closer to your goals or sudden decisions
that allow you to stay on track, even when things take an unexpected turn.
The idea of personal financial planning is really no different from the idea of
planning most anything: you figure out where you’d like to be, where you are, and
how to go from here to there. The process is complicated by the number of factors
to consider, by their complex relationships to each other, and by the profound
nature of these decisions, because how you finance your life will, to a large extent,
determine the life that you live. The process is also, often enormously, complicated

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

by risk: you are often making decisions with plenty of information, but little
certainty or even predictability.
Personal financial planning is a lifelong process. Your time horizon is as long as can
be—until the very end of your life—and during that time your circumstances will
change in predictable and unpredictable ways. A financial plan has to be reevaluated, adjusted, and re-adjusted. It has to be flexible enough to be responsive to
unanticipated needs and desires, robust enough to advance toward goals, and all
the while be able to protect from unimagined risks.
One of the most critical resources in the planning process is information. We live in
a world awash in information—and no shortage of advice—but to use that
information well you have to understand what it is telling you, why it matters,
where it comes from, and how to use it in the planning process. You need to be able
to put that information in context, before you can use it wisely. That context
includes factors in your individual situation that affect your financial thinking, and
factors in the wider economy that affect your financial decision making.

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

1.1 Individual or “Micro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. List individual factors that strongly influence financial thinking.
2. Discuss how income, income needs, risk tolerance, and wealth are
affected by individual factors.
3. Explain how life stages affect financial decision making.
4. Summarize the basis of sound financial planning.

The circumstances or characteristics of your life influence your financial concerns
and plans. What you want and need—and how and to what extent you want to
protect the satisfaction of your wants and needs—all depend on how you live and
how you’d like to live in the future. While everyone is different, there are common
circumstances of life that affect personal financial concerns and thus affect
everyone’s financial planning. Factors that affect personal financial concerns are
family structure, health, career choices, and age.

Family Structure
Marital status and dependents, such as children, parents, or siblings, determine
whether you are planning only for yourself or for others as well. If you have a
spouse or dependents, you have a financial responsibility to someone else, and that
includes a responsibility to include them in your financial thinking. You may expect
the dependence of a family member to end at some point, as with children or
elderly parents, or you may have lifelong responsibilities to and for another person.
Partners and dependents affect your financial planning as you seek to provide for
them, such as paying for children’s education. Parents typically want to protect or
improve the quality of life for their children and may choose to limit their own
fulfillment to achieve that end.
Providing for others increases income needs. Being responsible for others also
affects your attitudes toward and tolerance of risk. Typically, both the willingness
and ability to assume risk diminishes with dependents, and a desire for more
financial protection grows. People often seek protection for their income or assets
even past their own lifetimes to ensure the continued well-being of partners and
dependents. An example is a life insurance policy naming a spouse or dependents as
beneficiaries.

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

Health
Your health is another defining circumstance that will affect your expected income
needs and risk tolerance and thus your personal financial planning. Personal
financial planning should include some protection against the risk of chronic
illness, accident, or long-term disability and some provision for short-term events,
such as pregnancy and birth. If your health limits your earnings or ability to work
or adds significantly to your expenditures, your income needs may increase. The
need to protect yourself against further limitations or increased costs may also
increase. At the same time your tolerance for risk may decrease, further affecting
your financial decisions.

Career Choice
Your career choices affect your financial planning, especially through educational
requirements, income potential, and characteristics of the occupation or profession
you choose. Careers have different hours, pay, benefits, risk factors, and patterns of
advancement over time. Thus, your financial planning will reflect the realities of
being a postal worker, professional athlete, commissioned sales representative,
corporate lawyer, freelance photographer, librarian, building contractor, tax
preparer, professor, Web site designer, and so on. For example, the careers of most
athletes end before middle age, have higher risk of injury, and command steady,
higher-than-average incomes, while the careers of most sales representatives last
longer with greater risk of unpredictable income fluctuations. Figure 1.1 "Median
Salary Comparisons by Profession" compares the median salaries of certain careers.

1.1 Individual or “Micro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

Figure 1.1 Median Salary Comparisons by ProfessionBased on data from http://www.careeroverview.com/
salary-benefits.html (accessed November 21, 2009).

Most people begin their independent financial lives by selling their labor to create
an income by working. Over time they may choose to change careers, develop
additional sources of concurrent income, move between employment and selfemployment, or become unemployed or reemployed. Along with career choices, all
these changes affect personal financial management and planning.

Age

1. Periods of a person’s life based
on age and personal
circumstances that reflect
different needs, goals, and
financial capabilities.
2. Resources that can be used to
create future economic benefit,
such as increasing income,
decreasing expenses, or storing
wealth as an investment.

Needs, desires, values, and priorities all change over a lifetime, and financial
concerns change accordingly. Ideally, personal finance is a process of management
and planning that anticipates or keeps abreast with changes. Although everyone is
different, some financial concerns are common to or typical of the different stages
of adult life. Analysis of life stages1 is part of financial planning.
At the beginning of your adult life, you are more likely to have no dependents, little
if any accumulated wealth, and few assets2. (Assets are resources that can be used
to create income, decrease expenses, or store wealth as an investment.) As a young
adult you also are likely to have comparatively small income needs, especially if you

1.1 Individual or “Micro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

are providing only for yourself. Your employment income is probably your primary
or sole source of income. Having no one and almost nothing to protect, your
willingness to assume risk is usually high. At this point in your life, you are focused
on developing your career and increasing your earned income. Any investments
you may have are geared toward growth.
As your career progresses, income increases but so does spending. Lifestyle
expectations increase. If you now have a spouse and dependents and elderly parents
to look after, you have additional needs to manage. In middle adulthood you may
also be acquiring more assets, such as a house, a retirement account, or an
inheritance.
As income, spending, and asset base grow, ability to
assume risk grows, but willingness to do so typically
decreases. Now you have things that need protection:
dependents and assets. As you age, you realize that you
require more protection. You may want to stop working
one day, or you may suffer a decline in health. As an
older adult you may want to create alternative sources
of income, perhaps a retirement fund, as insurance
against a loss of employment or income. Figure 1.3
"Financial Decisions Related to Life Stages" suggests the
effects of life stages on financial decision making.

Figure 1.2

© 2010 Jupiterimages
Corporation

1.1 Individual or “Micro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

Figure 1.3 Financial Decisions Related to Life Stages

Early and middle adulthoods are periods of building up: building a family, building a
career, increasing earned income, and accumulating assets. Spending needs
increase, but so do investments and alternative sources of income.
Later adulthood is a period of spending down. There is less reliance on earned
income and more on the accumulated wealth of assets and investments. You are
likely to be without dependents, as your children have grown up or your parents
passed on, and so without the responsibility of providing for them, your expenses
are lower. You are likely to have more leisure time, especially after retirement.
Without dependents, spending needs decrease. On the other hand, you may feel free
to finally indulge in those things that you’ve “always wanted.” There are no longer
dependents to protect, but assets demand even more protection as, without
employment, they are your only source of income. Typically, your ability to assume
risk is high because of your accumulated assets, but your willingness to assume risk
is low, as you are now dependent on those assets for income. As a result, risk
tolerance decreases: you are less concerned with increasing wealth than you are
with protecting it.
Effective financial planning depends largely on an awareness of how your current
and future stages in life may influence your financial decisions.

1.1 Individual or “Micro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

KEY TAKEAWAYS
• Personal circumstances that influence financial thinking include family
structure, health, career choice, and age.
• Family structure and health affect income needs and risk tolerance.
• Career choice affects income and wealth or asset accumulation.
• Age and stage of life affect sources of income, asset accumulation,
spending needs, and risk tolerance.
• Sound personal financial planning is based on a thorough understanding
of your personal circumstances and goals.

EXERCISES
1. Use Flat World’s My Notes feature to start keeping a written record of
observations and insights about your financial thinking and behavior.
You may be surprised at what you discover. In the process, consider how
information in this text specifically relates to your observations and
insights. Reading this chapter, for example, identify and describe your
current life stage. How does your current age or life stage affect your
financial thinking and behavior? To what extent and in what ways does
your financial thinking anticipate your next stage of life? What financial
goals are you aware of that you have set? How are your current
experiences informing your financial planning for the future?
2. Continue your personal financial journal by describing how other micro
factors, such as your present family structure, health, career choices,
and other individual factors, are affecting your financial planning. The
My Notes feature allows you to share given entries or to keep them
private. You can save your notes. You also can highlight and right click
on your notes to copy and paste them into a word document on your
computer.
3. Find the age range for your stage of life and read the advice at
http://financialplan.about.com/od/moneybyageorlifestage/
Money_and_Personal_Finance_by_Age_Life_Stage.htm. According to the
articles on this page, what should be your top priorities in financial
planning right now? Read the articles on the next life stage. How are
your financial planning priorities likely to change?

1.1 Individual or “Micro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking

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Chapter 1 Personal Financial Planning

1.2 Systemic or “Macro” Factors That Affect Financial Thinking
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
1. Identify the systemic or macro factors that affect personal financial
planning.
2. Describe the impact of inflation or deflation on disposable income.
3. Describe the effect of rising unemployment on disposable income.
4. Explain how economic indicators can have an impact on personal
finances.

3. Where labor is traded through
hiring or employment and
price is determined by the
interaction of employers and
employees.
4. A market where long-term
liquidity is traded.
5. A part of the capital market
where capital is lent and
borrowed through the trading
of debt securities such as
bonds.
6. The total value of all final
goods and services produced in
a year in a nation’s economy. It
is used as a fundamental
measure of an economy’s
growth based on its ability to
use resources productively and
provide for its members.
7. A period of economic
contraction lasting at least six
consecutive months or two
consecutive quarters.
8. A prolonged and severe
recession.

Financial planning has to take into account conditions in the wider economy and in
the markets that make up the economy. The labor market3, for example, is where
labor is traded through hiring or employment. Workers compete for jobs and
employers compete for workers. In the capital market4, capital (cash or assets) is
traded, most commonly in the form of stocks and bonds (along with other ways to
package capital). In the credit market5, a part of the capital market, capital is
loaned and borrowed rather than bought and sold. These and other markets exist in
a dynamic economic environment, and those environmental realities are part of
sound financial planning.
In the long term, history has proven that an economy can grow over time, that
investments can earn returns, and that the value of currency can remain relatively
stable. In the short term, however, that is not continuously true. Contrary or
unsettled periods can upset financial plans, especially if they last long enough or
happen at just the wrong time in your life. Understanding large-scale economic
patterns and factors that indicate the health of an economy can help you make
better financial decisions. These systemic factors include, for example, business
cycles and employment rates.

Business Cycles
An economy tends to be productive enough to provide for the wants of its members.
Normally, economic output increases as population increases or as people’s
expectations grow. An economy’s output or productivity is measured by its gross
domestic product6 or GDP, the value of what is produced in a period. When the
GDP is increasing, the economy is in an expansion, and when it is decreasing, the
economy is in a contraction. An economy that contracts for half a year is said to be
in recession7; a prolonged recession is a depression8. The GDP is a closely watched

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