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5 4 3 changing to survive bird adaptations

Suggested levels for Guided Reading, DRA,™
Lexile,® and Reading Recovery™ are provided
in the Pearson Scott Foresman Leveling Guide.

Life Science

Changing to Survive:
Bird Adaptations

Genre

Expository
nonfiction

Comprehension
Skills and Strategy

• Graphic Sources
• Main Idea and
Details
• Monitor and Fix Up


Text Features

• Captions
• Glossary
• Heads

Scott Foresman Reading Street 5.4.3

ISBN 0-328-13554-2

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by Lillian Duggan


Vocabulary
critical
enable
mucus
scarce
specialize
sterile
Word count: 2,536

Reader Response
1. Look over the illustrations and captions on pages
6 and 7. How does the author use each one on the
pages that follow?
2. Use a t-chart like the one below to compare and
contrast shore birds and water birds. Then summarize
your findings in a short paragraph.
Shore birds

Water birds

Changing to Survive:
Bird Adaptations
3. What is mucus and how does it help birds eat?


4. Which group of birds do you find most interesting?
Why?

by Lillian Duggan

Note: The total word count includes words in the running text and headings only.
Numerals and words in chapter titles, captions, labels, diagrams, charts, graphs,
sidebars, and extra features are not included.

Editorial Offices: Glenview, Illinois • Parsippany, New Jersey • New York, New York
Sales Offices: Needham, Massachusetts • Duluth, Georgia • Glenview, Illinois
Coppell, Texas • Ontario, California • Mesa, Arizona


Birds Everywhere

Every effort has been made to secure permission and provide appropriate credit for
photographic material. The publisher deeply regrets any omission and pledges to
correct errors called to its attention in subsequent editions.
Unless otherwise acknowledged, all photographs are the property of Scott Foresman,
a division of Pearson Education.
Photo locators denoted as follows: Top (T), Center (C), Bottom (B), Left (L), Right (R),
Background (Bkgd)
3 ©George D. Lepp/CORBIS; 4 ©Sally A. Morgan; Ecoscene/CORBIS; 5(T) ©DK Limited/
CORBIS; 5(C) ©Charles Krebs/CORBIS; 6(T) ©W. Perry Conway/CORBIS; 6(C) ©Nigel J.
Dennis; Gallo Images/CORBIS; 6(B)Richard Cummins/CORBIS; 9(T) ©W. Perry Conway/
CORBIS; 9(B) ©Tim Davis/CORBIS; 10 ©Hal Beral/CORBIS; 11 ©Nigel J. Dennis; Gallo
Images/CORBIS; 13(TR) ©D. Robert & Lorri Franz/CORBIS; 13(C) ©Jim Zuckerman/
CORBIS; 13(B) ©Richard Cummins/CORBIS; 14 ©Ron Austing; Frank Lane Picture
Agency/CORBIS; 15 ©MIKE SEGAR/Reuters/Corbis; 16 ©Steve Kaufman/CORBIS; 17(L)
©George D. Lepp/CORBIS; 17(R) ©Lynda Richardson/CORBIS; 20 ©Eric and David
Hosking/CORBIS; 21(B) ©Darrell Gulin/CORBIS; 23 ©Nigel J. Dennis; Gallo Images/
CORBIS
ISBN: 0-328-13554-2
Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.

They soar above the clouds like graceful airplanes.
Birds can be found nearly everywhere on Earth—
from land to sea, desert to tropical rain forest. They
are beautiful and diverse. They live all over the
world, even ice-covered Antarctica. Some birds spend
their lives on the open ocean and move onto land
only to nest. Other birds never leave the ground.
There are many kinds of habitats in the world.
Some places are hot and dry, while others are cold
and wet. Each habitat has challenges for its animal
life to overcome. In order to survive in a habitat,
an animal must be able to adapt, or change. These
changes enable, or make it possible for, an animal to
survive in its home.
Birds are one of the most successful animals on
Earth. They have adapted to so many different places
that they inhabit every type of habitat in the world!
In this book, you’ll see how each bird has adapted
to survive in its home.

The black-throated sparrow
is adapted to life in the
desert. It can go without
drinking water for days.

All Rights Reserved. Printed in China. This publication is protected by Copyright,
and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited
reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information
regarding permission(s), write to: Permissions Department, Scott Foresman, 1900 East
Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 60025.
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 V0H3 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06

3


From the First Bird to Flying Machines
The first birds were probably relatives of
prehistoric reptiles. Scientists have animal fossils with
wings and feathers from 150 million years ago. These
animals also had reptile features, such as teeth,
claws, and a long tail. Scientists named this ancient
animal Archaeopteryx. The wings and feathers of
Archaeopteryx show that it could fly, but scientists
don’t think it stayed in the air for a very long time.
Over thousands of years, birds have evolved into
flying machines. Their bodies are well suited for air
travel. Birds are faster and can stay in the air longer
than other flying animals, such as bats or insects.
Certain birds have been known to fly 100 miles
per hour and travel over a thousand miles without
stopping.
How do birds do this? It helps that birds have
wings and bodies that are almost completely

Archaeopteryx
probably descended
from a small dinosaur.

4

Hollow bones enable
a bird to use less
energy during flight.

A bird’s beak appears
thick and heavy, but it
is made of lightweight,
though hard, material.

Flying takes a lot of energy. For birds to be such
great fliers, they must save as much energy as they
can. They can save energy because their bodies are
so light. Their bones are thin, and some are even
hollow. Even a bird’s beak is thin and lightweight.
To get the energy they need to fly, birds eat a lot.
For small creatures, they have big appetites. In fact,
birds eat more food than other animals the same
size. They also choose foods high in energy, such as
seeds, fruits, fish, worms, and insects. Birds digest
food quickly so they can use the energy right away.
5


Homes Around the World
Birds live in nearly every corner of Earth. Each
new location had its own set of challenges that birds
have had to adapt to in order to survive. Some birds
have long beaks; others have short ones. Some have
long legs while others need short legs. Some birds fly
fast, while others never leave the ground.
In this book, you will read about eight different
groups of birds, including—

Woodpeckers

Sea Birds

Shore Birds

Expert Fliers

Land Birds
Water Birds
6

You’ll see how they had to adapt to survive.
7


Sea Birds
The ocean is probably the hardest
place for birds to survive. There is a
bird that spends most of its life in the
air above the ocean. This bird is called
the wandering albatross. It may look
pretty tiring to stay airborne so long,
but the albatross has adapted to make
flying easy. With nearly an eleven-foot
wingspan, this bird uses the flow of
ocean air to glide effortlessly.
Penguins are seabirds too. Living in
the cold region of Antarctica, penguins
may not fly, but they’re great swimmers
and divers. Instead of wings, they use
flippers to push themselves through the
water. Webbed feet and a tail help them
to steer.
Penguins have also adapted to survive
in freezing cold ocean water. Thick layers
of waterproof feathers keep them warm
and dry. Below the feathers, a layer of
fat keeps them warm.

The wandering albatross is
almost always in flight. It
returns to land only to breed.

Emperor penguins are the only
animals that spend the winter
on the ice in Antarctica.

8

9


The pheasant-tailed jacana eats
invertebrates, frogs, and fish.

This common snipe is enjoying
an underground meal.

Shore Birds
Shore birds spend so much time in shallow water
that they’re also called wading birds. Shore birds
usually have long, pointy beaks and long, thin legs.
They like being close to land. Their pointy beaks help
them dig in dirt or sand for worms, insects, crabs,
and snails. Long legs keep the rest of their bodies dry
above water.
Shore birds, such as sandpipers and plovers, live all
around the world. Sandpipers live along shorelines
and in marshes. They eat snails and worms in the
winter and insects in the summer. Sandpipers have
mastered the art of catching and swallowing their
prey with their bills still underground!
10

Unlike many other shore birds, plovers have shorter
beaks and legs. They don’t need long beaks because
they eat above the water. With their short legs,
plovers spend less time in the water than sandpipers.
One plover, the wrybill, has a beak that bends to
the right. It looks funny, but it’s useful. This shape
helps the wrybill easily get food from under stones.
The New Zealand wrybill walks in circles while it
hunts for food.
Another shore bird, the jacana, is known for its
unique feet. The jacana’s toes and claws are long
and spread out. These special feet enable it to walk
on wobbly surfaces like floating lily pads. The jacana
lives in lakes, marshes, and ponds in Africa, India,
China, and Southeast Asia.
11


Water Birds
Water birds live near lakes, rivers, ponds,
and marshes. These are great nesting spots.
They are surrounded by tall plants that keep
the birds safe and hidden.
Flamingos may be the most beautiful
and unusual water birds. They are large
with long legs and necks. The flamingo is
perhaps one of the most popular birds in
the world. Who can help but admire its
long, curvy neck and pretty pink color?
Flamingos have an unusual downwardpointing beak. They stick their heads in the
water upside-down to find food, using their
beaks like scoops. The flamingo’s muscular
tongue pumps water into its beak. Then, the
water is strained out, leaving tiny plants and
animals behind.
Geese, ducks, and swans live on ponds
and lakes from big cities to the remote
tundra. These birds are built for swimming.
They have webbed feet, which they use like
paddles to push themselves through the
water. They not only swim well, but they are
good fliers. They migrate great distances
each winter to warmer areas in the south.
Mallard ducks are beautiful and colorful.
Like other ducks, mallards get food from the
water’s surface. The sides of their bills are
lined with filters that strain food from the
water. They are also very resourceful. They
are willing to get food in many ways, such
as taking scraps from people’s hands.
12

Like the flamingo, the pelican is an unusuallooking water bird. They have the longest bills of any
bird. Pelicans use a pouch on their bills to catch fish.
When the pelican plunges its bill below the surface
of the water, its pouch opens up. The water drains
out of the pouch, and then the pelican enjoys its
meal. Like ducks, pelicans have webbed feet to help
them steer in water. They’re also good fliers, and
many migrate over long distances. The great white
pelican lives in parts of Africa, Europe, and Asia.

Sometimes mallards
dive into shallow
water to feed from
the bottom.

Great white
pelicans feed in
groups, herding
fish together.

Flamingos’ feathers turn
pink because of pigments
in the foods they eat.

13


Farmers used to rely
on barn owls to keep
their grain safe from
hungry rodents.

Birds of Prey
Birds of prey are hunters. Eagles, hawks, and
buzzards are all birds of prey. They have powerful
eyesight that allows them to find their prey, or food,
easily. They have sharp claws for catching animals
and hooked beaks for tearing their food.
Owls are nocturnal, which means they hunt at
night. Owls are known for their huge eyes in the
front of their faces. They can hunt well in the dark
because of their powerful eyes and ears. They can
also rotate their heads almost all the way around to
search for prey. Unlike most birds, owls have feathers
with soft edges, making it easy for them to sneak up
on their prey quietly.
Barn owls spend their days resting inside tree
holes or barns. They eat mostly mice and other
rodents. They can catch these rodents in total
darkness because of their powerful hearing.
14

Pale Male, a City Hawk
The city is a noisy place with a lot of buildings.
Red-tailed hawks love open spaces where they can
soar in the sky for hours. It seems unusual that they
live in cities. In fact, a particular red-tailed hawk lives
in one of the largest cities in the world, New York
City. Pale Male, is a real New Yorker. Pale Male got
his name because his feathers are lighter in color
than those of other red-tailed hawks.
Some red-tailed hawks migrate from Canada to
Mexico or Central America in the winter, passing
through New York City.
In 1991, Pale Male
decided to stick around
in the Big Apple.
Surprisingly, Pale Male
has lived in New York ever
since. Living near the city’s
largest park, Central Park,
he can easily find food. He
can swoop down from his
lookout spot and snatch up
prey in seconds. He has had
several mates and produced
many offspring. Pale Male
and a recent mate raised their
young in a nest on the ledge
Pale Male has lived
of an apartment building
in New York City
overlooking Central Park.
since 1991.

15


Songbirds
Some birds are known for making beautiful
music. These are called songbirds. Some songbirds
simply string a few notes together, while others sing
enchanting songs. The songs of the lark and the
nightingale are two of the most admired. Songbirds
sing to attract mates or to defend their homes.
Except for a few species, only males have this talent.
Songbirds are also called perching birds, because
they have special feet that help them balance on
tree branches. Three of their four toes point forward
and one points backward. This enables songbirds, or
perching birds, to wrap their toes around a branch or
a wire easily.
Songbirds have different types of beaks,
depending on what they eat. White-winged crossbills
have beaks with crossed tips that specialize in eating
cone seeds. They use their beaks to pry apart the
scales of the cones. Then their tongues lift out the
seed hidden between the scales. Crossbills can eat
three thousand seeds in a single day!

Like the nightingale, the mockingbird is a famous
singer. The mockingbird can copy the calls of other
bird species. It can also mimic the sounds of other
animals and objects, such as saws. Mockingbirds use
their songs for protection, and their constant singing
tells other birds to stay away.
The North American dipper is a songbird that
has adapted to life on the water. Its name comes
from the habit of quickly raising and lowering their
bodies into the water by bending their legs. It lives in
mountain streams and ponds. The dipper has strong
feet that can grip slippery rocks in the water. It
perches on these rocks and dips its head underwater
to search for food. Insects, worms, snails, small fish,
and fish eggs make up the dipper’s diet. When the
dipper spots a tasty meal, it either wades into the
water or dives under. Dippers aren’t good surface
swimmers, but they are fast underwater. They even
flap their wings in underwater “flight.” They have
a thick undercoat of feathers, which keeps them
warm. They also have flaps that close their nostrils to
keep out water and an extra clear eyelid to protect
their eyes.

The white-winged crossbill’s
unique beak is adapted for
eating cone seeds.

16

North American dippers
build their nests on
stream rocks or
beneath waterfalls.

Northern mockingbirds spend
most of their time running or
hopping on the ground.

17


Land Birds
We usually think of birds as flying animals. Most
birds do fly, but there are some that don’t. Some
land birds have wings that are too small for flying.
Some land birds can fly, but they only use their wings
to make short flights into the trees at night. These
birds are known as game birds. They include turkeys,
pheasants, and quails.
Some land birds have become fast runners, with
long, strong legs. The fastest of these is the ostrich.
The ostrich is the largest and heaviest bird in the
world. Ostriches are nearly six feet tall. They weigh
between two and three hundred pounds. An ostrich
can run forty-three miles per hour, making it able to
outrun most of its enemies.
The ostrich is well adapted to its environment.
It lives in semi-desert and grassland areas in Africa,
where it can walk a long way in search of food. Plant
shoots and leaves, flowers, and seeds make up most
of its diet.

Woodpeckers
You may have heard the
tapping of a woodpecker
and not known what it was.
Woodpeckers eat insects that
live in tree trunks and on
leaves.
Woodpeckers have a
unique way of finding food.
With its heavy, pointed beak,
a woodpecker hammers into
tree bark to find insects.
When the woodpecker finds
an insect, it stretches out its
long, sticky tongue and grabs
it. Some woodpeckers have
prickles or special mucus, or
thick sticky fluid, on their
tongues for snatching up
insects.
A woodpecker’s head has
also adapted to protect itself.
Woodpeckers peck hard and
quickly, like a jackhammer.
Their brains need protection
from this repetitive jarring
motion. Woodpecker’s skulls
are made up of spongy,
shock-absorbing bones.
18

Woodpecker

Ostriches travel in flocks of ten
to fifty birds in search of food.

19


Expert Fliers
Some birds are better fliers than others. Many
skilled fliers have interesting ways to get food.
Hummingbirds, for example, can beat their wings
more than fifty times per second, allowing them
to hover in mid-air. A hummingbird uses its long
beak to drink nectar from flowers.
The ruby-throated hummingbird lives in forests.
It migrates to Central America for the winter,
flying nonstop across the Gulf of Mexico.
Many expert fliers catch their food straight
out of the air. The European bee-eater specializes
in eating bees and wasps. It captures its prey in
mid-air. The bee-eater rubs the insect on a branch
to destroy its stinger before eating it, and then
swallows up the nonstinging insects.
Swifts are fast and skilled. Because they have
small legs and feet, swifts don’t walk much.
These birds can do almost everything in the air.
They catch insects, eat, and drink while in flight.
Nesting is the only activity swifts must do on land.
The Eurasian swift spends two to three years in
flight without landing!

A ruby-throated
hummingbird can
beat its wings
fifty-three times
a second.

Eurasian swifts feed on
small airborne insects
and spiders.
The European bee-eater’s
long, pointed beak helps it
grasp large insects.

20

21


Bird Conservation
Birds have adapted in many ways to different
types of habitats. Unfortunately, growing cities,
pollution, and cutting down trees have hurt birds’
habitats.
Adaptation takes many years. Many birds have
not been able to adapt quickly enough to changes
in their habitats. Some of them are now extinct, or
no longer exist. Others are still around thanks to
the help of conservationists. Conservationists help
endangered animals survive.
Sometimes supplies in a bird’s habitat become
scarce, or in short supply. This scarcity happens when
a habitat is destroyed. Conservationists help birds
by trying to get laws passed that
protect their habitat.
When conservationists help
animals to breed, they help them
to grow. Zoos around the world
have breeding programs.

22

These programs bring birds into the zoo where they
can mate and have babies. Breeding is critical, or
absolutely necessary, when a species is endangered.
Scientists who work with birds have special
training. They need to understand how to care for
young birds. Baby birds must be kept in a sterile
place that is free from harmful bacteria in order to
keep them healthy.
Conservationists have saved a large number of
bird species from extinction.

23


Glossary
Vocabulary
critical
critical
adj. absolutely
necessary.

enable
enable
v. to make
possible.

mucus
mucus n. a thick liquid

Reader Response
specialize v. to put efforts
toward a particular
activity.

1. Look over the illustrations and captions on pages
6 and 7. How does the author use each one on the
pages that follow?

sterile adj. free from
harmful bacteria.

2. Use a t-chart like the one below to compare and
contrast shore birds and water birds. Then summarize
your findings in a short paragraph.

that moistens and protects
scarce
body
parts.

Shore birds

Water birds

scarce adj. lacking an
specialize
amount
that is enough to
meet demand.

sterile

Word count: 2,536

3. What is mucus and how does it help birds eat?
4. Which group of birds do you find most interesting?
Why?

Note: The total word count includes words in the running text and headings only.
Numerals and words in chapter titles, captions, labels, diagrams, charts, graphs,
sidebars, and extra features are not included.

24



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