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Writers choice (vocabulary and spelling strategies and practice) grade 10

Vocabulary and Spelling
Strategies and Practice
Grade 10

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Contents
Vocabulary for Writing in the Real World
The Private Journals of Denise Chavez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Trahant Investigates Nuclear Transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Clarke Follows the Equator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Norfolk Tells Tales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Behind the Science Feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Mitchiner, Ross and Kahn Asks “What Will It Do To You?” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Literature Vocabulary
Blue Highways: A Journey into America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
“My Furthest-Back Person—‘The African’” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
The Solace of Open Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Tortuga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
A Book of Bees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
“A Plague on Tennis” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Learning from Context
Definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Cause and Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Word Roots and Compounds
Word Roots and Base Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Word Roots I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Word Roots II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Word Roots III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Compound Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Prefixes
Prefixes Meaning “Not” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Prefixes That Tell When. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Prefixes That Tell Where . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Prefixes Meaning “For” or “Against” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

iii


Contents
Suffixes
Nouns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Suffix Patterns I [-ize, -izer, -ization] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Suffix Patterns II [-ate, -ator, -ation]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Suffix Patterns III [-ion, -ive with spelling changes] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Suffix Patterns IV [-ence, -ent] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Suffix Patterns V [-ism, -ist, -istic] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Using the Dictionary and Thesaurus
Using a Dictionary: Multiple Meanings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Using a Thesaurus: Synonyms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Using a Dictionary: Word Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Using Spelling Rules
Spelling ie and ei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Spelling -cede,-ceed, and -sede . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Spelling Unstressed Vowels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Adding Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Suffixes and the Silent e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Suffixes and the Final y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Doubling the Final Consonant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Adding -ly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Adding -ness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Forming Compound Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Forming Plurals: General Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Forming Plurals: Special Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Mastering Troublesome Words
Words Easily Confused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Frequently Misspelled Words I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Frequently Misspelled Words II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

iv


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

1

The Private Journals of Denise Chavez
Use with Writing in the Real World, pp. 4–7.
Key Information
The following words are important for understanding Writing in the Real World and words related to a
writer’s vocabulary. Say each word to yourself.
stanza
plot
solitary
alliteration
denouement

restrictive
simile
climax
flashback

process
immersed
abreast
stage whisper

■ A. Word Association

To form each word cluster below, add a word from the list above that is closely associated with
the other words.
1. filter, sift, ______________________________________________________________________
2. informed, aware, ________________________________________________________________
3. lone, separate, __________________________________________________________________
4. engrossed, absorbed, _____________________________________________________________
5. controlled, inflexible,_____________________________________________________________
■ B. Definitions

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Read each definition. Write the words from the list that matches each definition.
1. ________________ This word, borrowed from French, means the resolution of a conflict in a
story or play.
2. ________________ This is a comparison between two unlike things, using the words like or as.
3. ________________ This word describes the action in a story.
4. ________________ This is dialogue in a play that is meant to be heard by the audience but not by
the other actors.
5. ________________ This word describes one part of a poem.
6. ________________ This word describes a literary technique whereby the reader is taken into
the past.
7. ________________ A poetic technique that has several words in a poem beginning with the
same sound.
8. ________________ The high point in a story

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

1


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

2

Trahant Investigates Nuclear Transport
Use with Writing in the Real World, pp. 42–45.
Key Information
The following words are important for understanding Writing in the Real World and words related to
journalism. Say each word to yourself.
beat
vaporize
plutonium
rewriter

stringer
impartial
doggedly
Teletype

general assignment reporter
potential
advocates
syndicate

■ A. Using Words in Sentences

Complete each of the following sentences with an appropriate word from the list above.
Consult a dictionary as needed.
1. The reporter ________________ followed every lead until she had the complete story.
2. When these chemicals are exposed to oxygen, they ________________; that is, they dissipate.
3. A good journalist must be ________________, not showing bias or favoritism toward any
side of a story.
4. A seemingly inconsequential incident may have the ________________ to become a
really big story.
5. Reporters cannot become ________________, individuals who align themselves on one
side of an issue and lend it their support.
6. ________________ is a radioactive, silvery metallic element.

Write the word from the list that best matches each description.
1. ________________ A reporter who submits an occasional story to a newspaper.
2. ________________ When a reporter phones in the facts, this journalist prepares the story.
3. ________________ This is a reporter’s area of specialization.
4. ________________ News from around the world is transmitted to a newsroom via
this device.
5. ________________ This journalist covers a wide variety of subjects.
6. ________________ A news organization that distributes stories to other news organizations for publication.

2

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

■ B. Definitions


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

3

Clarke Follows the Equator
Use with Writing in the Real World, pp. 122–125.
Key Information
The following words are important for understanding Writing in the Real World and words related to a
ship. Say each word to yourself.
prominent
seasoned
expedition
bulkheads

briefing
itinerary
galley
starboard

transcribe
transitions
editing
crow’s-nest

stateroom
bridge
ballast
hold

■ A. Word Association

To form each word cluster below, add a word from the list that is closely associated with the
other words. Consult a dictionary as needed.
1. copy, record, ___________________________________________________________________
2. schedule, plan, __________________________________________________________________
3. initiation, introduction,___________________________________________________________
4. revising, polishing,_______________________________________________________________
5. important, significant, ____________________________________________________________
6. experienced, veteran, _____________________________________________________________
7. bridges, changes, ________________________________________________________________
8. adventure, excursion,_____________________________________________________________

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■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Complete each sentence with a word from the list.
1. The ________________ is a high platform from which a crew member can keep a lookout.
2. Without appropriate ________________, a ship would be unstable on the water.
3. Cargo is stored in the ________________ of a ship.
4. Delicious meals are prepared in the ________________.
5. Facing the bow, ________________ is the right side of a ship.
6. The holds of a ship are separated by ________________.
7. In the evening, passengers retire to their ________________ for the night.
8. The ________________ is the nerve center of a ship, the place from which the vessel
is navigated.

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

3


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

4

Norfolk Tells Tales
Use with Writing in the Real World, pp. 166–169.
Key Information
The following words are important for understanding Writing in the Real World and words related to
storytelling. Say each word to yourself.
narrative
folklore
fable
evoked
legend

quest
pantomime
minstrel
critique

improvisational
myth
climax
skald

■ A. Understanding Definitions

Write the word from the list above that best matches each definition below.
1. ________________ evaluate or criticize
2. ________________ the emotional high point of a story
3. ________________ invented on the spur of the moment
4. ________________ a search, or journey of discovery
5. ________________ something not true; a legend
6. ________________ a story
7. ________________ a story told with actions but no words
8. ________________ call up or summon

Complete each sentence with a word from the list. You may need to change the form of the
word. Refer to a dictionary as needed.
1. In the Middle Ages, Scandinavian poets called ________________ would recite their
poems orally for audiences throughout the country.
2. ________________ , which usually end with a moral, are favorite performance pieces
for storytellers.
3. Although ________________ are usually associated with the playing of musical instruments, they often accompanied their tunes with poems and stories.
4. ________________, which may or may not be true, is passed from one generation to the
next, often orally.
5. Ichabod Crane’s frightening adventures are part of this ________________ often told
by storytellers.

4

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

■ B. Using Words in Sentences


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

5

Behind the Science Feature
Use with Writing in the Real World, pp. 216–219.
Key Information
The following words are important for understanding Writing in the Real World and words related to
sleep. Say each word to yourself.
jargon
dormant
potential
siesta
REM sleep

forum
colleague
synthesized
query
treatise

affiliations
layout
stellar
insomnia

■ A. Word Association

To form each word cluster below, add a word from the list above that is closely associated with
the other two words.
1. superb, first-rate, ________________________________________________________________
2. essay, discourse, _________________________________________________________________
3. discussion, dialogue, _____________________________________________________________
4. vocabulary, lingo,________________________________________________________________
5. connections, associations, _________________________________________________________
6. question, inquiry,________________________________________________________________
7. friend, associate, ________________________________________________________________

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8. capacity, possibility, ______________________________________________________________
9. processed, arranged, _____________________________________________________________
10. format, arrangement,_____________________________________________________________
■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Complete each sentence with a word or expression from the list.
1. During ________________, your eyes move rapidly while you dream.
2. During the winter, many plants lie ________________, which is for them a kind of sleep.
3. People who cannot seem to get a good night’s rest often suffer from ________________.
4. In many tropical climates, a ________________, or noonday nap, keeps people indoors
during the hottest part of the day.
5. A formal, systematic piece of writing on a particular subject is called a ________________.

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

5


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

6

Mitchiner, Ross and Kahn Asks, “What Will It Do to You?”

Use with Writing in the Real World, pp. 278–281.
Key Information
The following words are important for understanding Writing in the Real World and words related to
advertising. Say each word to yourself.
patrons
campaign
crucial
media
testimonial

conscious
informal
storyboard
direct mail

prospective
irreverent
banners
public service ad

■ A. Word Association

To form each word cluster below, add a word from the list above that is closely associated with
the other two words.
1. future, expected _________________________________________________________________
2. placards, posters ________________________________________________________________
3. casual, familiar__________________________________________________________________
4. intentional, planned _____________________________________________________________
5. audience, spectators______________________________________________________________
6. bold, daring ____________________________________________________________________
7. vital, key_______________________________________________________________________

■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Complete each sentence with a word or word group from the list. You may need to change the
form of the word.
1. A ________________ involves a well-known personality endorsing the use of a product
or service.
2. ________________, a powerful advertising tool, is referred to by many of its recipients
as “junk mail.”
3. A television commercial is first presented as a series of illustrations on a

________________.
4. Advertising occupies a variety of ________________, including billboards, magazines,
radio and television—even park benches and signs trailing from airplanes!
5. ________________ include campaigns to encourage people to stop smoking, to protect
the environment, or to donate to charities.

6

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. effort, attempt __________________________________________________________________


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

7

Blue Highways: A Journey into America,
by William Least Heat-Moon

Use with Unit 1, pp. 32–38.
Key Information
The words listed below are important for understanding the Literature selection. Say each word on the
list to yourself.
gorge
inaccessible
strategic
verdant

ironic
rotundity
sporadic
cleft

zealous
exposure
arid
ford

seared
conifers
baroque
hypothermia

■ A. Word Association

To form each word cluster below, add a word from the list above that is closely associated with
the other two words.
1. odd, coincidental, _______________________________________________________________
2. fiery, fervent, ___________________________________________________________________
3. infrequent, occasional,____________________________________________________________
4. canyon, ravine,__________________________________________________________________
5. peril, risk,______________________________________________________________________
6. lush, green,_____________________________________________________________________
7. critical, essential, ________________________________________________________________

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8. unusable, unreachable, ___________________________________________________________
9. burned, charred, ________________________________________________________________
10. circular, global, _________________________________________________________________
■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Complete each of the following sentences by choosing an appropriate word from the list. Refer
to a dictionary as needed.
1. Douglas firs, giant redwoods, and other ________________ dotted the hillsides.
2. The mountain lion escaped from the hunters through a ________________ in the
canyon wall.
3. After several hours in the bitter cold with inadequate clothing, the hiker began to

experience symptoms of ________________.
4. The Gobi desert, like other ________________ parts of the earth, receives little rainfall.
5. The only safe way to cross the raging water was to ________________ the river several
miles downstream.
6. With its elaborate statuary and heavily ornamented interior, the cathedral was a textbook

example of ________________ architecture.
Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

7


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

8

“My Furthest-Back Person—‘The African,’” by Alex Haley
Use with Unit 2, pp. 98–107.
Key Information
The words listed below are important for understanding the Literature selection. Say each word on the
list to yourself.
multitude
cacophony
compress
deciphered
bumbled

agitated
dubious
gibberish
eminent
indelible

astound
native
gamecock
archives
forebears

linguistics
compulsion
hybrid
proximate
staccato

■ A. Understanding Words Through Contrast

Write the word from the list that has a nearly opposite meaning to each of the words below.
Consult a dictionary as needed.
1. erasable ____________________________

6. few ________________________________

2. encoded____________________________

7. intelligible __________________________

3. unquestionable ______________________

8. straightforward ______________________

4. expand_____________________________

9. silence _____________________________

5. unimportant ________________________

10. calmed _____________________________

■ B. Understanding Definitions

1. ________________ abrupt, repetitious sound
2. ________________ study of language
3. ________________ fighting bird
4. ________________ amaze or astonish
5. ________________ resulting from a blend
6. ________________ near to; close
7. ________________ belonging by birth
8. ________________ an extreme or important need
9. ________________ those who came before
10. ________________ place where documents are stored

8

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Read each definition below. Write the word from the list that most closely matches each
definition. Refer to a dictionary as needed.


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

9

The Solace of Open Spaces, by Gretel Ehrlich
Use with Unit 3, pp. 156–162.
Key Information
The words listed below include words that are important for understanding the Literature selection.
Say each word on the list to yourself.
chic
haphazardly
vitality
desperado

hangdog
humility
perceptive
coy

prescient
engorged
Stetson
exiled

buckboard
implement
washes
affluence

■ A. Word Association

To form each word cluster below, add a word from the list above that is closely associated with
the other two words.
1. modesty, reserve, ________________________________________________________________
2. vigor, pep, _____________________________________________________________________
3. alluring, flirtatious, ______________________________________________________________
4. outlaw, bandit, __________________________________________________________________
5. jumbled, aimlessly,_______________________________________________________________
6. fashionable, stylish, ______________________________________________________________
7. psychic, intuitive,________________________________________________________________
8. astute, knowing,_________________________________________________________________
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■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Complete each of the following sentences by choosing an appropriate word from the list above.
You may have to change the word slightly to fit the context of the sentence. Refer to a dictionary as needed.
1. The farmer gathered her ________________ and stored them in the barn.
2. Although he was a man of great wealth, he never paraded his ________________ in front
of others.
3. With his stiff chaps, starched flannel shirt, and bright white ________________ pulled
low across his forehead, the city slicker strode into the lounge of the dude ranch.
4. Its belly ________________ with salmon, the grizzly settled down for a nap in the sun.
5. The once mighty river had been reduced by years of drought to a few muddy

________________.
6. His ________________ expression was a sure sign that the job interview had not gone well.
7. The ________________ lurched along the rutted trail, tossing the driver left and right, up
and down.
8. After Napoleon was ignominiously defeated at Waterloo, he was soon ________________
to a small island.
Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

9


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

10

Tortuga, by Rudolfo A. Anaya
Use with Unit 4, pp. 204–212.
Key Information
The words listed below are important for understanding the Literature selection. Say each word
to yourself.
lulled
alkaline
tenacious
mused

dilapidated
desolate
pelt
dismal

compounded
mantle
arthritics
rosary

fatigue
gurney
illuminating
distorted

■ A. Understanding Definitions

Read each definition below. Write the word from the list above that most closely matches each
definition. Refer to a dictionary as needed.
1. ________________ bleak, barren
2. ________________ stubborn, persistent, and determined
3. ________________ containing mineral salts
4. ________________ to batter or buffet
5. ________________ dull and cheerless
6. ________________ calmed or quieted
7. ________________ run-down and decaying
8. ________________ pondered or contemplated

Complete each of the following sentences by choosing an appropriate word from the list above.
You may have to change the form of some words. Consult a dictionary as needed.
1. The orderlies wheeled the patient toward the CAT scan department on a large metal

________________.
2. Huge arc lamps flashed to life, ________________ the night sky.
3. After losing his wallet, he ________________ his problems by dropping his keys through
a sewer grating.
4. A ________________ dangling from her hands, the woman prayed before the statue of
Our Lady of Guadalupe.
5. The pianist’s ________________ hands were no longer capable of playing the score’s
demanding arpeggios.
6. Her every muscle burning with ________________, the climber neared the summit.
7. The funhouse mirrors ________________ Jeff ’s reflection, making his 120 pounds look
more like 220.
8. The actress wore a ________________ of Belgian lace trimmed with satin ribbons.

10

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

■ B. Using Words in Sentences


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

11

A Book of Bees, by Sue Hubbell
Use with Unit 5, pp. 266–274.
Key Information
The words listed below are important for understanding the Literature selection. Say each word on the
list to yourself.
hollows
extravagantly
catkins
venom

efficacy
nostrums
pupa
anthers

sheathed
scorn
nectar
allergy

vile
exquisitely
larvae
granules

■ A. Word Association

To form each word cluster below, add a word from the list above that is closely associated with
the other two words.
1. depressions, basins, ______________________________________________________________
2. wrapped, enveloped, _____________________________________________________________
3. contempt, disdain, _______________________________________________________________
4. elegantly, flawlessly, ______________________________________________________________
5. wildly, excessively, _______________________________________________________________
6. panaceas, cure-alls, ______________________________________________________________
7. offensive, disgusting, _____________________________________________________________
8. capability, effectiveness, ___________________________________________________________

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

■ B. Using Words About Beekeeping in Sentences

Complete each of the following sentences by choosing an appropriate word from the list. Refer
to a dictionary as needed.
1. ________________, a sweet liquid, is the chief raw material of honey.
2. As a queen bee’s eggs mature, they are first known as ________________.
3. The ________________ from a bee sting can cause pain and swelling.
4. Some people have an ________________ to bee venom and must be careful to avoid
being stung.
5. Pollen exists in the form of tiny ________________ which adhere to a bee’s body.
6. Pollen is produced in the ________________ of flowering plants.
7. A bee that has developed beyond the larval stage is called a ________________.
8. The hazel tree produces pollen on long, dangling spikes known as ________________.

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

11


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

12

“A Plague on Tennis,” by Mark Mathabane
Use with Unit 6, pp. 314–318.
Key Information
The words listed below are important for understanding the Literature selection. Say each word on the
list to yourself.
integrity
emulate
tarnished
symphonic

acumen
illustrious
insipid
impeccable

finesse
mania
compensate
synonymous

equalizer
compelling
typified
commercialism

■ A. Word Association

To form each word cluster below, add a word from the list above that is closely associated with
the other two words.
1. damaged, blemished, _____________________________________________________________
2. notable, celebrated, ______________________________________________________________
3. necessitating, driving, ____________________________________________________________
4. craze, rage, _____________________________________________________________________
5. even-up, balance, ________________________________________________________________
6. flat, characterless,________________________________________________________________
7. awareness, insight, _______________________________________________________________
8. follow, imitate, __________________________________________________________________
10. honor, uprightness, ______________________________________________________________
■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Complete each of the following sentences by choosing an appropriate word from the list. Refer
to dictionary as needed.
1. Major Dobson ________________ all that was special about fighter pilots; she was confident, cocky, and courageous.
2. The name John Gielgud is ________________ with fine acting.
3. In an attempt to ________________ her for her trouble, the store agreed to reduce the
price of the computer.
4. His credentials were ________________; we were sure we’d never find anyone better
suited to the job.
5. He had played in a great many orchestras: jazz, theater, and ________________.
6. After agreeing to endorse a popular shampoo, the politician was accused of crass

________________.

12

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9. skill, tact, ______________________________________________________________________


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

13

Learning From Context: Definition
Key Information
You can often determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word in a sentence by studying the word’s context—that is, the other words around it. Sometimes, the word will be defined in the same sentence or
in a following sentence. Clue words that often signal a definition include which means, also known
as, in other words, that is, and or.
Notice how the italicized word in the following sentence is defined within the sentence. Notice also
the boldface clue words that introduce the definition.
The scientist’s findings were clearly empirical, which means they were based on the scientist’s
experiences.

■ A. Figuring Out Word Meanings

Complete each of the following sentences by adding the appropriate word from the following
list. Let the clue words and the definitions guide your choices. Refer to a dictionary as needed.
chronic
ambiguous

firebrand
grandiose

lassitude
numismatist

1. Phillip enjoyed his work as a ________________, which means he collected and
studied coins.
2. After the accident, Clara’s back pain became ________________, or ongoing.
3. The king’s plans were quite ________________; in other words, the palace at Versailles
would be the most luxurious Europe had ever seen.
4. The tourists’ ________________, or weariness, was the result of the tropical heat and a
long bus journey.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. The district attorney described the suspect as a ________________, which means a hothead or troublemaker.
6. Her speech was meant to be ________________; in other words, she wouldn’t reveal to
the crowd whether or not she intended to run for Congress.
■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Use each of the following words in a sentence that contains both a definition of the word and
clue words to introduce the definition. Use a dictionary as needed.
1. hypochondriac__________________________________________________________________
2. maudlin _______________________________________________________________________
3. omnivorous ____________________________________________________________________
4. defeatist _______________________________________________________________________
5. pseudonym ____________________________________________________________________

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

13


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

14

Learning From Context: Example
Key Information
An unfamiliar word’s context—the other words around it—can often provide a clue to its meaning. For
instance, an unfamiliar word may be followed by examples or illustrations that hint at its meaning.
Such examples may be introduced by these clue words: for instance, such as, for example, and like.
Notice how each italicized word in the following sentences is followed by an example or illustration
that helps define the word. Notice also the boldface clue words in each sentence.
The concert hall has nearly perfect acoustics; for example, a whisper on stage can be heard quite
clearly in the fourth balcony.
An impregnable castle, such as Castle Gilead, which was heavily guarded and nearly impossible to
reach, was King Anselm’s dream.

■ A. Figuring Out Word Meanings

Use the examples and illustrations in each of the following sentences to figure out the meaning
of each italicized word. Watch for clue words that signal an example or illustration. Write what
you think the italicized word means. Then check a dictionary to confirm your definition.
1. A benign tumor, such as a simple cyst, usually poses few health risks to a patient.

3. A true epicurean, such as the man who one day flew from New York to Paris just to lunch
on freshly picked spring asparagus from the Loire valley, will do anything to satisfy his or
her senses.

4. Today, a metropolis like Chicago, Mexico City, or Tokyo requires the leadership and skills
of an effective manager.

■ B. Clarifying Meaning

Complete each sentence with an example so that the meaning of the italicized word is clear.
Consult a dictionary as needed.
1. The guide warned us to avoid seemingly torpid animals, such as ___________________________.
2. Succulents like ______________________ require water only occasionally.
3. Kelly was quite gullible; for instance,_________________________________________________

4. For the bathroom windows, the architect specified an opaque material such as _______________

14

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. The Senator was a woman of extreme candor; for instance, she once told the majority
leader exactly what she thought of his legislation and his politics—right in the Senate
chambers for all to hear!


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

15

Learning From Context: Comparison
Key Information
The meaning of an unfamiliar word can often be discovered in the word’s context—the other words
around the unfamiliar word. Sometimes the unfamiliar word will be compared to something familiar,
thus revealing its meaning. Such comparisons are often introduced with the following clue words:
likewise, also, similarly, and as.
Notice how the unfamiliar italicized words in the following sentences are compared to something
familiar to reveal their meanings. Notice also the boldface clue word that signals the comparison.
The landscape was as arid as that of the great Sahara.
When it came to the stock market, Rene seemed almost clairvoyant; likewise, she was able
to predict in advance which of her customers would be buying and which would be selling.

■ A. Figuring Out Word Meanings

Complete each of the sentences below by adding the appropriate word from the following list. Let
the clue words and the familiar comparisons guide your choices. Consult a dictionary as needed.
contiguous
vapid

placid
genial

impious
esoteric

1. Her lectures were quite ________________; likewise, her books were understood only by
her most ardent devotees.
2. His temperament was as ________________ as a glassy lake on a warm summer morning.
3. Illinois and Indiana are ________________ states; similarly, California and Nevada share
a common border.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. Not only was his personality ________________, but his intellect was also flat
and uninteresting.
5. Church authorities considered his speeches ________________; his writings were also
thought to be irreverent.
6. Her personality is as ________________ as a sunny day in May.
■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Use each of the following unfamiliar words in a sentence in which the unfamiliar word is
compared to something familiar. Use the clue word in parentheses to introduce the familiar
comparison.
1. disinterested (similarly)___________________________________________________________

2. hypocritical (likewise) ____________________________________________________________

3. tempestuous (as) ________________________________________________________________

4. loquacious (also) ________________________________________________________________

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

15


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

16

Learning from Context: Contrast
Key Information
An unfamiliar word can often be defined by its context—the other words around it. For example, an
unfamiliar word may be followed by a familiar word or phrase that has the opposite meaning of the
unfamiliar word. Such opposite, or contrasting, words and phrases are often introduced by these clue
words: however, but, on the contrary, and unlike.
Notice how the unfamiliar italicized words in the following sentences are followed by a familiar word
or phrase that has the opposite meaning of the unfamiliar word. Notice also the boldface clue words
that signal the contrasting information.
Emergency food supplies were ample; however, there was a serious shortage of medical equipment.
Phil was conscientious about his work, but his brother’s was both sloppy and incomplete.

■ A. Figuring Out Word Meanings

Circle the clue words that signal contrast in the following sentences. Then use the context to
figure out the meaning of each italicized word. Write what you think the italicized word
means. Then check a dictionary to confirm your definition.
1. To say that her speech lacked brevity is an understatement; on the contrary, she spoke for
nearly two hours!

2. Unlike Hector, who is simple, reserved, and straightforward, John is quite pretentious.

4. The plan was clearly effectual, but the way it was carried out was wasteful and inefficient.

■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Complete each of the sentences below by choosing the appropriate word from the following
list. Let the clue words and contrasting information guide your choices.
solicitous
demure

meticulous
inscrutable

1. The general’s tactics were obvious and easily understood, but his motives were ________________.
2. The defense attorney was quite ________________, but the prosecutor clearly had no
concerns whatsoever for the defendant.
3. Unlike his sloppy roommate, Greg was a ________________ housekeeper.
4. You could hardly call the singer ________________; on the contrary, she was loud
and brash.

16

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. His triceps are pretty flaccid; however his biceps are strong and well developed.


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

17

Learning from Context: Cause and Effect
Key Information
The context of an unfamiliar word—the words around it—can often enable you to determine the
meaning of the unfamiliar word. For example, some unfamiliar words in a sentence describe a cause in
which the effects are understood and hint at the meaning of the unfamiliar word. These effects are
introduced by the following clue words: therefore, since, because, when, and as a result.
Notice how the unfamiliar italicized word in each of the following sentences describes a cause. Also
notice how the effect of that cause helps you to understand the unfamiliar word. The boldface clue
words introduce the effect.
The nurse knew the patient was ambulatory because she saw him walking to the solarium.
The fumes from the chemical spill proved noxious; as a result, several firefighters were treated for
breathing difficulties.

■ A. Figuring Out Word Meanings

Complete each of the sentences below by adding the appropriate word from the following
list. Let the clue words and the effects they introduce guide your choices. Refer to a dictionary
as needed.
bloated
transparent

chaotic
polygamy

1. The child felt ________________ because he had eaten too many hot dogs.
2. The glass was ________________; as a result, we could see the interior of the factory clearly.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. His culture encouraged ________________; therefore he was expected to take more than
one wife.
4. The scene on the deck of the Titanic was ________________; consequently, many passengers panicked and lost their lives.
■ B. Using Words in Sentences

Write a sentence for each of the following words. The word should be the cause for an understood effect. Introduce the effect with an appropriate clue word. Consult a dictionary as needed.
1. estranged ______________________________________________________________________

2. redundant _____________________________________________________________________

3. succinct _______________________________________________________________________

4. pallid _________________________________________________________________________

5. impartial ______________________________________________________________________

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

17


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

18

Word Roots and Base Words
Key Information
Every word is made up of parts. By studying the parts of a word, you can discover clues to its meaning.
The main part of a word is its root. For example, the root of the word animal is anima, which means
“life or mind.” When the root is a complete word, it is called a base word. Agree is a base word.
Roots and base words are often combined with prefixes and suffixes to form new words.
Roots
arch
ced
man
son

Meanings
rule, govern
go
hand
sound

Words
anarchy
proceed
manual
unison

Meanings
absence of government
go ahead
by hand
with one voice

■ A. Recognizing Word Families

For each word, write another word that has the same root. The root is in boldface type.
1. benevolent

_____________________________________

2. generate

_____________________________________

3. pedestrian

_____________________________________

4. conscience

_____________________________________

5. viaduct

_____________________________________

■ B. Recognizing Base Words

Write the base word and a sentence for each of the following words.

2. incredible ________________________________________

3. defrost___________________________________________

4. knowledgeable ____________________________________

5. friendly __________________________________________

6. villainous ________________________________________

18

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. morality _________________________________________


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

19

Word Roots I
Key Information
The root of a word is its main part. If you know the meaning of a word’s root, you have a clue to the
meaning of the word.
Roots
audi
domin
cogn
spir

Meanings
hear
a lord
know
breath

Words
audible
dominate
recognize
inspire

Meanings
able to be heard
have control over
to know
breathe in

■ A. Recognizing Word Families

Complete each word cluster with a word that has the same root. Do not use any words that
appear on this page.
1. spirit, perspire, ____________________________________
2. dominion, domineering, ____________________________
3. audience, auditorium, ______________________________
4. cognizant, cognition, _______________________________
■ B. Understanding Word Roots

Circle the root of each of the following words. Then write a brief definition of the word.
Consult a dictionary to verify your definitions.

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. incognito ______________________________________________________________________

2. dominant ______________________________________________________________________

3. inaudible ______________________________________________________________________

4. expire _________________________________________________________________________

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

19


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

20

Word Roots II
Key Information
The main part of any word is its root. If you know the meaning of a word’s root, you can often figure
out the meaning of the word itself.
Roots
cred
fer
loc
tract
sol

Meanings
believe
bear
a place
draw
alone

Words
incredible
transfer
locate
distract
solo

Meanings
unbelievable
take from one place to another
find
draw attention away from
one

■ A. Creating Words from Roots

For each of the following roots, write two words that share the same root. Do not use any of
the words on this page.
1. loc

____________________________

___________________________________

2. cred

____________________________

___________________________________

3. fer

____________________________

___________________________________

4. sol

____________________________

___________________________________

5. tract

____________________________

___________________________________

■ B. Understanding Word Roots

Rewrite each sentence without using the italicized word. Your rewritten sentence should have
the same meaning as the original.

2. She was a local girl, having been born and raised in the sleepy village.

3. The wheels spun furiously; he simply couldn’t find any traction.

4. Maria’s face took on an incredulous look as the stranger spun his unbelievable tale.

5. In deference to his king, the knight willingly accepted the dangerous quest.

20

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. The cowboy was a solitary man, traveling light and always alone.


Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice
Name ...................................................................................... Class .................................................. Date ................................

21

Word Roots III
Key Information
The main part of a word is its root. You can often discover the general meaning of a word if you
know the meaning of the word’s root.
Roots
am
path
pend
scrib
soph

Meanings
love
suffering, feeling
weigh, hang
write
wise

Words
amorous
pathetic
suspend
scribble
sophisticated

Meanings
full of love
arousing pity or sorrow
hang
write illegibly or carelessly
wise in the ways of world

■ A. Creating Words from Roots

For each of the following roots, write two words that share the same root. Do not use any of
the words on this page.
1. soph

____________________________

___________________________________

2. am

____________________________

___________________________________

3. scrib

____________________________

___________________________________

4. pend

____________________________

___________________________________

5. path

____________________________

___________________________________

■ B. Understanding Word Roots

Rewrite each sentence without using the italicized word. Your rewritten sentence should have
the same meaning as the original.
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. His was a tale of suffering and woe that never failed to elicit sympathy.

2. Independent even as a child, Wanda remained a free spirit throughout her life.

3. Kevin was an amiable fellow, always happy, smiling, and ready to lend a hand.

4. Although Pat was already a sophomore, wisdom and maturity continued to elude her.

5. A glass display case held the manuscript, a rare, illuminated document from the Middle Ages.

Writer’s Choice: Vocabulary and Spelling Strategies and Practice, Grade 10

21


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