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Quick study academic english grammar and punctuation 600dpi

SUBJECTS

MODIFIERS

WHO OR WHAT A CLAUSE, PHRASE, OR
SENTENCE IS ABOUT

DEFINITIVE ELEMENTS

NOUNS
- PROPER NOUNS

NaillI' a ~pecitic persoll, place, or object. They
begill with till IIpper case letter.
1. John
2. Mercury
3. California

-COMMON NOUNS

NaillI' a lIoll-~pecitic perSOIl, place, 01' object; tltey

do IIOt begill with all IIpper case letter.
l. boy
2. pland

3. state

PRONOUNS

1. A singular verb requires a singular subject.

A plural verb requires a plural subject.

a. When two singular subjects are joined by alld, the
verb is plural. Exception - when two singular sub­
jects are connected by and present a single idea, the
verb may be singular.
b. When two singular subjects are connected by or,
either... or, or IIeither. .. llor, the verb is singular.
c. When two plural subjects are connected by or,
either... or, or lIeither. .. //or, the verb is plural.
d. The verb agrees with the nearer subjecl of a com­
pound sentence which has both a singular and a plu­
ral word joined by or or IIor.
e. When the subject and the subjective complement
(predicate adjectives, predicate nominatives that fol­
low linking verbs and refer to the subject) are differ­
ent in number, the verb agrees with the subject.

Take the positioll tllldfilllctioll (ll/WIIIIS, bllt do IIOt
specifically lIallle.
I. He fed the cat.
2. She fed the ~ at.

- The books Ihal I received were the most appreciated.
2. Every or mallY beforc a word or series of words is fol­

3. It got extremcly fat.
4. They wish they had fed it less.

3. When the subject comes after the verb, as in sentences


NOMINATIVE ELEMENTS

lowed by a singular verb.

- Every lIIan, WO/lwn, and child was asked to donate.
beginning with here is, there is, and where is, make
sure that the verb agrees with the subject.

- There tire three cour.,es olactioll we call lake.

-VERBAL
1. GERUNDS (-ing ti.mll ofthc verb)
a. Reat/illg travel books is my hobby.
b. Travelillg by train is part of my daily routine.
2. INFINITIVES (to, plus the verb)
a. To read a travel book brings me pleasure.
b. To trtll'el by traill can be fun.
-NOUN CLAUSES
That 0111' lIeetls a clear goal is strcssed in college
preparatory classes.

-VOICE
I. ACTIVE VOICE: Subjcct is acting.

GENERAL RULES

2.lmperative: expresses a command request,

suggestion, entreaty, etc. where subject (usually the

pronoun you) is understood.


I. All inflected forms must be in subjective case.
2. Gender is important with subject pronouns.
• Johll is proud of the school he attended.
3. Number is important for agreement of subject and
verb.
a. The wOlI/all was tall.
b. The WOlllell were tall.
c. The IIIUlI IIlId the WOlllall were tall.

SPECIFIC RULES
I. Some pronouns always take singular vcrbs.
- each, someone, either, neither, somebody, nobody,
everybody, anyone, nothing
2. Some pronollns always take plural verbs.
• both, few, several, many
3. Collective nouns thought of as a single unit are sin­
gular. Collective nouns with idcntified parts require
a plural verb.
a. The grall/l is going to the show.
b. Th e lIIell are going to the show.
4. Generally, subjects appear before the verb and may
be separated by modifiers or prepositional phrases.
To determine a subject, answer who or what about
the construction being analyzed.
a. Johll walks.
b. The traill runs.
c. Johll , who is late for the train, runs.

VERBS (PREDICATES)
WHAT A SUBJECT IS DOING; WHAT IS
BEING DONE TO IT; A STATE OF BEING

THE FIVE PROPERTIES OF VERBS
-PERSON
A verb is in the same person as its subject.
I. First person: 1 aln hopillgj!,r rain.
2. Sccond person: You are /wpillg/!}/' rain.
3. Third person: He is /wpillgji,,' rain.

- Liffhtnill!: struck the bam.
2. PASSIVE VOICE: Subject is acted upon.
a. The barn wus struck by lightning.
b.The passive form always consists of some form of
the vcrb be plus the past participle.
-MOOD
I. Indicative: makes a statement or asks a question.

• It is 40 miles to Gaillesville, but we'll get there ill
time.

- Stop! Please sigll the jimll before retllmillg it.
3. Subjunctive: equals the past tense in structure and is

used after if' and wi.5h when the statement is contrary
to reality.
a. I wish I were a rich H'oman.
h. III kllew her nllIllIJeI; I would call hel:

-TENSE
1. Made from the principal parts of verbs.
2. Three forms are:
a. Present tense or present infinitive: do, give, ring,

ADJECTIVES & ADJECTIVAL ELEMENTS
USED TO MODIFY NOUNS OR PRONOUNS

1. Prepositional phrases. verbal phrases, and adjec­
tive dependent clauses changc the image made by
the noun or nominative element by itself.
2. Proper adjectives arc formed from a proper noun.

- Frellch, Democrat, etc.
3. Demonstrative adjectives answcr the question
which one?

-

thi.~,

tlrat, tlre.,e, those (also called pr(}/wlI/ls)

4. Descriptive adjectives answer the qucstion what

kind'!

- big, small, red, etc.
5. Quantitative adjectives answer the question how
many?
-Oll/!, three, .,ome,jew, several (also called pronouns)
6. Qualitative adjectives answ",r the question how much"

- little, much, cOllsiderable
7. In comparing the quality of nouns, adjectives change
by degrees.
a. The positive degree covers one itcm: big, good
b. Comparative degree cowrs two items: bigger, better
c. Superlative degree covers three or more: bigge.~t, hest
8. A predicate adjective follows any linking or state
of being verb: The 111('11 were sick FUIII elltillg the
ral-\'

(~vsfers.

ADVERBS OR ADVERBIAL ELEMENTS
USED TO MODIFY VERBS, ADJECTIVES, OR
OTHER ADVERBS
I. Prepositional phrases, verbal phrases, or adver­
bial dependent clauses add descriptive elements
to a sentence.
2. Adverbs answer one or more of these qucstions:
a. How'! (by what manner'!) quickly, SIOH'(I',j'ast
b. When? (at what time?) IIOW, theil, lIever
c. Where" (at what location'!) here, there, dOH'II, lip
d. To what extent docs a thing havc some qualit~'"
e. To what extent docs the adverb express quantity')
3. Adverbs follow the verb.

a. John walked slowly.
b. John walked jaster thall Peter.
4. Adverbs modifying adjectives and adverbs precede
the word being modified.

- John ",alk"d surprisingly slm\'~\'.Ii!/' SOIllI'On/! so loll.
5. One-syllabic adverbs arc compared by adding -er or -est.
a. John wlIlkeel slower Ihall I did.

b. John wlllkeel slowest o(al/.
6. Adverbs of two or more syllables add more or most.
a. John walks more slowly thb. I alii most
to kilO\\, thaI.

Ihrow
b. Past tense: did, gave. rang, Ihrew
c. Past participle: done, given, rung. thrown

CLASSES & TYPES OF VERBS
I. A transitive verb takes an object.
- Pu"h this hulloll ilvou wallt a l.ig}11.
2. An intransitive verb does not take an object.

- The sun shOllI' brightlli.
3. A verb can be transitive or intransitive in different sen­

tences.
4. An auxiliary verb is used before main verbs to form

the passive voice, produce certain tenses, ask ques­
tions,make negative statements, and express shades of
meanll1g.
a. They have beell studyillg diligent~v.
b. I do /lIJllike Ihe course.
5. A phrasal verb is more than one word long and com­
bines one or more auxiliary verbs with a main verb.
- 7hell were givell lIIallY opportunities.

6. Linking or inactive verbs link the subject with a
predicate noun, predicate pronoun, or a predicate
adjective and are always intransitive: He looked sad.
A linking verb states that one thing is equal to anoth­
er and thus requires that the subjective case be used:

This is &.

-DIRECT OBJECT
Noun, pronoun, or nominative clement which rceeil cs
the action cxrressed in the verb.
• I haw relit the book.
-INDIRECT OBJECT
Noun, pronoun, or nominative clement for or to
whom or to what the action in the verb was done.
• 1 read the c1as,5 th" entire book.
-OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION
Answers the question whom or what a/i,.,. the prepo­
sition.

- John traveled

fQ

the COUlltry in his ('ar.

-OBJECT OF A VERBAL (GERUND,
PARTICIPLE, INFINITIVE)
Is a noun, pronoun, or nominative clement.
- Knowing nolhillg ahout //laking n(Jodl..s, I bOllght

some.
-PRO,,"OUN AS OBJECTS
l. All personal pronouns used as objects must be in the
objective case; The call/hI' him and me ("(/1/11' lit 1100/1.
2. Who is the subject form; Who S('II/ the/ilx:)
Whom is the object form; 7i, whmn should 1.l end

the/ax!


WORDS
-BACKGROUND
I. Words are composed of sounds or phonemes to
which meaning is attachcd.
2. The range of human sounds is codified in the
International Phonetic Alphabet.
a. Some symbols arc similar to the alphabet: some
appear to be strange squiggles.
b. One can learn the symbols and approximate a given
sound. but variances in stress and pause will not
yield a fluent rendering of a language.
3. Sounds in predictable patterns become words.
Meaning is attached by users and listencrs of a par­
ticular language.
-SUFFIX AI\D PREFIX
I. Combinations of sounds which appear at the begin­
ning and/or end of words to alter mcanings. indicate
functions, and to signal particular usc in a construc­
tion.
2. SulTix -s or -cs are plural when attached to a noun
and singular when attached to a verb.
3. -Iy signals an adverb or modifier.
4. -er signals comparative degree of adjective.
S. -cst signals supcrlative degree of adjective.
6. -ed frequently signals past tensc of a verb.
-MARKER WORDS (ARTICLES)
I. A, an, or the are noun markers that precede the noun.
2. Auxiliary verbs can, may, he, do, plus a verb. will
always mark a verb.
3. Subordinate conjunctions after, although, as,
hecause, if mark a dcpendcnt clause.

CLAUSES

SENTENCES

GROUP OF RELATED WORDS WHICH CONTAIN
A SUBJECT & A VERB

Group of related words having a subject (present
or understood) and a verh which express a com­
plete thought,

-INDEPENDENT CLAUSES:
I. Meet the above qualifications for clauses.
2. May be regarded as sentenccs since they make sense.
• Sire had not finished tire paper and was sure to gd a
low grade.
-DEPENDENT CLAUSES
\. Meet the above qualifications for clauses.
2. Do not make sense and are regardcd as fragments.
- Because she Iwd l10tjinished the popel:

TYPES OF DEPENDENT CLAUSES
-NOUN CLAUSES
Noun clauses are dependent clauses used like nouns:
1. That she had lIotfinislred tire paper was the ,",-'({son
jhr her lOll' grade.
(The noun clause thtlt she had 1I0t jinished tire paper
is used as the subject of the sentence.)
2. I knOll' wlrat { wiil do totlay.
(The noun clause what { will do today is used as thc
direct object of the verb knolV.)
3. She l\"Ii!1dered alulIIl what she slrollid do lIext.
(The noun clause what sire slrould do next is the object
of the preposition ahOIlI.)
(Note: I f we were to take out the preposition, then the
sentence becomes: She wOlldered ...hat she would do
next, The nOUll clause thus becomes the object of the
verb lVlJlldered and the sentence takes on a more url!ent
I'mn.)

L

-ADJECTIVE CLAlJSES
Adjective clauses arc used to point out or dcscribc any
noun or pronoun in the sentence.
PHRASES
I. A relative pronoun (who, WIrOIll, whose, "'hich, that)
GROUP OF RELATED WORDS
always introduces an adjectivc clause.
2. Adjective clauses may be restrictive or nonrestrictive.
- PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
3. the car which is parked by the cllrb belongs 10 l11e.
I Made up of a preposition plus its object and any mod­
(Thc adjective clause, which is parked by the curb,
ificrs.
modifies car in a restrictive way.)
2. Used as modificrs (adjectives or adverbs).
4. lhe em: which is parked by the cllrb. beluugs 10 me.
3. Common Prepositions - abollt, above, according to,
(Setting olfthe adjective clause with commas-I,I is non­
across, after, uxain.\'t, along, UnlOl1g, around, at,
restrictive and subtly changes the meaning of the sen­
bejiJre, . behind, below, belleath, beside, between,
tence since, in the first sentence, we are saying that only
beyond, by, down, during, except, for. from, ill, ill
the car which is parked hy the curh belongs to me. In
place oj; illside, illto. like, lIear, of, oj]; on, Ollt, Ollt­
the sccond sentence, we are saying that the car belongs
side, over, past, .\'ince, through, to, toward, under,
to me, and, hy the way, it is parked at the curh.)
IInti/, up, IIpon, with, within, withollt
-ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Example: For the student. tl,,: prepositional "hrase call
Adverbial clauses arc used as adverbs.
he cunli/sing ill a ,\entence.
I. Adverhial clauses are introduced by subordinate con­
• The prepositional phrascjor the stlldent modifies the
junctions (after, although, as, as ij; becall.\·e, be/iJre, if;
sllhieel phmsl', and second prepositional phrase in a
sillce, so that, that, 1/IIle,~s, Ullfit, whell, where, while).
sentence I110difies the verb.
2. When the adverb clause begins a sentence, it is set off
-VERBAL PHRASES
by a coml11a.
I . Verb forI11s not used as verbs.
3. Because he WllS late, she was angry.
2. Because they are verb forI11s, verbals retain many of
(The adverbial clause becallse he was late modifies
the properties of verbs by taking objects, by having
the adjective (tUgIT.)
their own subjects and by being I110dified by adverbs.
4. She wos IIngr\! because he was late.
-INFINITIVE PHRASE
(This expresses the same idea without requiring thc
I. Infinitive (to + verb), which can be used as a noun,
the subordinate conjunction docs not
an adjective, or an adverb.
. of the sentence.)
2. To read Ihese papers wil/take a long tillle.
• The infinitive to read is the subject of the sentence.
3. She \\"(//Ited to read the huok.
- The infinitive to read is the uirect object of the verb.
CONNECTORS
4. She had lIIune),' to .\pend.
,JOINING ELEMENTS
- The infinitive to .\pelld modifies 1II0I1e.1'.
5. 10111 remlv to write the papt!!" now
-CONJ UNCTIONS
- The infinitive to write I110difies the adjective ,",-,ad\,.
Joining words that link parts ofsentellces,
6. The infinitive may have its own subject and object.
I. Coordinating conjunctions join like parts of words,
7. The infinitive to be has special rules.
phrases, and clauses.
a. The subject of an infinitive is in the objective casco
a. Joe alld MWT lI'entlo tl1<' show
b. Becausc the linking verb requires the same case
b. You \\'i!ljiu{(iI in the cupboard or lInder Ihe cOluller.
e. Jil11 shut the dool; but he did nol lock il.
both before and atter it, the noun or pronoun used as
2. Correlative conjunctions join like parts and come in
a complement must be in the objective case.
pairs,
-GERUND PHRASE
a. Not TOI/1 bllt his hrother won Ihe tournament.
I. The gerund (-ing form of the verb) is used as a noun.
b. Neither M"':F nor Jane was impressed hy this.
2. Walking is a healthy exercise.
3. Subordinate conjunctions are used to introduce
- The gerund walking is the subject of the verb is.
adverbial clauses and link them to the main clause.
3. Pmper shocs art' nt'ed,," jiJr eomliJrtahle walking
- Not onlv Tom hilt his hroth",. 1I'0n Ihe to/lrnament.
- The gerund walking is the object of the preposition
because
they practicI'd hord.
jiJr.
- CONJlJNCTlVE ADVERBS
-PARTICIPAL PHRASE
Used to join maill dallses,
I. The participle (present, past, or perfect participle
I. Conjunctive adverbs arc always preceded by a semi­
of the verb) is used as an adjective.
colon 1;1 and arc always followed by a comma 1,1.
2. The girl talking on the phone is MalT.
2. Examples: Accordingly, consequently, further­
- The participle talking modifies girl.
more, however, nevertheless, etc,
3. The letter signed hI' John was readvliJr thl' l11ail.
a. She knew her!ad o(studFing would be u detrimel1l:
• The participle siglled modifies the noun letter.
nevertheless, she took the tesl.
4. The report, accllrately written, was approved hI' him.
b. She lI'as siek and tired oj" 01/ this nagging "bolll
- The participle writtell, plus accurately, describes the
studring: Iwwe)'('/'. sh" didfind this chartuselit!.
report.

KINDS OF SENTENCES
-DECLARATIVE SENTENCE
I. Makes a statement.
2. Today is the day bejiJre the IOllg holiday,
-IMPERATIVE SENTENCE
I. Gives a command.
2. Please c/ose the door Oil rOllr war out,
-INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE·
I. Asks a question.
2. Who was that WOII/IIII?
-EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE
I. Expresses strong feeling.
2. Ends with an exclamation point.
3. What a be{llltijilimorning!

SENTENCE PATIERNS
- PATTERN I (S + V) Isuhjectl + Ivcrhl
I. Thc subject may be conlpound.
2. The verb may be compound.
3. Johll rail, (Juhn is the subject and ran is the verb.)
4 . .101111 "/1(/ Peter rail "nd jeil dowlI.
- PATTERN 2 (S + V + D,O,)
Isubject + verb + direct objectl
I. Any of the clements may be compound.
2.The verb represents direct or indirect action, active or
passive voice.
3. .101m rail the race, (,fohn is thL' SUbjL'd, Ill/I is the
verb , and rael' is the direct object.) .
4. The race 1\'(/.1' rllll h.1" ,/ohll.
- PATTERN 3 (S + V + 1,0. + D.O,)
Isubject + verh + indirect object + direct ohjectl
I. Any of the clements Illay be compound.
2. Dad paid the clerk the sales tax, (f)"d is thc subject.
I'aid is the verb, clerk is the indirect object and stax is the direct object.)
- PATTERN 4 (S + V + S,C)
Isubject + verh + suhjective complementl
I. Any of the clements may bc compound.
2. The verb must be linkinl! haY\: no adion.
3.Jane is my attorney, (Jane is the subject, is
[linking ve rb1 is the verb, and ({/lomlT is a
predicate nominative.)
4. The water is bille, (Willer is the subject. is [linking
vcrb] is thc verb, and hi1/(' is a predicate adjective.)

SENTENCE FORMS
-SIMPLE SENTENCE (an independent clause):
Contains a subject and a verh and expresses only
one complete thought,
Either the subject or the vcrb lllay bc compound.
I. John slept.
2. John (/l1d Bohhil' slel'l.
-COMPOUND SENTENCE:
CoMaills two or II/ore illdepelldellf c1allses IlIId call
express more thall olle complete thought,
I. Compound sentences arc joined hy coordinating
conjunctions (and, 01; nl)l; liJl: '0. l"Iel. hilI) or a semi­
colon I ; I when no coordinating conjunction is pres­
ent.
a. Sohhie likes l\'(1tching TV hilI she "rel"r, going 10
the 11100'ies.
b. Bohhie' likes lH1lching n: she <'niol·.1 e.H'n 'ising 011
the tr('(ulmil/. (/l1d she "dorn the sl11el! of" !'II!'!'.\"
brallh.
2. Note: Using only a comma [,1 betwecn the two or
more independent clauses of a compound sentence
will result in a comma splice error.
Error - Bohhie likes John, she lon's I'i/c({/iOI1.1.
Placing no punctuation between independent clauses
which do not have a cooruinating conjunction \\ ill

result in an error call ed ~~run-on" or ~~fused.~'
Error SohNe likes II1IJ1'ies Johl1 likes l'ilealiol1.1.
-COMPLEX SENTENCE:
Contains {III independent IlIId {I dependellt c1{1l1se.
- Adverbial clauses appearing at the beginning of
a complex sentence arc set olT by a comma.
{fvoll are goillg to walk. be sllre to stay Oil the path,
-COMPOUND/COMPLEX SENTENCE:
Contaills at least two indepelldent c1allses alld at least
one dependent c1allse,
• If' you an! going to walk, he sure to stay Oil the! path,
.1'011 won I{ ge{ losl.


SEPARATE & ENCLOSE PHRASES
& CLAUSES

WITH COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS
AND, BUT, OR, NOR, FOR, SO, YET
-SEPARATE MAIN CLAUSES WITHIN A
SENTENCE.
I. Mary counsels students, and she volunteers at
the local hospital.
2 . .Iohn planned to invest his tax return, hut he
bought a computer instead.
3. Doug will play the game, or he will mow the
lawn.
4.1 don't smoke, nor do I eat ncar people who
smoke.
5. Sandra won't be going with us, for she returned
her application too late.
6. The bank lowered its interest rates, so we decid­
ed to refinance our mortgage.
7. I haven't seen the new house, yet I know how to
get there.
-DO NOT USE COMMAS BEFORE CON­
.JUNCTIONS THAT
LINK
PHRASES
OTHER THAN COMPLETE SENTENCES.
\. Mary counsels students and del ivers meals to
shut-ins.
2. Two inches of snow and a glazing of ice covered
the streets.

WITH INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS
-COMMAS SEPARATE ELEMENTS THAT
INTRODUCE
AND
MODIFY
SEN­
TENCES.
- After looking at several cars, Michael decid­
ed on a sporty model.
-COMMAS CAN BE OMITTED AFTER
SHORT INTRODUCTORY ELEMENTS IF
THERE IS NO RISK OF MISREADING.
- After I moved I lost contact with my high school
pals.

WITH OTHER ELEMENTS
-DATES
1.0n Decemher 7, 1941, Japanese war planes
bombed Pearl Harbor.
2.0n 7 December 1941, .Iapanese warplanes
bombed Pearl Harbor.
(Notice tlUlt lIIilit{lry d{ltillg does 1I0t require
COIIIIIUlS.)
3.0n Wednesday, December 28,1994, I will cel­
ebrate my 30th birthday.
-ADDRESSES AND PLACE NAMES
- The President of the United States lives at 1600
Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D.C.
-NUMBERS
I. The city marina cost $8,479,000 to construct.

2.Jill's dress has over 2,500 hand-sewn beads.

(With four-digit IIl1mbers, COIllIll{lS (Ire option­
(II.)
3. Martin planted 1500 marigold plants.
QUOTATIONS
Commas ordinarily separate a quotation from its
source, such as he said or she said.
I. John F. Kennedy said, "Ask not what your
country can do for you; ask what you can do
for your country."
2. "Sometimes love is strongeI' than a man's

convictions," wrote Isaac 13ashevis Singer.

3. "I never fo
" said Groucho Ma

"but in your case, I'll make an exception."
-PARENTHETICAL EXPRESSIONS
John's new car, in my opinion. is a lemon.
-NOUNS OF DIRECT ADDRESS
- Adam, do you want to plant the palms this afternoon')
- INTERJECTIONS
- Well, that about docs it for today.
-DO NOT USEA COMMA WITH IDENTIFYING
WORDS THAT INTERRUPT MAIN CLAUSES
IN A QUOTATION.
• "Don't speak to me," she sighed. "Your words arc
1l1caninglcss."

WITH ADJ ECTIVES
-COORDINATE ADJECTIVES MODIFY NOUNS
SEPARATELY.
I. We felt the salty, humid air near the beach.
2. Martha created a thl'ee-tiered, white, flower-cov­
ered wedding cake for Jason and Renee.
-COORDINATE ADJECTIVES:
can be joined with ulld (salty and humid; three-tiered
and white and flower-covered), and their positions
can be changed without altering the meaning of the
sentence.
-CUMULATIVE ADJECTIVES DO NOT
REQUIRE A COMMA.
I. Adam bought two tall palms.
2.1 found a shard from an ancient Greek urn.
3. Marissa planned an amazingly detailed, truly
exotic Halloween costume.
(There are two sets of clImulative adjectives ill
this selltellce that jimctioll separately to modify

MIS READINGS & OMISSIONS
- USE COMMAS TO PREVENT MISREADINGS
AND TO CLARIFY MEANING IN A SENTENCE.
I. To Susan, Jason's choice of costumc was unaccept­
able.
2. As soon as we left, Marilvn closed the store.
-COMMAS CAN INDlCA'rE AN OMISSION:
• Helcn bought a new television; Mark, a laser printer;
and Sarah, a stereo system,

UNNECESSARY COMMAS
-UNNECESSARY COMMAS CAN BE AS
CONFUSING AS LEAVING OUT REQUIRED
COMMAS.
(For illst{lllce, ifyou sepurate (I ,mb;"ct alld verb or all
ad;ectil'e alld thl! word it II/odifies ",ith u cOlI/ma. your
re{lder will have to spelld till/I! fiKurillK 01lT ...hich
ideas go togetlrer.)
NOT iJilll' ({lid Ma,.ci". '){Iill iI 10" hOllie,
BUT fiilil' ({lid Ma,.ci" ')[fi'l iI lo,~ hOllle.
-DO NOT PLACE A COMMA BEFORE A COOR­
DINATING CONJUNCTION AND A PHRASE
(see "With Coordinate Conjunctions").
NOT A/i",. school SUlllllel likes /() lillish his hOllle­

wo,.k. (/Ild \l'(lIch TV/il,. a ji:II' hOIllT

BUT A/i",. sc/zoill SOlllllellikes IlIjillis/z /zis hOIll£'­

'\'(lrk alld lI'uleh TV liJl" 0 lell' /zolln,
OR
Alia sc/zoill SWIIlIej lik",\ lo/illish his hOIll(,­
,\'(),.k. alld 111i!1I /z(' sp(,lIds {/ 1"11' /zlllln II"(I/ch­
ilwTV

'

(Notice thutill the first eX{llI/ple, the COII/II/{I sep{lrate.' a
cOlI/poulld verb rather thall tllY) illdepelldellt c/tlllse,'i.)

-JOIN RELATE)) MAIN CLAUSES WHEN A
COORDINATING CONJUNCTION IS NOT
USED.
I. I will not paint the house; you can't make me.
2. Sally built a tree house; she painted it hlue.
(Maill dtll/Sf'S joilled with a comll/a cOllstitute a
COllll110 ,\plice. V.';"e t1 .';"elllico/OIl or .\'epUrtlte tire
clauses ill to two cOlllp/efe "'l'lItellet!s.)
-WORK WITH CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS TO
JOIN MAIN CLAUSES.
WITH NONRESTRICTIVE PHRASES &
1.1 would like to go to the Illuseum with you; however,
I must visit my dentist instead.
APPOSITIVES
2 . .lim had given 1l1uch thought to his future; therefore,
-NONRESTRICTIVE ELEMENTS CAN BE
it came as 110 surprise when he returned to school.
OMITTED WITHOUT CHANGING MEANING.
3. The audience was sparse; in fact, there were only
I. Frank's new aquarium, a marine tank, hosts bril­
five people.
4.1 want to travel this summcr; accordingly, I will hmc
liant coral and brightly colored fish.
to save 1l1oney this wintcr.
2. Awakened by a strange noise, Alan wondered if he
5, Six people saw the bandit Icavinu the store: more­
remembered to lock the door when he went to bed.
oyer, olle customer even got his t[~g number.
("'Marille fUllk" alld ''Awakelled by a ."tru/lge /loise"
-SEPARATE ITEMS IN SERIES THAT CONTAIN
are 1I0t absoilltely lIecessary to tire meallillg ot the
COMMAS.
selltences.)
• I packed my suitcase with old, comfortable jeans;
rugged, warm sweaters; and new, freshly starched
-DO NOT USE COMMAS TO SET OFF
shirts.
RESTRICTIVE ELEMENTS.
-DO NOT USE SEMICOLONS TO SEI'ARATE
I. The first hOllse on the left is for sale.
UNPARALLEL ITEMS.
(The phrase "Oil the left" is essellti{llto the lIIe{lll­
NOT iJe/i),.,. slarlillg Ihe (,lIgille: Bill c/e([lI<'d l/te
illg of the selltellce.)
))·illds/tield.
2. Those people who have already purchased tickets
BUT Bc/i)!"€'s,,,,.'illg l/ze ellgille. Bill c/etllletl tire
windshield.
may enter the theater now.
("Who h{/l'e (llre{ldy pllrch{lsed tickets" is essell­ This sentence is Illade up "f a dC/lelldelll cl,,"s(, and an
independent clause; thereforc, the sentence Jocs not
tial to the me{llliug of the selltellce.)
require a semi-colon to separate the l'Iauscs. One
comma will do.

"costllllle.'?

-ADDING COMMAS TO A STRING OF CUMU­
LATIVE ADJECTIVES OR CHANGING THEIR
ORDER RESULTS IN AN AWKWARD CON­
STRUCTION.
I. Adam bought two, tall palms.
2. Adam bought tall, two palms.

WITH PARALLEL WORDS, PHRASES &
APPOSITIVES
I. The department store offered a suit, a shirt, and a
tie for one low price.
2. The kitten stalked the ball of yarn hehind the cur­
tain, over the television, and under the tahle.
3. Marie offered her students a treat if thev would
complete their assignment, if they wou"ld clean
their desks, and if they would stack their hooks

-SEPARATE COORDINATE CLAUSES WHEN
THEY ARE JOINED BY TRANSITIONAL
WORDS AND PIIRASES, SUCH AS:
accordingly
aftcnvards
a~aill
besides
consequently
c1;ubtlcss
eventually
evidentlv
furtherlllore
however
moreover
nevertheless
otherwise
perhaps
therefore
for instance
in addition
for example


OTHER PUNCTUATION

COLONS

END MAIN CLAUSES & INTRODUCE
ADDITIONS & MODIFICATIONS
oBASIC EXAMPLES
I. Frank introduced four kinds of fish into his new
aquarium: three angels, six tetras, a pair of Bala
shark s, and a spotted catfish.
2. After a few months, Frank encountered a problem
with hi s new aquarium set-up: Algae growth.
3. Tamara suggested a solution: "I keep quite a few
snails in my aquarium. They eat the excess algae."
oDO NOT FUNCTION INSIDE A MAIN CLAUSE:
NOT Frallk \/i/\lorite /ish is: the allgel/ish.
BUT
Frallk :~favorite.fish is the angel/ish.
oLINK INDEPENDENT CLAUSES WHEN THE
SECOND MODIFIES THE FIRST.
Frank learned a serious lesson about aquarium
maintenance: Do not overfeed fish, as this causes
the water to cloud.
(The reader Wllllt.l· all explallatioll of the "importallt
lessoll," which is provided ill the secolld clause.)
oOTHER USES
I. Business letter salutation - Dear Mr. Brown:
2. Title and subtitle - Dudes: My Story
3. Biblical citation - Genesis 1: 1
4. Bibliographic entries - Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

APOSTROPHES
SHOW POSSESSION
oADD "'s" TO FORM THE POSSESSIVE ofsingu­
lar and plural nouns, and indefinite pronouns that
do not end in lsi or with an s or a z sound.
I. My mother's purse held many treasures.
(the purse oWlled by my mother)
2. Can anyone's dog enter the Kennel show')
(dog is oWlled by allyolle)
3. The Women's League is very active.
(the p,!ssessil'e form of womell, a plural, takes all's)
oADD '''S'' TO FORM THE POSSESSIVE of singu­
lar nouns ending in lsi or with an .~ or z sound.
I. We listened to the stereo in Chris's new car.
2. Liz's dress was the sensation of the party
(add only an apostrophe if the extra lsi creates an
awkward pronunciation).
3. The Bible speaks admiringly of Moses' wisdom.
o ADD ONLY AN APOSTROPHE to form the pos­
sessive of plural nouns ending in lsi or with an .1' or
z sound.
I. The cats' toys were spread around the room.
2. The latest car designs were engineered for drivers'
comfort.
oTO FORM THE POSSESSIVE OF COMPOUND
NOUNS, add I'sl to only the last word.
I. My mother-in-Iaw's furniture was imported from
Havana.
2. Webster's brother-in-Iaw's office was vandalized.
oMAKE ONLY THE LAST NOUN POSSESSIVE to
show .joint possession.
o James and Susan's dog chased our cat.
(tlte dog belollgs to botlt James and Susall)
oMAKE BOTH NOU:'IIS POSSESSIVE to show indi­
vidual ownership.
oJames' and Susan's cars were both vandalized .
°USE AN APOSTROPHE to form certain plurals:
I. Phillip's report card had 3 A's and 2 Bs.
'
°USE AN APOSTROPHE to indicate contractions.
I. I'm ok'd to enter the restricted zone.
2. The '92 hurricane left a wide swath of damage
through the Miami area.
3. Strangely enough, we never had the opportunity to
try fish 'n' chips while we were in London.
oDO NOT USE AN APOSTROPHE WITH POSSES­
SIVE PRONOUNS.

6

LL

20531

5

DIRECT & INDIRECT
oENCLOSE A DIRECT QUOTATION.
I. Martha whispered quietly, "I'm scared of the dark."
2. "When," she breathed "do we get out of here'?"
3. "What if we get stuck in this place?" she asked.
4. "I knew I should have taken up spelunking."
°CAPITALIZE THE FIRST WORD OF A DIRECT
QUOTATION.
oDO NOT CAPITALIZE THE FIRST WORD in the
second part of an interrupted quotation unless the
second part begins a new sentence.
olNDIRECT QUOTATIONS DO NOT REQUIRE
QUOTATION MARKS.
Father said that we should be frugal with our money.

ENCLOSE OTHER FORMS OF QUOTED
MATERIAL
oARTICLE, ESSAY TITLES & SHORT STORIf~S
o The current edition of li lllitv Fair contains an article
entitled, "Raider of the Los't Art."
(Do Iwt pl/t qllotatioll marks amI/lid titles of yOl/r
OWII compositiolls.)
oCHAPTER TITLES
o Susan quoted II'om Chapter Three of Carole Jackson 's
C%r Me Beautitill, "The Seasonal Palettes."
oSOi'liG TITLES .
o The Commodores ' "Three Times a Lady" was the
number one hit when I graduated from high school.
oMOST POEM TITLES
• T.S. Eliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"
remains a landmark poem of the 20th century.
(Longer poems, sUi:h as Eliot 's Waste Land, are
underlined or italicized.)
°TELEVISION AND RADIO EPISODE TITLES
o More people saw "Going Home," thc final episode of
M.A.s.H. , than any other tclevision show 10 date.
oSPECIAL PHRASES, WORDS, OR SENTENCES
I. The phrase "rule of thumb" has a violent history.
2. Marci pronounced "accept" as "except."
3. The inl~1I1l0US declaration "Let them eat cake"

represents the arrogance o/" the French Aristocracy.


INDENTED QUOTES
oDIRECT QUOTATIONS LONGER THAN FOUR
TYPED LINES are set off as block quotations by
indenting 10 spaces from the left margin and double­
spacing.
Example: There are many reasons why a pond
ceo-system fails. For instance, indus­
trial pollution might di srupt the " nat­
ural bio-diversity of the system."
Another problem, due in part to indus­
trial pollution, is acid rain, which
acidifies the pond system.
(llIdellted passages do not require quotatioll marks
1II1Ies.~ tltey appear witfrill tlte text.)

oBRACKETS: enclose editorial comments inserted
within quoted material.
• Machiavelli, the political pragmati st. argucs that
"princes lor anyoIle in a position of powerl ha\ C
accomplish ed most who paid little hecd to
keeping their promi ses."
oPARENTHESES: enclose supplemental infor­
mation that is not necessary to the meaning
of the sentence.
I. There arc three sections to a thoughtfully composed
essay: (I) the introduction, (2) the body, and (3) the
conclusion.
2. Hamid ({wI tlte Lell\" II/Desire (19117) suggests that
Shakespeare 's f~1I110US tragedy is about the traditional
rite of passage all boys go through as they mature
into men.
oDASHES: (typed as two hyphens with no space
before, between, or after) emphasize certain materi­
al within a sentence.
I. I would suggest 01' should I say, argue that all
aspects of the present economy must be changed.
2. Three membcrs of the Board uf Rel!cnts eH'n the
newly appointed member votcd~ to reduce the
education budget.
3. Adam's mothcr- a woman of high energy, intelli­
gence, and wit always hosts the best parties.
oHYPHENS: join words together and indicate a line
break.
I. The ill-fated ship sank quickly.
2. The editor-in-chief checked the final drafi.
3. The player-King delivered hi s lines cxpertly.
4. Anti-smoking lobbyists roanwd the halls of the

government building.

(Lille-end fryplrellS break accordillg to .1J'lIables.)
oSLASHES: indicate options and unindented lines of
poetry.
I. Please usc your book and/or a calculator.
2. Good professors arc truc teacher/scholars.
3. Many childrcn recogni ze these famous lines:
'''Twas the night before Christmas. whcn a ll
through thc house/Not a creature was stirring,
not even a mouse. "
oELLI PSIS points: indicate an omission from a
direet quotation.
o "Another problem ... is acid rain .... "
(Three .~paced period., illdicate all Ollli.ISioll with ill a
quotatioll. Four .~paC/!d periods illdicate all omi.'­
simI at tire end of a direct qllotatioll.)
oITALICS: indicate titles of books, magazines, news­
papers, long plays, poems, etc.
I. My sister can recite passages frolll Willdell.
2. Newsweek is Illy favorite ncws magaz ine.
3. Daniel bought a copy of the L.A. Times.
4. Professor Briggs can read Paradise LO.I·t in Italian
(alternately, you can underline titles).
o Newsweek is Illy t~lvorite news ma gaz in~.

WITH OTHER PUNCTUATION
oTHE PERIOD AND COMMA are always placed
inside the ending quotation marks.
o He said, " Let's go to the beach today."
Layout: Javier Salado
oTHE QUESTION MARK AND EXCLAMATION
POINT are placed within the quotation marks only • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _L _ _ _ _ _....
when they refer to the quoted material.
o Frank asked, "When can I add fish to the tank?"

This Qu;clcsfudy. outline is an annotate d review of the basic rul es
of English Grammar & Punctuation. Use it duri ng, and well
beyond, your college years as a handy reference source, but not
as a rep lacem ent for assigned class work.
AU r ight s rcs('n cd. No pari or th i;. puhlicati on ll1;)y 1)<: n:rrouuccd or lrln:<.rniltcd in Bn~
1()fIn, or by allY I11C:JIlS, clC~' lronit.: or mcchll ni c:;iI . induding rhot(X" 11}. record Lng. or an~
in fornWli " ll ~tora gc
ci)2001. 200J lJa r Clm rts, Illc. U7(JX

opERIODS END MOST SENTENCES IN ENGLISH.
o Mary asked us about selling her housc.
oPOLITE REQUESTS that do not require a "yes" or
"no" answer should use a period.
o Would you please clean your room.
°USE A PERIOD WITH MOST ABBREVIATIONS.
oJan.=January (acronyms, such as IRS and CARE, do
not require periods).
°QUESTION MARKS END DIRECT QUESTIONS.
o Is Mary going to sell her house?
°EXCLAMATION POINTS END EMPHATIC
STATEMENTS.

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ISBN-13: 978-157222531-2
ISBN-10: 157222531-9

911~~IJ~~~IIIIIIIJIJIJ1llllllllillillillil



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