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Nghiên cứu ứng dụng công nghệ sinh học kỵ khí kết hợp màng vi lọc để xử lý nước thải đô thị ở Việt Nam

NGHIEN CUtJ tTNG DUNG CONG NGHE SINH H O C K Y K H I
K E T HOP MANG VI L O G D E XtT L Y NlTO^C THAI DO T H I Of
V I E T NAM
APPLICATION OF ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE B I O R E A T O R
T R E A T I N G MUNICIPAL W A S T E W A T E R IN V I E T N A M
T S Trkn

T h i Viet Nga, K S . Nguyen Dire Canh, C N Nguyen Thiiy L i e n , T h S
Du-oTig T h u H2ng

Bo mon Cap thodt nu&c, Khoa Ky thudt Mdi tj-u&ng, Truarng Dai hoc Xdy dimg
Diachi:55 Gidiphdng, Hd Ndi, Viet Nam. Email: ngattv@tiuce.edu.vn

Tom tat
Ldn dau tien a Viet Nam viec nghien ciru img dung cdng nghe sinh hoc ky khi kit hop vdi qud trinh
loc mang (goi tdt la AnMBR) de xie ly nude thdi dd thi dupe thuc hien cd d quy md phong thi nghiem
va quy md pilot tai hien trudng. Hai hi thdng AnMBR dupe van hanh song song trong phong thi
nghiem, xie ly hai loai nude thdi sinh hoat khdc nhau: hi thdng Rl xie ly nude den cua mot chung cu
d Hd Ndi (COD 300-800mg/l, BOD: 180-350mg/l, NH.,-N: 40-85 mg/L) va hi thdng R2 xie ly nude
thdi thu gom tie hi thdng cdng chung (COD 150-300mg/l, BOD: 60-250mg/l, NHyN: 5-45 mg/L). Cd
hai md hinh dupe van hanh vdi thdi gian luu thuy luc thay ddi tie 48 gid xudng din 6 gid trong

khodng 550 ngay liin tuc trong dieu kien nhiet dd mdi ti-udng. Kit qud cho thay hieu qnd xie ly chat d
nhiim theo TSS, BOD, COD rat cao va on dinh vdi cd hai md hinh (Nude sau xie ly cd TSSCOD < 85 mg /I; BOD < 30 mg/L). Ndng sudt khi sinh hoc cua hi thdng Rl tdng khi tdi trong chat
hieu ca tdng (tie 0.28- 2 kg COD/m\ngdy), tuy nhien d md hinh R2 lupng khi sinh hoc thu dupe
khdng dang ki- Kit qud van hanh tren md hinh pilot cdng sudt 3-5 m^/ngdy cung cho cho thay cdng
nghe AnMBR dat hieu qud cao trong xie ly chat huu ca va can la lung, va dat yeu cdu xd thdi
(QCVN14/2008/BTNMT) cho ngudn loai B ddi vdi nude thdi cd ham lupng Ni ta thdp (T-N <40
mg/L). Tuy nhien ddi vdi nude thdi sinh hoat cd ndng dd Nita cao, thi can phai tiep tuc loai bd Nita
trong nude sau xie ly thi mdi datyiu cdu xd ra mdi trudng.
Tir khoa: Cong nghe xu ly sinh hoc ky khi ket hop mang vi loc, nude thai do thi, thanh pho Ha Ndi
The study aims to investigate the application of anaerobic processes coupled vi'ith membrane
filtration (AnMBR) for the treatment of municipal wastewater at Vietnam climate conditions. Two
laboratory-scale reactors, R l and R2, were run in parallel treating 2 types of domestic wastewater in
Hanoi city. R l is treating wastewater collected on-site at a condominium with COD level of 300800mg/L, BOD: 180-250mg/L, NH4-N: 40-85 mg/L. Wastewater used for R2 which was taken from
an inlet of a municipal wastewater treatment plant contain lower strength for COD (105-300 mg/L),
BOD (60-250 mg/L) and NH4-N (15-40 mg/L). The reactors were operated at different HRT (from
48 hours to 6 hours) for a period of about 550 days at ambient room temperatures. The removal of
TSS, COD and BOD were almost in the same ranges for both 2 reactors. The Rl achieved less than
85 mg/L of COD and less than 30 mg/L BOD in the effluent with OLR from 0.28 - 2 kg COD/mlday,
while R2 treating diluted wastewater could achieved less than 30 mg/L of COD and less than 10
mg/L of BOD in the effluent with OLR from 0.1-0.8 kg COD/mLday. Biogas production increased
1


with the increase of the loading rate in R l , but remains relatively small over the course of 550 days in
R2. The results show that that AnMBR system could achieve the good and stable removal efficiency
in the treatment of lower strength wastewaters at wide range of temperatures in Vietnam conditions.
Key words: Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR), municipal wastewater, Hanoi City

Cong nghe sinh hoc ky; khi cat tien de xu- ly nuoc thai
X u ly sinh hoc trong dieu kien ky khi trudc day chu yeu dugc ap dung de ch4t thai huu co va
bun can a cac tram xu ly nude thai, nham muc dich giam sinh khdi va do do giam the tich bun,
tang cudng kha nang tach nude, lam giam thanh ph§n vi sinh vat gay berth cua bun can, ddng
thdi qua trinh xu ly sinh khi sinh hgc vdi thanh phan chinh cd ich la khi me tan [1]. Nhieu nha
nghien cuu khac [2] da md rdng doi tugng xu ly sang nude thai cd tai trong chat huu co d muc
vua va cao nhd phuong phap duy tri mat dd sinh khdi cao trong be phan ung sinh hgc ky khi.
Cac cdng trinh sinh hoc ky khi su dung phuong phap nay nhu AF, UASB, FBR, EBR ... cho
phep xu ly hieu qua mot sd loai nude thai cd tai trong huu co Idu nhd thdi gian luu bun dai va
khdng phai gia nhiet cho he thdng be phan ung. Tuy nhien nhugc diem cua phuoug phap sinh
hgc ky khi la hieu qua xu ly chat dinh dudug va vi khuan gay benh khdng cao, do dd nude thai

can phai xu ly tiep bang cac qua trinh sinh hoc hieu khi trudc khi xa ra mdi trudug. De khac
phuc cac nhugc diem nay, viec ket hop cdng trinh sinh hgc ky khi va mang vi loc (cdng nghe
AnMBR) dugc nghien cuu va phat tridn trong nhung nam gan day [2, 3,4].
Mot he thdng AnMBR dien hinh bao gdm: be sinh hoc ky khi ddng vai trd la cdng trinh len men
metan va bd phan mang vi loc de phan tach nude thai va bun sinh hgc [2]. Nude thai sau khi
phan huy ky khi se di qua bd phan mang vi Igc, vdi kich thudc Id pho bien tir 0.1-0.4 micromet.
Khi sinh hgc dugc thu hdi va du tru d cdng trinh rieng cho muc dich tao nang lugug dimg trong
tram xir ly. Cac ket qua nghien cuu cho thay cdng nghe nay cd nhieu uu diem so vdi cdng nghe
xir ly sinh hgc truyen thdng khac nhu: giam tieu thu nang luoug do khdng can cung cap oxy cho
qua trinh phan huy chat huu co; giam khoi tich bun tao thanh; thu hdi dugc khi biogas lam nang
luoug sinh hoc; hoat ddng dn dinh, ngay ca d cac tram cdng suat nhd; xir ly tai lugng d nhiem
Idu, kich thudc va dien tich cdng trinh xir ly sinh hoc nhd, phii hgp vdi khu vuc cd quy d§t eo
hep [2, 3]. Ngoai ra, cdng nghe AnMBR tiet kiem chi phi xay dung cdng trinh ling thu cip,
cdng trinh loc va giam chi phi xay dung cac cdng trinh xir ly bun can len men do lugng biin can
sinh ra nhd [2]. Nhd vai trd cua mang vi Igc, nude sau xir ly cd chat lugng tdt, cd the dap ung
nhu cau tai su dung trong ndng nghiep, giai quyet van de thieu nude tai cac vimg dd thi va ven
dd.
Day la hudng nghien cuu mdi cd tiem nang ung dung d didu kien khi hau nhiet ddi de x u ly
nude thai dat hieu cjua loai bd chit d nhiim cao, chi phi van hanh hgp ly, ddng thdi thu hdi dugc
khi me tan tir he thdng xir ly lam ngudn nang lugng sinh nhiet hay phat dien. Nghien cuu nay do
do dugc tien hanh vdi muc tieu chinh la nghien cuu img dung cdng nghe AnMBR d l xu ly nude
thai dd thi d Viet Nam.

M6 hinh AnMBR trong phong thi nghiem
Md ta he thdng
Hai he thdng AnMBR quy md phong thi nghiem dugc l4p dat theo so do d Hinh 1. Mot he thong
bao gdm: be phan ung ky khi (dung tich hixu dung 5 lit), bd mang v i Igc mini, may nen khi va he
thdng sue khi trong be phan ung, he thdng thu khi sinh hgc, va he thdng bom nap nude thai, bom
hiit qua mang. Mang vi Igc su dung trong md hinh la dang mang tam phSng, cd dien tich Igc be
2


mat la 0.1m- va kich ca khe hd la 0.4jim do cdng ty Kubota Nhat Ban san xuat. Vat lieu che tao
mang la Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF).Vdi md hinh sd 1, nude thai dau vao dugc lay tir be
dieu hda cua he thdng thu nude den trong tda nha chung cu Sky Tower (dja chi sd 88 dudng
Lang Ha). Md hinh 2 xu ly nude thai lay tir be dieu hda d tram Kim Lien (dudng Ddng Tac), xir
ly nude thai tir he thong cdng chung ciia khu tap the Kim Lien.
Thijl si
Do khi

Thi^t bi
Oo ap lye
Tiii
.Khi

Thiet bi
Do luu luong
oau

ra

Nir*c thSi

Dau vao'
1 chSn khOng

le chu-a nijc'c thai

^Dannang-

Hinh 1. So do he thong AnMBR quy md phong thi nghiem.
Md hinii dugc van hanh trong hon 500 ngay vdi cac che dd thdi gian luu thiiy lire va va tai trgng
chat huu CO khac nhau de danh gia ve hieu qua xu ly. Thdi gian luu nude thuy luc (HRT) thay
ddi tir 48 gid, 36 gid, 25 gid va 12 gid, va 8 gid vdi He thdng R l , va van hanh them ca d thdi
gian luu 6 gid vdi he thdng R2 de xac djnh gia trj HRT thich hgp cho timg loai nude thai. Bim
dugc luu giu hoan toan trong he thdng, tuy nhien mot lugng bun cd the tich lOOmL dugc lay tir
be ky khi ra vdi tan suat 1 tuan mot Ian de phan tich danh gia cac thdng sd ciia qua trinh x i i ly
sinh hgc. Ket qua van hanh md hinh R l dugc the hien d cac dd thi va vdi md hinh R2 dugc trinh
bay d Bang 1.
Cac chi tieu DO, pH, nhiet dd cua nude thai dau vao, nude sau xu ly, va nude trong bd phan ling
sinh hgc dugc do dac hang ngay hdi cac thiet bi do nhanh. Viec lay mau nude de phan tich cac
chi tieu COD, BOD, ham lugng chat rin la lung (MLSS), chat rkn la lung dd bay hoi (MLVSS),
Nita tdng so (TN), Amdni (NH4-N), Phot pho tong sd (T-P) Sunfat, dd kiem dugc thuc hien 1
Ian trong 1 tuan. Vide phan tich tuan thii cac phuong phap tidu chu4n (APHA 2003) va phuong
phap HACH vdi thiet bj do quang pho DR2100 (HACH, USA). Khi sinh hgc dugc thu gom va
phan tich thanh phan khi (1 Ian 1 tuan) bSng thiet bj do nhanh test kit GAC25 (Nhat Ban).
Hieu qua xu- ly cua he thong AnMBR
Vdi md hinh R l xir ly nude thai cua tda nha chung cu, kdt qua phan tich cho thay ndng dd biin
tang dan tuong ung vdi tai trgng chat huu co (theo COD) va dat gia tri 12.000-14.000 mg/L d
cudi thdi gian van hanh. Hinh 2 bidu didn su dao ddng ciia COD dau vao va dau ra sau khi xir ly.
Ham lugng COD trong nude thai thd dao ddng tir 180-930 mg/L. Ham luong COD sau khi xu ly
trong sudt thdi gian van hanh md hinh kha dn djnh va deu nhd hon 100 mg/L. Ndng dd BOD
trong nude sau xir ly cung on djnh va nhd hon 30 mg/L, cho th^y he thdng AnMBR hieu qua
trong viec x u ly chat hun co vdi hieu suat xu ly COD tir 78-95%, hieu suat xir ly BOD dat tir 8088%, dap img dugc tieu chuan xa thai ra mdi trudng (QCVN 14:2008/BTNMT, ngudn loai B).
Do dac thii nude thai dau vao la nude den tir he thdng thu gom nude thai trong tda nha chung cu
nen ham luong Amdni kha cao, dao dgng tir klroang 50 - 160 mgN/L. Ham lugng Amdni trong
3


niroc dau ra cung d dai tuong tu cho thiy d trong dieu kien yem khi thi Amdni la thanh phan
Nita chu yeu va tdn tai ben vung.

COD vao

—•—CODra

^ t - H i e u q u a x u ly

Ngay

Hinh 2. Ndng do COD trong nude thai ddu vao va nude sau xii ly eiia md hinh Rl
6 md hinh R2, nong dd bun tang dan tuy nhien d muc thap hon so vdi md hinh R l va dat
khoang 7000-8000 mg/L sau hon 550 ngay van hanh. He thdng hoan toan khdng xa bun trong
suot thdi gian hoat ddng. Cac thdng so van hanh va hieu qua xu ly the hien trong Bang 1. Hieu
xu loai bd COD trd nen dn dinh d muc cao sau ngay van hanh thu 120, va dat gia tri cao nhat d
didu kien HRT 8 gid. Gia tri COD, BOD, T N trong nude sau xu ly dat tieu chuan xa thai
QCVNi4:2008/BTNMT cho nguon loai B.
Hieu suat sinh khi sinh hoc
Khi sinh hoc dugc thu gom va do dac thd tich hang ngay. Q md hinh R l , lugng khi tang ro ret
khi thdi gian luu nude trong he thdng AnMBR khi giam thdi gian luu thiiy lire va do do tai trong
chdt hun ca tang ldn tu 0.53 ddn gdn 2 kg COD/m^.ngay. Ty Id khi metan cung dat gia tri dn
dinh tu 50%-70% tdng lugng biagas tu ngay thii 180 trd di, tuc la khi he thdng chuydn sang chd
do thdi gian luu 25 gid. Kdt qua thi nghiem cung cho thay nang suat sinh khi md tan trung binh
ciia he thdng dat 0.24 L CH4/gC0D (d dieu kien tidu chudn) dugc xu ly. Gia tri nay chi dat
khoang 60% so vdi vdi gia tri tinh toan theo ly thuyet d 20°C (0.34 L CH4/g COD phan hiiy),
cho thay mot phkn khi md tan da bi that thoat. Van de nay can dugc tidp tuc nghidn cuu nham
giam lugngkhi sinh hgc thit thoat khdi he thdng.
Bang 1. Thong s6 van hanh va hieu qua xu ly eua mo hinh R2
1
Dieu kien van hanh
HRT (gia)
Thoi gian van hanh
(ngay)
Tai trong C H C
(kgCOD/m/d)
Flux (mVm-.d)
Nhiet d6 CC).
Chat luong nuoc sau xu ly
COD(mgA)
NH4-N (mgN/L)
T K N (mg/L)
T-P (mg/L)

Phai

1

Pha2

|

Pha 3

|

Pha 4

|

PhaS

|

Pha 6

48
111

36
64

25
131

12
31

8
85

6
155

0.02-0.09

0.03-0.2

0.05-0.42

0.29-0.78

0.19-0.65

0.22-1.58

0.04-0.18
28-31

0.05-0.13
• 18-28.5

0.03-0.08
11-26

0.06-0.17
24-30

0.12-0.25
25-29.5

0.13-0.36
14-29

32.3"
30.5
32.9
3.9

40.8"
38.3

40.4"
39.3

33.7"
37.8

4.0

4.5

4.2

42.1"
29.0
32.0
5.2

24.3"
19.7
4.7

4


7.2-8.3

pH
Biogas
Thanh phan C H . (%)
Nang suat sinh khi (Ud)

7.6-8.2

8.1-8.4

8.0-8.3

6.9-8.6

7.2-8.2

0.39"

0.21"

0.11"

0.22"

28-30
0.37"

Tac nghen mang loc
Trong suot thdi gian van hanh, ndng dd bun (MLVSS) trong be ky khi ciia ca hai md hinh deu
tang dan. Vdi md hinh R l xii ly nude thai ciia chung cu, he thdng hoat ddng dn dinh khi ndng dd
bun nhd hou miic khoang 14.000 mg/L, ndng dd bun vugt qua miic nay thi Ap suat qua mang
(TMP) tang cao va mang bj tac (Hinh 3), do do ndng dd bun dugc duy tri trong khoang 12,000 14,000 mg/L). Ngoai ra, khi thdi gian luu nude giam xuong miic 6 gid thi mang ludn bi tac do
thdng lugug qua mang tang cao, do do HRT tdi uu ciia he thdng R l dugc xac djnh la 8 gid. O
md hinh R2 xii ly nude thai d tram Kim Lien, ndng dd bun d cudi giai doan van hanh (HRT=6
gid) van d miic thap (7000-8000 mg/L) va mang hoat ddng dn djnh khdng phai riia mang (TMP
ludn nhd hou 2 kPa) (xem Bang 1).
Ket qua cho thay he thdng AnMBR neu xii ly nude thai loang (tu he thdng cdng thoat nude
chung) cd thd van hanh d thdi gian luu thiiy luc nhd (6 gid) van dam bao hieu qua xii ly chat huu
CO va ndng dd bun dugc duy tri d miic thap, dam bao qua trinh phan tach sinh khdi hoat ddng dn
djnh va giam thidu viec tic nghen mang.
•Flux

-TMP

001
50
40
30

000

20
10
.JQ

A.,
50

100

150

_000_
200

250 300

350 400

450 500

550.. 600

650

ngay

Hinh 3. Su thay ddi Ap suit (TMP) va Thdng lugug Igc (Flux) trong sudt thdi gian van hanh md hinh R l
r

He thong AnMBR quy mo hien truong

5


Dira tren k i t qua thu dugc sau gin 2 nam nghien cuu
trong phong thi nghiem va vai su ho trg ve cong nghe
va thidt bj tir Trung tam Nghidn cuu va Phat tridn
Cong nghe cua Tap doan KUBOTA (Nhat ban), mot
mo hinh pilot co cong suat 3-5 m^/ngay dugc thidt ke
va l i p dat dd xir ly nuoc thai sinh hoat cua Ky tuc xa
sinh vidn cua trudng Dai hgc Xay dung.
He thdng pilot AnMBR cd ngan thu ket hgp bd didu
hda, mot bd phan ung sinh hgc kdt hgp mang Igc va
he thdng thidt bj didu khidn. Nude thai (bao gdm ca
nude den va nude xam) tu cac khu vd sinh dugc thu
gom mot phan vd bd didu hda dat chim dudi mat dat.
Bd phan ung sinh hoc cd hinh tru trdn, dugc thiet ke
kin hoan toan dd tranh su xam nhap cua oxy, tao ra
mdi trudng ky khi nghidm ngat. He thdng mang v i loc
bao gdm cac modun mang tam phang cd kich thudc
khe mang 0.4 pm dat ngap bdn trong bd sinh hgc lam
nhiem phan tach sinh khdi bun va nude. Trong md
hinh, khi md tan (CH4) sinh ra dugc chua trong tiii
chua khi, mot phan dugc cap tuan hoan ngugc trd lai
bd sinh hoc de hda trdn ddu nude thai vdi bun hoat
tinh va giam thidu kha nang tac nghen mang.

Hinh 4. He thdng AnMBR hien trudng xu
ly nude thai ky tuc xa DHXD

Md hinh dugc van hanh lidn tuc trong 12 thang dd danh gia hieu qua xu ly nude thai, hieu suat
sinh khi sinh hgc, cung nhu che dd tidu thu nang lugng cua he thdng dd xac dmh chi phi van
hanh ciia cdng nghe. He thdng dugc thidt kd de xu ly nude thai d thdi gian luu nude HRT 8h.
Tuy nhidn, de tranh sdc tai trong cho he vi sinh vat ky khi, he thong dugc giam HRT dan dan ttr
24h ddn 8h. Trong giai doan thich nghi ban dau, van hanh trong khoang 60 ngay vdi flux tuong
ddi nhd 0.11 m3/m2.ngay (4.5 L/m2.h) va 0.22 m3/m2.ngay ung vdi HRT 24 va 12h, va giai
doan van hanh theo thdng so thiet kd la 100 ngay vdi flux tuong ddi ldn 0.32 m3/m2.ngay (13.5
L/m2.h). Biin nap cho he thdng dugc lay tir trang trai chan nudi Ign vdi ndng dd nap ban dau
7.000 mg/L.
Kdt qua van hanh md hinh cho thay hieu suat xir ly chat huuu ca (COD) dat tir 70- 90%, COD
sau xu ly ludn nhd hon lOOmg/L. Tuy nhidn, amoni va phdt pho hau nhu khdng thay ddi trudc
va sau khi xu ly. Cho thay cdng nghe ky khi don thuan nay khdng cd kha nang xir ly cac chat
dinh dudng. Can cd cac bien phap xir ly tiep theo sao khi xir ly bang cdng nghe AnMBR dd cd
thd dap ung tidu chuan xa thai vd chat dinh dudng (N,P).
Bang 2 Hieu qua xir ly cua he thong AnMBR xir ly nude thai ky tiic xa quy md pilot
TT

Th6ngs6

Don vj

Gia tri trung binh
Nude thai tho
Sau xir ly
370
65

1

COD

mg/L

2

Amoni (NH4-N)

mg/L

105

3

P-P04

mg/L

7

110
6

4

San lugng khi biogas

L/ngay

370

5

Ham \upng khi C H 4

%

65


6

Ty le sinh khi dat

kg CH^hgCOD xii ly

0.231

San luong khi sinh hoc cua mo hinh AnMBR tuong doi cao. T6ng luong khi sinh ra dat cao nh4t
650 lit/ngay (tuong ung vdi 500 lit CH4/ngay), trung binh dat khoang 370L/ngay va ty le sinh
khi CH4 la 0.231 m--CH4/lkgC0D. Ham luong khi me tan (CH4) trong khi sinh hoc tuong ddi
cao, dat 78%.

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

ngay

Hinh 5: Hieu suit thu hoi khi sinh hoc cua He thdng AnMBR hien trudng
Vdi nhixng uu diem ke tren, cdng nghe nay phii hop vdi cac khu vuc cd quy dat han hep tai cac
dd thi hien nay, noi yeu cau nhung cdng nghe tich hop nhd gon va hieu qua xu ly cao. He thong
xu ly cd chi phi van hanh thap hon so vdi cac cdng trinh xu ly hieu khi cimg cdng suat do khdng
phai van hanh he thdng cap khi cho qua trinh phan huy sinh hoc hieu khi, ngoai ra cd the tan thu
dugc ngudn khi sinh hgc cd the tao nang luong cap nhiet hay phat dien.

Danh gia kha nang ap dung thuc te cua cong nghe AnMBR tai Viet
Nam
Cac ket qua nghien cuu ve AnMBR cho thay mot so uu diem chinh vd cdng nghe nay nhu sau:
- Cdng nghe AnMBR cd hieu qua xu ly chit d nhidm cao (theo cac chi tieu BOD, COD, TSS) he
thdng cdng trinh gon nhe va tieu tdn it nang lugng van hanh, khac phuc dugc nliieu nhugc diem
trong phuong phap xu ly sinh hgc hieu khi (chi phi x u ly bun ldn, va nhieu van de lien quan den
bun can khd lang nhu bun ndi, bun bot). Lugng bun can giam so vdi cdng nghe truyen thdng,
tham chi biin cd the luu giu dai han trong he thdng, giam dang ke chi phi xir ly biin can phat sinh.
- Khdng can cdng trinh lang thu cap, do do lam giam dien tich nha may. Trong nhifng trudng
hop cu the, dien tich tram xir ly cd the giam them do cdng trinh don vi khac nhu be phan huy
hoac khir triing tia cue tim dugc giam hot.
- V d i nude thai cd ndng dd chat huu co cao, he thdng cd kha nang thu hdi khi sinh hgc tir qua
trinh xu ly ky khi, vdi hieu suat thu hoi dat tir 50-80% so vdi he thdng xu ly ky klii truyen thong.
- Cdng trinh cd khdi tich nhd ggn, chat lugng nude xa ra phii hgp cho sir dung lai hoac nhu mot
ngudn nude cap cd chat luong cao de bd cap cho ngudn nude ngam.
Han che/ thach thuc cua cdng nghe:
7


So vai cac cong nghe truyen thong khac dang dugc ung dung tai cac tram x u ly hien nay thi
cong nghe AnMBR co mot s6 dilm han che sau: Qua trinh sinh hgc ky khi chua loai bo dugc
Nita, da do can phai ap dung them cac buac x i i ly N de dap ung yeu cau xa thai; Sir dong can
tren mang lam giam toe do Igc, tang tdn thdt qua mang Igc va tang chi phi nang lugng ciia he
thdng bom; chi phi dau tu ban dau ldn; va he thong dieu khien tuong ddi phuc tap.

K E T LUAN
Trong nghien cuu nay, md hinh xir ly nude thai ung dung cdng nghe sinh hgc ky khi ket hgp vdi
mang vi Igc dat ngap (AnMBR) de xu ly nude thai sinh hoat dd thi trong dieu kien khi hau nhiet
ddi quy md phong thi nghiem va pilot da dugc xay dung va trien khai. Ket qua van hanh hai md
hinh lien tuc trong hon 550 ngay cho thay vdi cac dieu kien khac nhau ve thdi gian luu thiiy lire
va tai trgng chat huu co thi hieu suat xu ly chat huu co (COD, BOD) deu rat dn dinh va d miic
cao (80-90%). Tuy nhien ham lugng Nita (TN, N H 4 - N ) d nude sau xu ly hau nhu khdng khac
nude thai chua xii ly, cho thay co che x i i ly ciia cdng nghe AnMBR khdng loai bd dugc Nito'.
Ddi vdi ngudn thai cd ham lugng N , P cao c4n dugc tiep tuc xtr ly de loai bd Nita nham dap ling
dugc tieu chuan xa thai hieu hanh. Cac ket qua nghien ciiu cho thay cdng nghe MBR ky khi
khdng chi phu hop d l xu ly loai nude thai chiia ndng dd chat huu co cao nhu nude thai tu cdng
nghiep bia, rugu, tinh bdt [5] [6], ma con rat hieu qua trong viec x i i ly nude thai dd thj cd ham
lugng dinh dudng thip. He thong xii ly cd chi phi van hanh thap hon so vdi cac cdng trinh xii ly
hieu khi cung cdng suat do khdng phai van hanh he thdng cap khi cho qua trinh phan hiiy sinh
hoc hilu khi, ngoai ra cd t h i tan thu dugc ngudn khi sinh hgc, cd the tao nang lugng cap nhiet
hay phat dien.
Vdi cac uu thd ve hieu qua x i i ly cao, he thdng cdng trinh ggn nhe va tieu tdn it nang lugng,
cdng nghe AnMBR cho thay cd t i l m nang ap dung ldn d nhung nai eo hep ve quy dat va khdng
cd dieu kien xii ly ve bim can nhu khu vuc dd thi.
Loi cam en: Nghien cu-u nay dugc thuc hien trong khudn kho de tai N C K H trong diem
cua Bo Xay dung (B2012-03-03) va du an hgp tac nghien cuu vdi Trung tam Nghien cuu
va Phat trien cua tap doan Kubota.
TAI L I E U THAM KHAO
1. Munariatis I . D. and Grigoropoulos S. G. - Low-strength wastewater treatment using an
anaerobic baffled reactor" Water Environment Research, 74 (2002) 170-177.
2. Sutton P.M., Berube P., and Hall E.R. - Membrane Bioreactors for Anaerobic Treatment of
Wastewaters. Final report- WERF Project 02-CTS-4 (2004). Water Environment Research
Foundation.
3. Jaeho H. and Shihwu S. Methanogenic activities in anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBR
ky k h i ) treating synthetic municipal wastewater. Bioresource Technology 101 (2010) 21912196
4. Gimenez J.B., Robles A., Carretero L., Duran F., Ruano M . V., Ferrer J., and Seco A.
Experimental study of the anaerobic urban wastewater treatment in a submerged hollow-fibre
membrane bioreactor at pilot scale. Bioresource Technology 102 (2011) 8799-8806.
8


5. He, Y., P. Xu, C. L i and B. Zhang (2005). "High-concentration food wastewater treatment by
an anaerobic membrane bioreactor." Water Research 39(17): 4110-4118.
6. Fuchs, W., H. Binder, R. Mavrias and R. Broun (2003). "Anaerobic treatment of wastewater
with high organic content using a strirred tank reactor coupled with a membrance unit."
Water Research 37: 902-908.
7. Tran Thi Viet Nga va nhom nghien cuu. Bao cao tong hop de tai NCKH trong diem cap Bo
(Bo GD& DT)-Nghien cuu phat trien cong nghe sinh hoc ky khi ket hgp mang vi hgc de xu
ly nude thai sinh hoat. Ha Ndi, 2014.



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