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Lý thuyết và bài tập về đảo NGỮ

LÝ THUY T VÀ BÀI T P CÂU Đ O NG
( ĐẢO NGỮ GIỮA CHỦ TỪ VÀ ĐỘNG TỪ )
Người Anh thường đảo ngữ câu để nhấn mạnh. Có nhiều cách đảo ngữ khác nhau.
I. Đảo ngữ trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn hoặc phương hướng.
Trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn gồm có HERE và THERE, và nhóm chữ giới từ chỉ nơi chốn.
Ta đặt trang từ ( hoặc nhóm chữ chỉ nơi chốn ) đứng đầu câu, động từ đi trước chủ từ, và không dùng
TR ĐỘNG TỪ để đảo.
Thí dụ : - The bus comes here
--> Here comes the bus.
- A frog sat on the grass. --> On the grass sat a frog.
- Thirteen candles are on the birthday cake  On the birthday cake are thirteen candles.
II. Đảo ngữ câu điều kiện.
1. CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 1.
Ta bỏ IF và đặt SHOULD đầu câu.
Thí dụ : - If you have difficulty finding a job, ask him for help.
--> Should you have difficulty finding a job, ask him for help.
2. CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2. : Có 2 trường hợp :
a. Câu điều kiện với WERE.
Ta bỏ IF, đặt WERE đúng đầu câu.
Thí dụ : - If I were you, I would take the job.
--> Were I you, I would take the job.

b. Câu điều kiện với các động từ khác.
Ta bỏ IF, đặt WERE đứng đầu câu, động từ ở mệnh đề Ifù trả về dạng "to infinitive"
Thí dụ : - If you worked for him, you would have the opportunity to promote.
--> Were you to work for him, you would have the opportunity to promote.
3. CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 3.
Ta bỏ IF và đưa HAD ra đứng đầu câu.
Thí dụ : - If he had got up early, he would have caught the first train.
 Had he got up early, he would have caught the first train.
III. Đảo ngữ mệnh đề trạng từ chỉ kết quả.
Ta đặt So + Adj ra đứng đầu câu rồi đến"to be" hoặc trợ động từ trước chủ từ.
Thí dụ : - He is so lazy that he always gets bad marks.
--> So lazy is he that he always gets bad marks.
- She looks so fat that everyone laughs at her.
--> So fat does she look that everyone laughs at her.
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- She bought so many things that she couldn't bring all of them home.
--> So many things did she buy that she couldn't bring all of them home.
IV. Đảo ngữ với các trạng từ phủ đònh và bán phủ đònh.
- Các trạng từ phủ đònh gồm có : Never, No longer, Not only, Nowhere, At no time.
Under no circumstance.
- Các trạng từ bán phủ đònh gồm có : Seldom, Rarely, Scarcely, Little, Hardly.
Để đảo ngữ, ta đặt "to be" hoặc trợ động từ trước chủ từ.
Thí dụ : - I have never seen such a best film before.
--> Never have I seen such a best film before.
- She is not only intelligent but she is also hard-working.
--> Not only is she intelligent but she is also hard-working.
- He hardly thinks of going abroad.
--> Hardly does he think of going abroad.
- We seldom go to school on Sundays.
--> Seldom do we go to school on Sundays.
V. Đảo ngữ với trạng từ ONLY.
Để đảo ngữ, ta phải đem nhóm chữ bắt đầu bằng ONLY ra đầu câu, sau đó mới đảo ngữ.
Thí dụ :
- That man works only for the love of money.
--> Only for the love of money does that man work.
- You can only become a good athlete by practicing every day.
--> Only by practicing every day can you become a good athlete.
- This tree has flowers only once a year.

--> Only once a years does this tree have flowers.
VI. Đảo ngữ với NOT UNTIL.
Ta đem NOT UNTIL ra đầu câu và đảo ngữ giốùng như ONLY.
Thí dụ :
- Mary didn't begin to read until she was 8.
--> Not until she was 8 did Mary begin to read.
- I didn't recognize him until he came into the light.
--> Not umtil he came into the light did I recognize him.

CHÚ Ý :

* Ta có thể dùng cấu trúc nhấn mạnh " It was . . . that " với các thí dụ trên.
- It was not until she was 8 that Mary began to read. ( không đảo ngữ, nghia như nhau )
* NOT UNTIL và ONLY WHEN có thể thay thế cho nhau.
Thí dụ : - He didn't know about the truth until he grew up.
--> Only when he grew up did he know about the truth.
VI. Đảo ngữ với :
- NO SOONER. . . . . . . THAN
- HARDLY. . . . . . . . . WHEN
- SCARCELY. . . . . . . WHEN

) Vừa mới. . . .
) . . . thì
)

Thí dụ : - I had no sooner arrived home than it began to rain.
--> No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.
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- He had hardly begun the trip when he fell ill.
--> Hardly had he begun the trip when he fell ill.
- She had scarcely put the phone down when her boss rang back.
---> Scarcely had she put the phone down when her boss rang back

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EXERCISE
I N V E R S I O N
I. Chọn một từ / nhóm từ thích hợp cho mỗi chỗ trống để hoàn thành những câu sau.
1. ____________________________, you would have succeeded in your business.
A. If you listened to my advice
B. Were you to listen to my advice
C. Had you listened to my advice
D. As long as you listened to my advice
2. She doesn’t like classical music and _______________________________.
A. I don’t, too
B. I don’t, either C. neither do I
D. B and C are correct
3. Little ______________ what he has caused to others.
A. does he know
B. he knows
C. he can know
D. he will know
4. __________ had he entered the office than he realized that he had left his wallet at home.
A. Hardly
B. Scarcely
C. No sooner
D. Not only
5. ____________ a week goes by without some road accidents.
A. Hardly
B. Seldom
C. Never
D. Infrequently
II. Tìm lỗi sai ở những từ / cụm từ gạch chân được đánh dấu A, B, C và D.
6. We cannot clean up all the polluted seas and rivers. Nor we can stop the disappearance of plants
A
B
C (can we)
D
and animals.
7. Hardly had he entered the office when he realized that he forgot his wallet.
A
B
C
D (had forgotten)
8. It was not until he was 30 did he get married , had a job and lived independently of his parents.
A
B (that he got married)
C
D
9. Never before has so many people in the U.S been interested in soccer.
A
B (have)
C
D
10. Not only did he spend all his money but also he borrowed some from me
A
B
C (but he also)
D
III. Chọn câu viết lại có nghóa tương đương.
11. I write to her almost every day.
A. Not a day goes by unless my writing to her.
B. Hardly does a day go by without my writing to her.
C. No day go by without my writing to her.
D. Almost every day goes by without my writing for her.
12. The noise next door didn’t stop until midnight.
A. It was not until midnight that the noise next door stopped.
B. Not until midnight did the noise next door stopped.
C. Only when midnight did the noise next door stopped.
D. Hardly did the noise next door stopped when it was midnight.
13. He started computer programming as soon as he left school.
A. No sooner had he started computer programming than he left school.
B. Hardly had he started computer programming when he left school.
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C. No sooner had he left school than he started computer programming.
D. After he left school, he had started computer programming.
14. He spent all his money. He even borrowed some from me.
A. As soon as he borrowed some money from me, he spent it all.
B. Hardly had he borrowed some money from me when he spent it all.
C. Not only did he spent all his money but also he borrowed some from me.
D. Not only did he spend all his money but he borrowed some from me as well.
15. She only felt relaxed after a few months working for him.
A. She used to feel relaxed working for him a few months.
B. A few months ago, she didn’t find it relaxed working for him.
C. Only after a few months working for him did she feel relaxed.
D. It was not until a few months working for him did she feel relaxed.
16. Right after his appointment to the post, he fell ill.
A. No sooner did he appointed to the post than he fell ill.
B. No sooner had he appointed to the post than he fell ill.
C. Hardly had he appointed to the post when he fell ill.
D. Hardly had he been appointed to the post when he fell ill.
17. Just after solving one problem, I was faced with another.
A. Scarcely had I solved one problem when I was faced with another.
B. Hardly had I solved one problem when I was faced with another.
C. No sooner had I solved one problem than I was faced with another.
D. All are correct.
18. A country cannot be prosperous if it is not quite independent.
A. Unless a country is quite independent, it can be prosperous.
B. Without complete independence, a country can be prosperous.
C. Only when a country is quite independent can it be prosperous.
D. It is not until a country is quite independent can it be prosperous.
19. I only recognized him when he came into the light.
A. Only when I recognized him, he came into the light.
B. It wasn’t until he came into the light that I recognized him
C. Not until he came into the light I did recognize him
D. I did not recognize him even when he came into the light.
20. We couldn’t relax until all the guests had left.
A. Not until all the guests had left could we relax.
B. It wasn’t until all the guests had left that we could relax.
C. It wasn’t until all the guests had left could we relax.
D. A and B are correct
21. The phone stopped ringing the moment I got downstairs.
A. No sooner had the phone stopped ringing than I got downstairs.
B. After the phone had stopped ringing, I got downstairs.
C. Hardly had the phone stopped ringing when I got downstairs.
D. No sooner had I got downstairs than the phone stopped ringing.
22. The light failed the moment they began work.
A. But for the light failed, they would have begun work.
B. Hardly did they begin work when the light failed.
C. Hardly had they begun work when the light failed.
D. As soon as the light failed, they began work.
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23. She didn’t shed a tear as the play ended in tragedy.
A. The tragedy play wasn’t good for her to shed tear.
B. Without her tear, the play didn’t end tragically.
C. So tragic was the play that she didn’t shed a tear.
D. Not a tear did she shed when the play ended in tragedy.
IV. Chọn phương án đúng ( A, B, C, hoặc D ) để hoàn thành mỗi câu sau.
24. It was not until she had arrived home ___________________ her appointment with the doctor.
A. when she remembered
B. that she remembered
C. and she remembered
D. did she remember
25. Canada does not require that U.S citizens obtain passports to enter the country, and _________.
A. Mexico doesn’t, too
B. so does Mexico
C. Mexico doesn’t, either
D. neither is Mexico
26. ____________________, he would have been able to pass the exam.
A. If he studied harder last year
B. Provided he studied hard last year
C. Studying harder last year
D. Had he studied harder last year
27. ___________________ will Mr. Dennis be able to regain control of the company.
A. With hard work
B. Despite his hard work
C. Only if he works hardly
D. Only by working hard
28. __________ had I arrived home than it began to rain.
A. No sooner
B. Hardly
C. Scarcely
D. Rarely
29. My father paid my fees. _______________that, I wouldn’t be here now.
A. If there were not
B. But for
C. Had it not been for
D. B and C are correct
30. Only after food has been dried or canned ________________________________.
A. it should be stored for future use.
B. that it should be stored for future use.
C. should it be stored for future use.
D. should it store for future use.

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ANSWER KEY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

C
D
A
C
D
C (can we)
D (had forgotten)
B (that he got married)
B (have)
C (but he also)
B
A
C
D
C
D
D
C
B
D
D
C
D
B
C
D
D
A
C
C

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