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Supervisory, instructional skills and professional performance of teachers in vocational colleges in nghe an province basic for developing an enhancement program

SUPERVISORY, INSTRUCTIONAL SKILLS AND PROFESSIONAL
PERFORMANCE OF TEACHERS IN VOCATIONAL COLLEGES
IN NGHE AN PROVINCE: BASIS FOR DEVELOPING
AN ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM

___________________________

A DISSERTATION
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, Philippines
in Collaboration with
Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam

___________________________

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management

___________________________


By
NGUYEN TRUONG GIANG (RIVER)
October 2014
i


APPROVAL SHEET

ii


CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

iii


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Writing a doctoral dissertation is a gratifying but difficult and sometimes
nerve wrecking endeavor that only few engaged in because it requires a lot of
sacrifices and hard work from the researcher. However, at the end of the task,
one experiences a wonderful feeling of joy, happiness, relief and fulfillment.
The researcher would like to extend his sincerest gratitude and thanks
to the following people who were very instrumental in the fulfillment of this
research study.
DR. CECILIA N. GASCON, President of the Southern Luzon State
University in the Republic of the Philippines, for her untiring effort and belief
that this collaboration is possible thus enabling us to pursue the PhD. EdM
degree;
DR. DANG KIM VUI President of Thai Nguyen in the Socialist Republic
of Vietnam, for his untiring effort and belief that this collaboration is possible
thus enabling us to pursue the PhD. EdM degree;
DR. NGUYEN TUAN ANH, Ph.D., former Director of the International
Training Center, Thai Nguyen University of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam,
for his enormous pursuit to provide the Vietnamese people with an opportunity
to grow through education;
DR. APOLONIA A. ESPINOSA his adviser, for the guidance and
endless support for the improvement of this study;
PROFESSORS Cecilia N. Gascon, Walberto A. Macaraan, Teresita V.
de la Cruz, Ricaryl Catherine P. Cruz and Bella R. Muello who composed the

Oral Defense Committee, for their suggestions, comments and corrections to
improve this study;
iv


ITC STAFF, for providing the necessary research materials;
HIS FAMILY and FRIENDS, for the love and support in one way or the
other;
And TO ALL who have contributed to make this study a success.
NTG

v


DEDICATION

To my
Beloved parents,
Siblings,
Relatives
And
Most especially
To my
Loving Wife and Children
For their endless support
And for being my constant source of inspiration

NTG

vi


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………..

i

APPROVAL SHEET ……………………………………………………….

ii

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY ………………………………………..

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT …………………………………………………..

iv

DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………..

vii

LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………….

ix

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………

xi

LIST OF APPENDICES …………………………………………………...

xii

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………

xiii

CHAPTER
I

II

III

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………

1

Background of the Study ……………………….…………..

3

Objectives of the Study ……………………………….…….

8

Hypotheses …………………………………………………..

8

Significance of the Study …………………………………...

9

Scope and Limitation of the Study …………………….…..

10

Definition of Terms …………………………………………..

10

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ……………………….……….

13

Conceptual Framework …………………...….………..……

34

Research Paradigm ……………………………...….………

35

METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………

37

Locale of the Study ………………………….………………

37

Research Design …………………………….………………

38

Population and Sampling ………………….…...…………..

38

Instrumentation………………………...…………..…….….

39

Data Gathering Procedure ………………………………….

39

Statistical Treatment …….…………………………………..

40

vii


IV

V

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ……………………….….

43

4.1 Perception of the Respondents on the Level of the
Supervisory Skills of Teachers....................................

43

4.2 The Professional Performance of Teachers …………

55

4.3 Perception of the Respondents on the the Level of the
Instructional Skills of Teachers....................................

65

4.4The relationship between the Supervisory skills,
Instructional skills and the Professional performance
of the teachers…………………………………….……
4.5 Enhancement Program ………………………………….

72
73

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary …………………..…………………………………

79

Findings…………………….………..…………………….…

79

Conclusions ……………………………………………….…

83

Recommendations ……………………………………..……

83

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………..

85

APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………...

87

CURRICULUM VITAE …………………………………………………….

97

viii


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

PAGE
Frequency and Weighted Mean Distribution of the
Responses on Supervisory Skills of Teachers as to
Technical Skills…………………………………………………

44

Frequency and Weighted Mean Distribution of the
Responses on Supervisory Skills of Teachers as to Human
Relation Skills .........................................................................

46

Frequency and Weighted Mean Distribution of the
Responses on Supervisory Skills of Teachers as to
Conceptual Skills………………………………………………...

48

Frequency and Weighted Mean Distribution of the
Responses on the Instructional Skills of Teachers as to
Pedagogical Skills ..................................................................

50

Frequency and Weighted Mean Distribution of the
Responses on the Instructional Skills of Teachers as to
Counselling……………………………………………………….

51

Frequency and Weighted Mean Distribution of the
Responses on the Instructional Skills of Teachers as to
Classroom Management Skills ...............................................

53

Frequency and Weighted Mean Distribution of the
Responses on the Instructional Skills of Teachers as to
Assessment Skills………………………………………………..

54

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Professional
Performance of Teachers at Nghe An Vocational College of
Trade and Tourism………………………………………………

55

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Professional
Performance of Teachers at Viet Duc Vocational College….

56

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Professional
Performance of Teachers at Viet Han Vocational College….

57

Weighted Mean and Chi-Square Distribution of the
Responses of the Three Groups as toTechnical Skills……..

59

Weighted Mean and Chi-Square Distribution of the
Responses of the Respondents from the Three Colleges as
to Human Relation Skills ………………………………………..

62

ix


TABLE
13

14

15

16

17

18

PAGE
Weighted Mean and Chi-Square Distribution of the
Respondents’ Responses from the Three Colleges as to
Conceptual Skills ………………………………………………...

64

Weighted Mean and Chi-Square Distribution of the
Responses of the Teachers from the Three Colleges as to
Pedagogical Skills ..................................................................

66

Weighted Mean and Chi-Square Distribution of the
Teachers’ Responses from the Three Schools as to
Counseling Skills …………………………………………………

67

Weighted Mean and Chi-Square Distribution of the
Responses of Teachers from the Three Colleges as to
Classroom Management Skills …………………………………

69

Weighted Mean and Chi-Square Distribution of the
Teachers’ Responses from the Three Colleges as to
Assessment Skills ………………………………………………..

71

Correlation of Supervisory and Instructional Skills of
Teachers to their Professional Performance ………………….

72

x


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE
1

2

PAGE
Relationship of the Independent Variables with the
Dependent Variables wth an Endview of Developing an
Enhancement Program ..........................................................

35

Map Showing the Location of the Colleges ………………......

37

xi


LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX

PAGE

A

Letter to Respondents ………………………………………

88

B

Questionnaire ………………………………………………...

89

C

Professional Performance of Teachers of Nghe An
Vocational College of Trade and Tourism ………………...

94

xii


ABSTRACT
Title of Research

: SUPERVISORY, INSTRUCTIONAL SKILLS AND
PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE OF
TEACHERS IN VOCATIONAL COLLEGES IN
NGHE AN PROVINCE: BASIS FOR DEVELOPING
AN ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM

Researcher

: NGUYEN TRUONG GIANG (RIVER)

Degree Conferred

: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATIONAL
MANAGEMENT

Name and Address
of Institution

: Southern Luzon State University Lucban, Quezon,
Philippines and Thai Nguyen University, Socialist
Republic of Vietnam

Adviser

: Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa

Year Written
: 2014
______________________________________________________________
The study was conducted to assess the supervisory skills and
instructional skills of the teachers of 3 vocational colleges in NgheAn
Province. It specifically explored on what enhancement program could be
developed to solve the problems encountered by teachers in terms of
supervisory skills and instructional skills. The study was limited to determining
the perception of the respondents on the supervisory skills of the teachers as
to Technical skills, Human relation skills, and Conceptual skills and to
ascertain the perception of the respondents on the instructional skills of the
teachers as to Pedagogical skills, Counselling skills, Classroom management
skills, and Assessment skills. One hundred and eighty six (186) selected
respondents (college teachers) answered the questionnaire. Weighted mean
was utilized to describe the perception of the respondents on the supervisory
skills and instructional skills of the teachers. Spearman rho was used to
determine

the

significant

relationship
xiii

between

the

supervisory

and


instructional skills and professional performance of the teachers. The
statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel. The level of the
supervisory skills of teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in
NgheAn province fall in the “satisfactory” category. Few gained “very
satisfactory” category. Meanwhile, the level of the instructional skills of
teachers at the three selected vocational colleges in NgheAn province is of
“satisfactory” category. Very few fall in the “very satisfactory” category.
Moreover, there is low/negligible relationship between the instructional skills
and supervisory skills of teachers with that of professional performance.
Hence, the enhancement program is ready for implementation. Based on the
findings and conclusions, it is hereby recommended that the developed
enhancement program be adopted and that other parameters associated to
supervisory and instructional skills of teachers may be considered in similar
and parallel studies in the future.

xiv


1

Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

Supervision plays an important role in the management of school
organization. An organization cannot function effectively without a leader to
direct its goals. The principal and his teachers are the persons responsible for
a school to run smoothly. They are the ones who make the necessary
changes for more effective learning experiences of the students.It is important
that the school principal and its teachers possess supervisory and
instructional skills that greatly influence pupils' performance.
Effective teaching and supervision are very complex processes. To be
truly successful, a classroom teacher needs to master and employ a wide
variety of competencies that both directly and indirectly affect student
learning. Furthermore, research data indicate that in schools with positive and
supportive cultures, students are more likely to reach their full potential and
teachers are inspired to grow, take risks, and work in a collegial manner
(Peterson, 1999; Urban, 1999.) The supervisory skills and behaviors of the
principal and other supervisors of instruction are critical components of a
supportive school climate (Bulach, Boothe, & Michael, 1999).
Igwe (2001) noted that supervision involves evaluation, monitoringand
quality control for the purpose of curriculum and infrastructuraldevelopment
and improvement. In order to achieve this, some specifictasks of the
supervisor in a modern school have been identified as helping school head
teachers to understand students better; helping teachers and individuals for
professional growth; acquiring cooperating spirit for team work; making better
use of teaching materials; improving methods of teaching; improving teacher’s


2

appraisal of his standards; acquisition of originality for the teacher within the
commodity; and faculty plan for curriculum improvement.
One of the philosophical foundations of supervision appears to be
based on the premise that all teachers need moral, technical and educational
support. All teachers need to recognize problems that need immediate
attention and therefore they need to be observed and communicated in terms
of their performance, weaknesses and strength in the classroom. Given the
fact that in particular, young teachers may not be well informed about new
techniques, approaches in the complex characteristics of learning and
teaching, supervision can serve as a training approach and support service
for teachers by means of systematic cycles of planning, observation, and
intensive analysis of actual teaching performance (Kayaoglu, 2012).
Teachers must have instructional skills including teaching skills,
educational skills, organizational skills, coordination skills with parents and
other educational forces in society. In addition, teachers must also possess
the following skills: manage classroom and organize student activities in and
out of the school, apply, invite students to participate in these activities and
maintain positive and creative learning attitudes; communicate with students,
parents, and colleagues, demonstrating the ability to maintain and develop the
relationship between teachers and students, between students themselves;
coordinate with other education forces in society to organize educational
activities; and make educational and scientific researches to improve
themselves as well the quality of teaching and learning process.
Teachers prioritize the education of their students, and are accountable
for achieving the highest possible standards in work and conduct. They act


3

with honesty and integrity; have strong background knowledge of the subjects
they teach, keep their knowledge and skills as teachers up-to-date, create
positive professional relationships; and work with parents in the best interests
of their students (Teachers' Standards, 2012).

Background of the Study
After 20 years of implementing the renovation, industrialization and
modernization, Vietnam has gained the important achievements in socioeconomic development. It is the large role of enterprises that contribute to
those sucesses. With the currently opening and integrative trend, an essential
requirement for businesses to increase the competitiveness and expand the
market

is investing in modern technology and equipment, especially

improving the quality of the labor force. They need to have a team of skilled
technicians and

workers to meet the developed requirements of the

business.Starting from these requirements, the training activities keep the
most decisive position, not only to meet the needs of the business but also for
the export of labor, improving the efficiency of the labor export in Vietnam.
For the high-quality human resources to meet the requirements of
industrialization and modernization, it is the need to develop a training system
which is capable of providing the society a large workforce who have
necessary qualifications, follow an appropriate structure and are able to adapt
quickly to any changes of the environment with an increasing globalization. At
the same time, they are also able to regularly update the necessary
knowledge and skills for the workforce of the country. Vocational training is an


4

important part of the human resources training system for industrialization
and modernization.
In the recent years, due to the efforts of the Vietnamese Communist
Party, the leadership of the Government and the efforts of all levels, the
vocational training sectors have gradually been renovated and developed to
meet the technical manpower needs directly serve the socio-economic
development.
Vocational training systems and networks have been innovated and
developed, moving from low-level vocational training system with two levels of
training into the vocational training system with three levels of training:
primary, junior and vocational colleges. Vocational training centers have been
developed under planning spread all over the country. They are rich of
ownership forms and types of training. There are 1,328 vocational schools
and training centers (including 153 vocational colleges, 307 vocational
secondary schools, 868 vocational training centers) in Vietnam. The size of
vocational schools is quickly increasing, but vocational teachers do not meet
the

requirements,

especially

their

supervisory

skills

and

vocational

pedagogical training are still weak. Currently, there are only 4 technological
pedagogical universities in Hung Yen Province, Nam Dinh Province, Vinh City
and Ho Chi Minh City; one technical college in Vinh Long Province and a
number of technical pedagogical departments in some universities that can
provide training to vocational teachers. But sectoral structures of these
schools also have limitations that do not meet the growing sectors of the
society. The limitations on capacity and training scale of these schools lead to
the situation that doesn’t meet the requirements on the number of teachers for


5

vocational schools. Many qualified teachers are limited in supervisory and
pedagogical

skills,

especially

young

teachers.

Therefore,

improving

supervisory skills and instructional skills for teachers in vocational schools in
terms of quantity and quality is an urgent and necessary demand.
Developing vocational teaching is the responsibility of everybody. It is
an important content of national human resource development plan because it
requires the participation of the Government, Ministries, branches, localities,
the vocational training institutions, the centers which use labor and laborers to
carry out vocational training on the needs of the labor market.
Performing strong and basic innovations of state management in
vocational training in order to create the motivation to develop vocational
training under the direction of standardization, modernization, socialization,
democratization and international integration is a much needed development.
Improving the quality and developing the size of vocational training is a
process which both makes universal training for employees, and at the same
time meets the needs of the fields that use domestic high-skilled manpower
and labor export.Strengthening and expanding international cooperation to
develop vocational training, are keys to achieving the international, national,
regional and local workforce demands.Implementing vocational training will
raise the rate of trained workers to 40 percent, equivalent to 23.5 million in
2015 (in which secondary and college account for 20%) and 55% in 2020,
equivalent to 34.4 million people (in which the secondary and college account
for 23%).
In the period of 2011 – 2015,in the new training in vocational
secondary and college level, about 2.1 million people took primary and


6

vocational training under 3 months , about 7.5 million people, of which 4.7
million people have been supported under the "vocational training project for
rural laborers by 2020 "(Project 1956).
In the period of 2016 - 2020

new training in vocational junior and

college level have been established where about 2.9 million people (in which
10% get national, ASEAN and international level,) took primary and vocational
training under 3 months, about 10 million people, of which 5.5 million people
have been supported by vocational training under Project 1956.
By 2015, there will be about 190 vocational colleges (60 non-public
schools, covering 31.5%), including 26 high-quality schools; 300 vocational
secondary schools (100 non-public schools, covering 33%); and 920
vocational training centers (320 non-public centers, covering 34.8%). Each
province / city which belongs to the Central Government will have at least one
vocational college and one model vocational training center; each county /
district / town will have a vocational training center or vocational secondary
schools. By 2020, there will be about 230 vocational colleges (80 non-public
schools, cover 34.8%), including 40 high-quality schools; 310 vocational
secondary schools (120 non-public schools, cover 38.8%), and 1050
vocational training centers (350 non-public centers, cover 33.3%) in which
150 are model centers.
By 2015, there will be 51,000 vocational teachers (about 17,000 are
working in the non-public vocational training institutions) among those 13,000
teachers are teaching in vocational training colleges which provide 3-year
programs, 24,000 teachers are working at vocational schools which provide 2year programs and about 14,000 teachers are working at other kinds of


7

vocational institutions which provide less-than-3-month courses. Moreover, by
2020, there will be 77,000 vocational teachers (about 25,000 are working in
the non-public vocational training institutions) among those 28,000 teachers
are teaching in vocational training colleges, 31,000 teachers are working at
vocational schools and about 18,000 teachers are working at other kind of
vocational institutions.
By 2015, 130 programs for the national key fields will be designed and
launched, among those 49 programs are of regional level and 26 programs
are of international level, and 300 less-than-3-month courses are built to
provide training to rural laborers. Moreover, by 2020, 150 programs for the
national key fields will be designed and launched, among those 70 programs
are of regional level and 35 programs are of international level, and 200 lessthan-3-month courses are built to provide training to rural laborers (Decision
No. 630/QD-TTg dated May 29, 2012 by the Prime Minister regarding the
"Strategy for developing vocational training, period 2012 -2020").
To achieve these goals, there should be a sufficient number of trained
vocational teachers in accordance with the structure of each different level.
Teachers need to have supervisory skills and pedagogical skills. Necessary
programs to achieve this should be designed on a modular basis, with the
goal of providing integrated teacher training program and being compatible
with the national, regional and international proficiency.
For the above reasons, the researcher has tried to study supervisory
skills and instructional skills of teachers of vocational training colleges in Nghe
An province with the ultimate aspiration to create an enhancement program.


8

Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this research is to find out the supervisory and
instructional skills in relation to the professional performance of teachers in
vocational training colleges in Nghe An Province during SY 2013- 2014, with
an end view of developing an enhancement program.
Specifically, the research sought answers to the following objectives:
1. Determine the level of supervisory skills of teachers as to:
1.1. technical skills;
1.2. human relation skills; and
1.3. conceptual skills.
2. Assess the level of instructional skills of the teachers as to:
2.1. pedagogical skills;
2.2. counseling skills;
2.3. classroom management skills; and
2.4. assessment skills.
3. Determine the professional performance of teachers;
4. Determine if there is a significant difference among the responses of
the respondents from the three colleges;
5. Find out the significant relationship between the supervisory,
instructional skills and professional performance of the teachers; and
6. Develop an enhancement program based on the results.

Hypotheses
1. The level of supervisory skills of teachers from the three colleges has
no significant difference.


9

2. No significant difference exists between the levels of instructional
skills of teachers from the three colleges.
3. There is no significant relationship between supervisory, instructional
skills and professional performance of teachers in the vocational
colleges.

Significance of the Study
This study is beneficial to the following group of people.
Administrators. It is hoped that the study may contribute in giving a
new dimension in the administration and supervision of vocational colleges in
Nghe An province.
Teachers. The outcome of the study is of great help to teachers
because they will be made aware of the different types of leadership that
would affect changes and improvements of the school. The researcher may
contribute to a new avenue in her search for better ways to improve oneself
and her work environment. In this way, it would ultimately lead to a better
quality performance in the teaching force.
Students. They will be benefited by this study since they are the main
concerns of educators and any wholesome environment and relationship
could create positive effect on the teaching and learning process.
Future Researchers. This study could provide references for future
proponents who wish to venture a study similar to the nature of this ongoing
research.


10

Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study was conducted to assess the supervisory skills and
instructional skills of the teachers of 3 vocational colleges in Nghe An
Province, including Viet Duc Vocational College (1972), Viet Han Vocational
College (1998), and Nghe An Trading and Tourism Vocational College (1996).
A total of 186 teachers were selected to be the respondents of the study. It
specifically explored on what enhancement program could be developed to
solve the problems encountered by teachers in terms of supervisory skills and
instructional skills. The study was limited to determinethe perception of the
respondents on the supervisory skills of the teachers as to Technical skills,
Human relation skills, and Conceptual skills and to ascertain the perception of
the respondents on the instructional skills of the teachers as toPedagogical,
Counselling,Classroom Management, and Assessment skills.
The one hundred and eighty six (186) selected respondents (college
teachers) were given a questionnaire designed by the researcher and
complete the questionnaires after being explained and instructed by the
researcher.The researcher administered the questionnaire to the respondents
after it had been checked and validated by his adviser in September 2013.

Definition of Terms
The definition of terms is aimed to define clearly all the terms used in this
study. The terms used are as follows:
Assessment skills refer to the systematic collection, review and use of
information about educational programs to improve student learning
(Huba and Freed, 2000).


11

Classroom Management Skillsrefer to the process of ensuring that
classroom

lessons

run

smoothly

despite disruptive

behavior by students. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive
behavior. It is possibly the most difficult aspect of teaching for many
teachers; indeed experiencing problems in this area causes some to
leave teaching altogether.
Conceptual Skillsrefer to the abilities of the teachers associated with
knowledge and how this knowledge could be applied to enable them in
analyzing the role of education in relation to its environment (Gunay,
2000).
Counseling Skillsrefer to a helping approach that highlights the emotional
and intellectual experiences of students, how students are feeling and
what they think about the problem they have sought help for.
Enhancement Program refers to the program that demonstrates success in
raising the teachers’ supervisory and instructional skills in relation to
performance.
Human Relation Skillsrefer to skills that provide a way for teachers to work
together effectively within their organization. A teacher needs to have
an understanding of the skills that are necessary to succeed in the
work world. Also necessary is being able to cope and deal with
communicating with others like colleagues and students.
Instructional Skills refer to the most specific category of teaching behaviors.
They are necessary for procedural purposes and for structuring
appropriate learning experiences for students.


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