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Students satisfaction on service quality provided by the colleges of thai nguyen university a proposed formation program

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STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION ON SERVICE QUALITY PROVIDED BY
THE COLLEGES OF THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY:
A PROPOSED FORMATION PROGRAM

___________________________

A DISSERTATION
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, Philippines
in Collaboration with
Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam

___________________________

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management

___________________________


By
NGUYEN TAT THANG (VICTOR)

October 2014


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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The researcher wishes to convey his gratitude to the following persons who
wholeheartedly devoted and helped make this piece of work a reality:
DR. WALBERTO A. MACARAAN, his adviser for the supervision, guidance,
suggestions and precious time in enthusiastically reading and checking the
manuscript, providing the researcher with useful materials;
DR. CECILIA N. GASCON, President of the Southern Luzon State University in the
Republic of the Philippines, for her invaluable contribution and support to the
Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management program in Thai Nguyen
University;
DR. DANG KIM VUI, President of the Thai Nguyen University in the Socialist
Republic of Vietnam for his continuous and constant contribution and support
to the Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management program in
cooperation with the Southern Luzon State University, Republic of the
Philippines;
DR. NGUYEN THE HUNG, Director of the International Training Center, Thai
Nguyen University of Socialist Republic of Vietnam for his enormous pursuit
to provide the Vietnamese people an opportunity to grow through education ;
The faculty and research staff of the colleges of Thai Nguyen University and the
respondents of the study for their active involvement and cooperation which
made the conduct of the study possible;
His family and friends, for the love and support in one way or another and to all
who have contributed to make this study a success.
NTT



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DEDICATION

This research is wholeheartedly dedicated to my family and to all my
relatives, colleagues and friends, and classmates in Thai Nguyen University for
giving the researcher endless support, guidance and inspiration.

NTT


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………..

i

APPROVAL SHEET ……………………………………………………….

ii

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY ………………………………………..

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT …………………………………………………..

iv

DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………..

vi

LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………….

viii

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………

x

LIST OF APPENDICES …………………………………………………...

xi

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………

xii

CHAPTER
I

II

III

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………

1

Background of the Study ……………………….…………..

3

Objectives of the Study ……………………………….…….

5

Hypotheses …………………………………………………..

6

Significance of the Study …………………………………...

6

Scope and Limitation of the Study …………………….…..

8

Definition of Terms …………………………………………..

8

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ……………………….……….

13

Research Paradigm ……………………………...….………

29

METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………

30

Locale of the Study ………………………….………………

30

Research Design …………………………….………………

30

Population and Sampling ………………….…...…………..

31

Instrumentation ………………………...…………..…….….

33

Data Gathering Procedure ………………………………….

34

Statistical Treatment …….…………………………………..

35


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IV

V

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ……………………….….

38

Demographic Profile of the Students ……………………...

38

EDUSERVQUAL Analysis and Identification of Areas for
Improvement …………………………………………………

39

Correlation of Demographic Factors to EDUSERVQUAL
Dimensions …………………………………………………..

52

Proposed Formation Program ……………………………...

77

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary …………………..…………………………………

87

Findings …………………….………..…………………….…

88

Conclusions ……………………………………………….…

89

Recommendations ……………………………………..……

90

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………..

91

APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………...

96

CURRICULUM VITAE …………………………………………………….

121


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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE

PAGE

1

Distribution of the Sample size According to Population ……

31

2

Distribution of the Respondents by Colleges …………………

32

3

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents’
Demographic Profile as to Gender, Age, Origin, and Family
Income …………………………………………………………….

38

Mean Scores and T-test Results for the Students’
Perceptions and Expectations in term of Instructional,
Auxiliary and Ancillary Service, and Learning support Facility
Dimensions ……………………………………………………….

40

Mean Scores and T-test Results for the Students’
Perceptions and Expectations in term of Tangibles,
Responsiveness, Reliability, Assurance and Empathy
Dimensions ……………………………………………………….

44

Overall Mean Scores and T-test Results for the Students’
Perceptions and Expectations EDUSERVQUAL Dimensions

47

Correlation of the Students’ Responses on the Instructional
Service Quality with their Demographic Profile ………………

52

Correlation of Students’ Responses on Auxiliary Service
Quality with their Demographic Profile ………………………...

53

Correlation of the Students’ Responses on the Ancillary
Service Quality with their Demographic Profile ………………

54

Correlation of the Students’ Responses on the Learning
Support Facilities Service Quality with their Demographic
Profile ……………………………………………………………..

55

Correlation of the Students’ Responses on the Tangibles
Service Quality with their Demographic Profile ………………

56

Correlation of the Students’ Responses on the
Responsiveness Service Quality with their Demographic
Profile ……………………………………………………………..

57

Correlation of the Students’ Responses on the Reliability
Service Quality with their Demographic Profile ………………

58

Correlation of the Students’ Responses on the Assurance
Service Quality with their Demographic Profile ………………

59

4

5

6

7.1
7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.7

7.8


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TABLE
7.9

8

9.1

9.2

9.3

9.4

9.5

9.6

9.7

9.8

9.9

10

PAGE
Correlation of the Students’ Responses on the Empathy
Service Quality with their Demographic Profile ………………

60

Anova Result in Student’s Perception by Group of
Dimensions between Colleges …………………………………

62

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Students’ Perception of One
College with Other Eight Colleges in terms of Instructional
Services (IN) Dimension ………………………………………...

64

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of One
College with Other Eight Colleges in terms of Auxiliary
Services (AU) Dimension ……………………………………….

65

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of One
College with other Eight Colleges in terms of Ancillary
Services (AN) Dimension ……………………………………….

66

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of one
College with Other Eight Colleges in terms of Learning
Support Facilities (LE) Dimension ……………………………..

67

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of One
College with Other Eight Colleges in terms of Tangibles (TA)
Dimension ………………………………………………………...

68

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of one
College with Other Eight Colleges in terms of
Responsiveness (RE) Dimension ……………………………...

69

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of one
College with Other Eight Colleges in terms of Reliability (R)
Dimension ………………………………………………………...

71

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of One
College with Other Eight Colleges in terms of Assurance (A)
Dimension ………………………………………………………...

72

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of One
College with Other Eight Colleges in terms of Empathy (EM)
Dimension ………………………………………………………...

73

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents’
Demographic Profile as to Colleges …………………………...

74


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LIST OF FIGURE
FIGURE
1

PAGE
Schematic Diagram of the Independent and Dependent
Variables of the Study …………………………………………..

29


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LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX
A

B

PAGE
Questionnaire for the Survey of Students’ Satisfaction
on the Service Quality Provided by Colleges of
Thai Nguyen University ……………………………………..

97

Reports of Computations …………………………………….

102


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ABSTRACT
Title of Research

: STUDENTS’ SATISFACTION ON SERVICE
QUALITY PROVIDED BY THE COLLEGES OF
THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY: A PROPOSED
FORMATION PROGRAM

Researcher

: NGUYEN TAT THANG (VICTOR)

Degree Conferred

: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATIONAL
MANAGEMENT

Name and Address
of Institution

: Southern Luzon State University Lucban, Quezon,
Philippines and Thai Nguyen University, Socialist
Republic of Vietnam

Adviser

: Dr. Walberto A. Macaraan

Year Written
: 2014
______________________________________________________________
This study sought to find out the students’ satisfaction on the service
quality provided by different colleges of the Thai Nguyen University for school
year 2012-2013. Specifically, it aimed to identify the respondents’ profile in
terms of gender, age, origin, and monthly family income; determine the level
of students’ satisfaction on service quality of the Colleges as to instructional,
auxiliary, ancillary services and learning support facilities; find out the level of
students’ satisfaction on service quality in colleges with respect to tangibles,
responsiveness, reliability, assurance, and empathy; find out if there is any
significant difference considering students’ profile in their perceptions of the
service quality of different colleges of TNU; correlate students’ satisfaction in
service quality of the different colleges of TNU to their demographic profiles;
and propose a formation program to improve the service quality. This study
used descriptive design in analyzing the investigated variables. 382 students
were requested to answer the checklist questionnaire. The EDUSERVQUAL


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tool is designed to measure gap between perceptions and expectations to
service quality. Thus, it was found out that most respondents are females
(59%), 21 years old (66%), live in the village (48%), and have monthly family
income from 2,000,000 VND and below (44%). Students identify that the
significant gaps between perceived importance of service quality and their
actual experience are lower than expected. Largest gaps are reported in the
areas of “wifi network and internet service quality” (-0.95); “soft skills equipped
for the students” (-0.87); “audio visual/media center functions well” (-0.86);
“sincerity and interest of college to solve students’ problems”

(-0.84);

“college giving individual attention” (-0.83); “food services guaranteed by food
safety standards” (-0.82); “available book store and market” (-0.8); “college
integrity to what is promised” (-0.8). Gender and monthly family income have
significant correlation with that of students’ perceptions. There are significant
differences in student’s perception of nine colleges on instructional (IN) and
ancillary services (AN), learning support facilities (LE), tangibles (TA),
responsiveness (RE), reliability (R), assurance (A), and empathy (EM).
Moreover, the results also indicated that among the analyzed samples, 88.4%
of the DTE’s respondents were agree and strongly agree with their college’s
services, following by DTS’s respondents (87.2%), then DTU’s respondents
(82.5%), DTZ’s respondents (78%), DTK’s respondents (70.7%), DTN’s
respondents (66.6%), DTK’s respondents (66.0%), DTC’s respondents
(58.8%) and DTF’s respondents (36.8%). A formation program has been
proposed to improve the service quality. Hence, it is recommended that
similar studies may be conducted across public and private institutions of
higher education in the country to establish competitive benchmarks, to track


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poor service delivery and promote students’ satisfaction on service quality
measurement in all colleges/universities in Vietnam. The EDUSERVQUAL
tool may be used to further investigate perceptions and expectations held by
administrative staff, faculty, and students’ families in colleges.


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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

Education sector is becoming a service for people in which global and local
levels combine, thus standardized offer is modified by local specificities. Service
quality is put forward as the critical determinant of competitiveness (Lewis, 2009).
Most people often hear poor client service experience than good ones, and negative
word-of-mouth can have a devastating effect on an organization’s efforts to attract
new clients. Those clients who experienced poor service will often reveal their
experience to other people, therefore this may lead to reduction in potential and
permanent clients. Thus, good service quality is more likely to attract new as well as
maintain regular clients.
In colleges, students are considered as the “short-duration clients” and they
are the clients of education service. They play an active role in helping the college
identify the providers and improve service quality. Identifying the determinants of
service quality from the perception of the students being the major clients is
important, and one of a primary goal of higher education (HE) that should be done is
to develop the satisfaction of students (Al-alak, 2009).
Besides, during the last over two decades, measuring service quality in HE
has become increasingly important for attracting and retaining the tuition-based
returns (Angell et al., 2008). Therefore, it is vital for HE institutions to actively monitor
service quality and safeguard the interests of stakeholders through the fulfilment of
their real needs and wants. In order to attract the students, serve their needs and
retain them, Zeshan (2010) suggested that the service providers and researchers are


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actively involved in understanding students’ expectations and perceptions of service
quality.
In the current economic climate, education field is expanding rapidly all over
the world. HE is being driven toward the commercial competition by the development
of global education markets. Many HE institutions are giving serious thought to the
issue of service and performing some identifications of the service quality of
education that provided to the students, as well as the assessment of students’
satisfaction. Aside from that, universities/colleges are increasingly involved in a
ranking criteria (Al-alak, 2009). These rankings are increasingly disseminated with
great detail about the different components of overall score, and the issues that
frequently accompany the presentation of overall position of an institution often refer
to general climate on campus and level of students’ satisfaction.
In the context of Vietnam, Vietnam HE institutions cover undergraduate and
postgraduate studies (Vietnamese Education Law, 2012). Thai Nguyen University,
being one of the leading HE institution, is mandated to pursue the following: training
a high quality human resource, conducting researches on scientific technologies and
management, verifying and proposing solutions and sustainable development
policies, and contributing to the socio-economic development of the region towards
industrialization and modernization. To become a world class university within
Vietnam and the Southeast Asia in providing HE in agriculture and forestry,
education, technology, economics, business administration, information and
communication technology, foreign languages, and medicine and pharmacy among
others. The study of students’ satisfaction on service quality provided by colleges of
TNU will help provide valuable information to present and future students in
determining where to study as well as administrators on how to improve the colleges
service quality.


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Background of the Study
The important role of service industries is increasing in line with the
development of economy in many countries (Pham Ngoc Thuy & Le Nguyen Hau,
2010). In the last two decades, Vietnam has been trying to integrate into the world.
The only way to develop and prosper for Vietnam is to be open to the world, and
education is no exception. Hence, the country’s HE institutions have to address
teaching effectiveness, facilities, relevance of coursework, curriculum and the
general learning environment of the universities/colleges which can be valuable
benchmarks for decision-makers about how to improve the quality of the institutions
and training programs.
However, in Vietnam there are still many barriers on the educational
development (MOET, 2005; Ngo, 2006): lack of financial resources, very high level of
centralization, and concentration of enrolment in only few academic disciplines due to
limited provision and the student/teacher ratio (30:1).
TNU is not standing apart from the context of its country because there are
still challenges facing TNU. As observed by the researcher, there are currently many
factors that crucially affect the quality of education, such as a passive teaching
method,

shortage

of

teaching

staff,

poor

teaching

materials,

inadequate

infrastructure, and lack of experience in education management. Large class sizes
likewise create challenges for teachers as well as for the management to update and
innovate methods of teaching, counseling, skills training and teamwork. Laboratory,
library, classrooms and playgrounds are not appropriately invested. The soft skills
training as well as practice activities have not been given due attention. Curricula are
less suitable for professional demanding practice. These limitations can be a major
influence on the student satisfaction of services and quality of training as well as
college's reputation.


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The lack of student feedback survey yearly suggests that the colleges are
less concerned with responding to student needs. At colleges of TNU, an annual
overall statistical analysis of student performance and satisfaction is seldom done,
and no tool was developed to determine student’s perceptions on service quality
provided corresponding to their expectation and needs on learning and teaching,
support facilities (library, computer units and laboratory facilities), learning
environment (rooms of lectures, laboratories, social space), support facilities (health
facilities, refectories, student accommodation, student services) and other external
aspects (such as finance, transportation). It has become necessary to invest in a tool
that will measure the students’ learning experience in order to maintain or improve
the service quality provision in the colleges, to attract and sustain good students and
maintain their commitment and reputation of the colleges.
Aiming at the holistic growth of colleges, service quality improvement of
colleges would likely satisfy students’ demands. As a result, the assessment of
students’ satisfaction on service quality in HE may provide contribution that may be
useful for management, faculty and staff members of TNU and other colleges in the
region to continuously improve quality of education imposed and required by quality
standards.
Cognizance of the present condition of TNU including its strengths and
weaknesses, the researcher was prompted to conduct a study on students’
satisfaction on service quality provided by colleges of Thai Nguyen University with an
end-view of proposing a formation program.

Objectives of the Study


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This study sought to find out the students’ satisfaction on the service quality
provided by different colleges of the Thai Nguyen University.
Specifically, it is aimed to:
1. Identify the profile of the respondents in terms of the following:
1.1. Gender;
1.2. Age;
1.3. Origin; and
1.4. Monthly Family Income.
2. Determine the level of students’ satisfaction on the service quality of the Colleges
in terms of:
2.1. Instructional Services;
2.2. Auxiliary Services;
2.3. Ancillary Services; and
2.4. Learning Support Facilities.
3. Find out the extent of students’ satisfaction on the service quality in colleges in
terms of the following:
3.1. Tangibles;
3.2. Responsiveness;
3.3. Reliability;
3.4. Assurance; and
3.5. Empathy.


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4. Find out if there is any significant difference considering students’ profile in their
perceptions of the service quality of different colleges of TNU.
5. Correlate students’ satisfaction in service quality of the different colleges of TNU to
their demographic profiles.
6. Propose a formation program to improve the service quality.

Null Hypothesis
There is no significant difference between students’ profiles and their
perceptions of the service quality provided by different colleges of TNU.
There is no significant relationship between students’ profiles and their
perceptions of the service quality provided by different colleges of TNU.

Significance of the Study
This study attempted to determine students’ satisfaction on the service quality
of different colleges of TNU and findings would help TNU understand service quality
components. The study also made students as the first beneficiary of my study
because they are the first group to be benefited. It would particularly be beneficial to
the following:
Administrators. It is hoped that the study may contribute in giving new
dimension in administration and supervision of colleges to improve students’
satisfaction on service quality. The study would provide administrators with a clear
idea on how beneficial is improving the service quality such as learning environment
which includes good infrastructure, instructional, auxiliary and ancillary services, and
learning support facilities. It would help administrators answer the questions on how


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to improve service quality in their colleges. In the same manner, its position and
prestige could be improved in the society and make TNU globally competitive as to
its services.
Teachers. The outcome of this research is a great help to the teachers
because it is not only necessary to be good at theory but also have suitable skill to
the teaching practice. Good teaching and learning environment and the service
quality will provide good conditions for teachers to approach modern technology, to
update teaching methods in the classroom as to group work, role playing, and
outdoor activities, to help students to be more creative.
Students. They would be benefited through this study since they are main
concerns of educators and any wholesome environment and relationship could
create positive effect to the teaching and learning process. In this way, achievements
of students may be improved and safe, orderly and conducive environment may be
maintained. The students may develop their knowledge, skills, attitudes and other
soft skills during their study.
Parents. The study could make parents know more about the colleges where
their children will choose and enroll in the future. The trust of parents with the college
could be built through the college’s reputation.
Government. It is hoped that the government could change the educational
policies to meet and fit the requirements and expectations of the learners and the
society, specially in rural and remote areas.
Future Researcher. Using EDUSERVQUAL tool to reveal perceptions and
expectations held by the administrative staff, faculty, students’ families in colleges of
Thai Nguyen University. Formulating social policies, encouraging individuals and
organizations to invest and support the training process in the colleges may also be
part of their future and parallel studies.


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Scope and Limitation
The primary intent of this study was to investigate students’ satisfaction on
service quality provided by the different colleges of TNU year 2012 -2013. There
were 382 third year college students used as respondents of the study.
The study focused on services provided in colleges of TNU in terms of
instructional, auxiliary and ancillary services, and learning support facilities. Students’
satisfaction dimensions concentrated on tangibles, responsiveness, reliability,
assurance, and empathy. Moreover, the study aimed at revealing any significant
difference considering the students’ profile in their perceptions of the service quality
of different colleges of TNU and correlating the students’ satisfaction in service
quality of different colleges of TNU to their demographic profiles to propose formation
program for the improvement of service quality.
Measurement of TNU colleges’ service quality was limited to the use of
descriptive method and checklist questionnaire. Data gathered were analyzed using
statistical tools such as frequency and percentage, weighted mean and chi-square.
The time frame of this study was from March 2013 to May 2014.

Definition of Terms
For clarity and better understanding of the study, the following terms are
defined both conceptually and operationally.
Age refers to one of the demographic profile dimensions which classifies the
students-respondents into 21 to 25 years old.


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Assurance (A) is defined as employees’ knowledge and courtesy and the ability of
firm and its employees to inspire trust and confidence. It refers to the service
quality parameters which entail university to build trust and loyalty between
college faculty and employees and individual students (Parasuraman et al.,
2008).
College pertains to one of the departments in Thai Nguyen University which caters
various courses. In this study, there are nine colleges subjected for evaluating
the service quality.
Dimension is one of the aspects, attributes, elements, or factors that make up an
entity,

item,

phenomenon,

or

situation.

(http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/dimension.html#ixzz3BMeFFP2
9).
DTC is College of Information and Communication Technology.
DTE is College of Economic and Business Administration.
DTF is College of Foreign Languages.
DTK is College of Engineering and Technology.
DTN is College of Agriculture and Forestry.
DTU is College of Economics and Techniques.
DTS is College of Education.
DTY is College of Medicine and Pharmacy.
DTZ is College of Sciences and Humanity.
Eduservqual (short form of Educational Service Quality) is the tool to measure
Educational Service Quality Dimensions in this study.


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Empathy (EM) is defined as caring, individualized attention that the firm provides to
its students. This service quality dimension suggests that the students need
to feel understood by, and important to, institutions that provide service to
them (Parasuraman, et al., 2008).
Family income is another demographic profile dimension which refers to the total
compensation received by all family members living in the same household.
Compensation may include wages, pensions, capital gains, remunerations
and dividends (Wikipedia, 2013).
Formation Program is a type of activity like seminar-workshop or prototype to
further uplift the service quality of college administrators, faculty and staff. It
would be the material/program to be produced based on the result of the
study to improve the service quality in colleges of TNU.
Gender refers to another demographic profile which pertains to the physical, mental,
and behavioral characteristics as to masculinity and femininity. Depending on
the context, the term may refer to biological sex (i.e. the state of being male,
female or inter-sex), sex-based social structures (including gender and
other social roles), gender identity (Wikipedia, free encyclopedia).

Higher Education is a stage of learning that occurs at universities, colleges,
academies, seminaries, and institutes of technology. HE also includes
certain college-level institutions, such as the vocational schools, trade
schools, and career colleges that award the academic degrees and
professional certifications. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).
Instructional Services (IN) are designed instruction and accommodations by the
special education instructional personnel to the eligible individuals. The
instructional services is dedicated to helping under-prepared prepare,
prepared advance, and advanced excel (http://usu.edu/teachall/text/iep


25
/IEPglos.htm).
Origin refers to the beginning of something's existence or the person's social
background or ancestry. In this study, it is the type of locality where the
students come from – such as city, town, village or mountainous area.
Quality is defined as ‘conforming to the requirements’ (Crosby, 2004), ‘fitness for
use’ (Juran, 2002), ‘global judgment or attitude to overall superiority of the
service’ (Parasuraman, et al., 2008), ‘the extent to which service, and
organization can satisfy user’s expectations (Kasper et al., 2009).
Reliability (R) refers to the service quality which relates to the ability to perform the
promised service dependably and accurately. This means that the
organization delivers on its promises regarding service provision, and
problem resolution (Parasuraman et al., 2008).
Responsiveness (RE) is defined as willingness or readiness of employees to help
customers and provide prompt service. This service quality dimension
stresses attentiveness in dealing with the clients’ requests, questions,
complaints, and problems (Parasuraman et al., 2008).
Satisfaction is a consumer’s post purchase evaluation of the overall service
experience (process and outcome). It is an affective (emotion) state of feeling
reaction in which consumer’s needs, desires and expectations during the
course of service experiences have been met or exceeded” (Hunt, 2007).
Zeithaml et al. (2010) defined satisfaction as an overall judgment, perception
or attitude on superiority of service. It is based on discrepancy between
clients’ expectations and actual experiences.
Service is defined as “the production of essentially intangible benefit, either in its
right or as significant element of tangible products, which through some form


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