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Capitalization and punctuation english in context

ENGLISH
in context

CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION
GRAMMAR AND USAGE
READING COMPREHENSION
SPELLING
VOCABULARY
WRITING

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ENGLISH
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ENGLISH
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ENGLISH
iin
n ccontext
o n te x t

CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION
GRAMMAR AND USAGE
READING COMPREHENSION
SPELLING
VOCABULARY
WRITING

Development and Production: Laurel Associates, Inc.
Cover Art: Elisa Ligon

SADDLEBACK EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHING
Three Watson
Irvine, CA 92618-2767
Website: www.sdlback.com

Copyright © 2000 by Saddleback Educational Publishing. All rights reserved. No
part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage
and retrieval system, without the written permission of the publisher.
ISBN 1-56254-350-4
Printed in the United States of America
05 04 03 02 01 00
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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CONTENTS
Introduction ............................

5

UNIT 1 Capitalization Overview .......

6

LESSON

1 First Word in a Sentence .................

6

2 First Word in a Direct Quotation .......

8

3 Greetings and Closings in Letters ....

10

UNIT 4 Names of Things ...............

42

16 Brand Names .............................

42

17 Organizations and Religions ..........

44

18 Titles of Works ...........................

46

19 Days, Months, and Holidays ..........

48

4 The Personal Pronoun I and
Interjection O ..........................

12

Unit 4 Review ........................... 50

5 Outlines ....................................

14

6 Proper Nouns .............................

16

Unit 1–4 Review: Capitalization
in Context ............................ 52

Unit 1 Review ........................... 18

UNIT 2 Names of People ...............

20

7 Names and Initials .......................

20

8 Personal and Professional Titles .....

22

9 Titles of Relationship ...................

24

10 Nationalities and Languages ..........

26

UNIT 5 End Punctuation ...............

58

20 Periods .....................................

58

21 Question Marks ..........................

60

22 Exclamation Points ......................

62

23 Periods with Abbreviations
and Initials .............................

64

Unit 5 Review ........................... 66

Unit 2 Review ........................... 28

UNIT 6 Commas ...........................

68

24 Separating Items in a Series ..........

68

UNIT 3 Names of Places ...............

30

11 Names of Cities and Towns ...........

30

25 Separating Parts of Addresses
and Dates ..............................

70

12 Names of States, Countries,
and Continents ........................

32

26 Connecting Parts of Compound
Sentences ..............................

72

13 Geographic Names ......................

34

27 Setting Off Introductory Words ......

74

14 Words Formed from Place Names ..

36

15 Direction Words ..........................

38

28 Setting Off Separate Thoughts
or Explanations .......................

76

Unit 3 Review ........................... 40

Unit 6 Review ........................... 78
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UNIT 7 Apostrophes and
Quotation Marks .............

80

29 Apostrophes to Show Ownership ....

80

35 Ellipses and Slashes .....................

94

30 Apostrophes for Missing Letters .....

82

36 Parentheses and Brackets .............

96

Unit 8 Review ........................... 98

31 Quotation Marks for Direct
Quotations .............................

84

32 Special Uses of Quotation Marks ....

86

Unit 7 Review ........................... 88

UNIT 8 Special Punctuation ..........

90

33 Colons and Semicolons ................

90

34 Hyphens and Dashes ...................

92

Units 5–8 Review: Punctuation
in Context .......................... 100
Units 1–8 Review: Capitalization
and Punctuation in Context . 104

Reference Guide ...............

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106


INTRODUCTION
Why are capitalization and punctuation important? The
answer will be clear when you try to read the following
paragraph.

what makes a good rodeo rider great you could
take ten champions all with determination and heart
what youd find in all of them is a lot of try thats it
theyve got to put forth a lot of effort theyve got to
have try said ty murray the youngest man ever to be
named world champion rodeo cowboy.
Notice how much easier it is to read the paragraph when
the words have been correctly capitalized and punctuated.

What makes a good rodeo rider great? “You could
take ten champions, all with determination and heart.
What you’d find in all of them is a lot of try. That’s
it. They’ve got to put forth a lot of effort. They’ve
got to have try,” said Ty Murray, the youngest man
ever to be named world champion rodeo cowboy.
Every time you communicate in writing, you need solid
capitalization and punctuation skills. As you noticed in
comparing the two paragraphs, these skills help you get through
to your reader. Proper punctuation ensures that your message
and meaning will be delivered without confusion. To clarify
your meaning even further, proper use of capital letters draws
attention to words that need to be emphasized.

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UNIT

CAPITALIZATION OVERVIEW
FOR HELP WITH THIS UNIT, SEE THE REFERENCE GUIDE, RULES 1–6.

1

1

FIRST WORD IN A SENTENCE
Each letter in the alphabet has two forms, capital and lowercase.
CAPITAL LETTERS:

A BC D E F G H I J K L M N O PQ R S T U V W X Y Z
A BC D E F GHI JK L M N O PQ R ST UVW X Y Z
LOWERCASE LETTERS:

a bc d e f gh i j k l mn o pq r s t u v w x y z
a bc d e f g h i j k l mn o pq r s t uv w x y z
Begin the first word in every sentence with a capital letter.

A
If the sentence is capitalized correctly, write correct on the line.
If you find an error, rewrite the sentence correctly.

1. the appearance of the sky can change very quickly.
____________________________________________________________________
2. Storm clouds can rapidly turn the sky dark.
____________________________________________________________________
3. big f luffy clouds remind me of pillows.
____________________________________________________________________
4. once I saw a cloud that looked like a waterfall.
____________________________________________________________________
5. Yesterday the sunset was especially beautiful.
____________________________________________________________________
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!

TROUBLESHOOTER

1

How do you show that a lowercase letter
should be capitalized? A proofreader draws
three lines under it, like this:

t here are about ten different kinds of clouds.

B
Circle the word that correctly completes
each sentence. Write it on the line.

1. ( Clouds / clouds ) __________________ that
are wispy, curly, or stringy are called cirrus clouds.
2. ( If / if ) __________________ a cloud is layered and flat on
the bottom, it is called a stratus cloud.
3. ( Cumulus / cumulus ) __________________ clouds look lumpy,
puffy, or heaped.
4. ( Usually / usually ) __________________, cirrus clouds mean
that fair weather is ahead.
5. ( Gray / gray ) __________________ layers of stratus clouds
can stretch across the entire sky.

C
First mark the errors. Then rewrite the paragraph correctly.

we usually think of rainwater as clear and pure. the truth is that
each raindrop forms around a tiny impurity. it might be a speck of salt
from the ocean or a tiny grain of sand. other possibilities include meteor
dust or bits of air pollution. raindrops form around each speck.
_____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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2

FIRST WORD IN A DIRECT QUOTATION
Begin the first word in a direct quotation with a capital letter. If the
quotation is divided, do not begin the second part with a capital letter
unless the second part is a new sentence.
EXAMPLES:

Kalika said, “Let’s take a nature hike today.”
“The skyline trail,” said Pancho, “is very scenic.”
“Let’s go,” Kalika said. “The weather’s perfect!”

A
Circle the word that correctly completes each sentence.
Then write it on the line.

1. “Did you know,” asked Jerome, (“ That / “that ) __________________
Thomas Edison is sometimes called the world’s greatest inventor?”
2. Ellen answered, (“ Yes / “yes ) __________________, I did.”
3. “In fact,” Ellen continued, (“He / “he ) __________________ patented
1,093 inventions in 60 years.”
4. Jerome said, (“No / “no ) __________________ other person ever
invented so many things.”
5. “I read,” Jerome went on, (“About / “about ) __________________
his work habits.”
6. Ellen commented, (“When / “when ) __________________ he was
working, he would take only short naps.”
7. Jerome asked, (“Wouldn’t / “ wouldn’t ) __________________ you think
he’d rather have a good night’s sleep?”

B
Find the word in the box that correctly completes each sentence.
Then write it on the line.
Is / is

There / there

What / what

1. “Genius,” said Edison, “____________ one percent inspiration
and 99 percent perspiration.”
2. He also said, “____________ is no substitute for hard work.”
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3. Pamela asked, “____________ Edison the best role model for
young scientists?”
4. “I think,” answered Rodney, “____________ are many good role models.”
5. “Have you ever wondered,” asked Pamela, “____________ we would do
without telephones?”
6. “Yes, I have,” Rodney responded. “____________ do you think is
Edison’s most important invention?”

!

TROUBLESHOOTER

How do you show that a capital letter should be made lowercase?
A proofreader draws a slanted line through it, like this:

“I heard,” said Sachi, “T hat Edison had little time for social life.”

C
Mark the errors before rewriting the sentences.

1. “All problems,” said Jake, “Interested Edison.”
____________________________________________________________________
2. “To find a solution,” Jake continued, “He would try everything.”
____________________________________________________________________
3. “Edison was the first,” said Mina, “To establish the team concept of
working on problems.”
____________________________________________________________________
4. “Before Edison’s time,” she added, “Experts did not usually work
together to develop ideas.”
____________________________________________________________________
5. “As you know,” Mina went on, “Today it is standard practice to work in
teams.”
____________________________________________________________________
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3

GREETINGS AND CLOSINGS IN LETTERS
Begin the first word in the greeting and the closing of a letter with a
capital letter.
EXAMPLE:

D ear John,
T ruly yours,

A
Choose the word or words that correctly complete the greeting or
closing. Write the answer on the line.

1. __________________ Mr. Easton:

6. ______________________ nephew,

( Dear / dear )

( Your loving / your Loving )

2. _______________________ yours,

7. _____________________ Angelina,

( Sincerely / sincerely )

( my Dearest / My dearest )

3. __________________ Ms. Costello:

8. ________________________ ,

( My Dear / My dear )

( Sincerely / sincerely )

4. ______________________ sincerely,

9. _______________________ yours,

( Yours Very / Yours very )

( Very truly / Very Truly )

5. __________________, Grandma!

10. ______________________ you,

( H i / hi )

( Missing / missing )

B
Write a word from the box to correctly complete each greeting or closing.
Dear

dear

Sincerely

sincerely

Truly

Your

yours

1. __________________ Mr. Napoli:

5. Most __________________,

2. __________________ yours,

6. __________________,

3. Sincerely __________________,

7. Very __________________ yours,

4. My ________________ Ms. Hiatte:

8. __________________ loving niece,

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truly

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3

!

TROUBLESHOOTER

Remember:

a,

To show that a capital letter should
be lowercase, draw a slanted line
through it, like this:
ar
Gr
Ho
an

dm

Sincerely Yours,
De

To show that a lowercase letter
should be a capital letter, draw
three lines under it, like this:

dear Mr. Jones:

C
Mark each error. Then rewrite the greeting or
closing correctly on the line.

1. dear Kwan,
______________________________
2. Yours Very Truly,
______________________________
3. my Dearest Elizabeth,
______________________________
4. dear Dr. Carpenter:
______________________________
5. Your Loving Grandson,
______________________________

6. To Whom It May Concern:
______________________________
7. cordially Yours,
______________________________
8. hi, aunt Evelyn,
______________________________
9. until We Meet Again,
______________________________
10. greetings, citizens,
______________________________
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4

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN I AND INTERJECTION O
Always capitalize the pronoun I. (Do not capitalize the first letter
of other personal pronouns, such as it and she, unless the pronoun
begins a sentence.)
Always capitalize the interjection O. (Do not capitalize the word
oh unless it begins a sentence.)
EXAMPLES:

I will read you my line in the school play.
“Hear our plea, O mighty king!”
There are oh so many rehearsals scheduled.

A
If the sentence is correct, write C on the line. If the sentence is
not correct, rewrite it correctly.

1. After hearing your story, i have changed my mind.
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Did You know that i got a new job last month?
_____________________________________________________________________
3. The people, o gracious queen, offer You these gifts.
_____________________________________________________________________
4. I remained silent, yet Oh how angry i was.
_____________________________________________________________________

B
Choose the word that correctly completes the sentence.
Write it on the line.

1. On my trip, ( I / i ) __________ learned that Greenland is not really green.
2. Did ( You / you ) ____________know that only its coast is green?
3. Most of Greenland, ( I / i ) learned, is covered by ice and snow.
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4

!

TROUBLESHOOTER

Remember:
To show that a capital letter should be lowercase, draw a slanted
line through it, like this:

There were Oh so many colors in the sunset.
To show that a lowercase letter should be capitalized, draw
three lines under it, like this:

It is true that i have rose-colored sunglasses.

C
Mark the errors in this paragraph. Then rewrite the paragraph
correctly on the lines.

To entertain the king, i told him this story. “Yesterday i learned
the difference between a stalactite and a stalagmite. These are the
oh so beautiful stone columns that form in caves. This might interest
You, o mighty king. Stalactites, i was told, hang down from the roof
of a cave. Stalagmites grow up from the floor. When They meet, they
form a pillar of stone.
_____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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5

OUTLINES
An outline is the framework for a paragraph or a longer
composition. It shows the major and minor points to be covered.
Topics, subtopics, and details are not written as full sentences.
To begin an outline for a paragraph of your own, first write the
title at the top of your page. Then write the Roman numeral I
before the first topic. For subtopics under Roman numerals, use
capital letters. For details under the capital letters, use Arabic
numerals. For details under Arabic numerals, use lowercase letters.
Use a capital letter for the first word in each entry.
EXAMPLE:

A Typical Weekday
I. Before school
A. Waking up early
1. Getting ready for school
a. Deciding what to wear
b. Fixing and eating breakfast

A
Read the partial outline below. Circle the word or letter that correctly
completes each topic entry. Then write it on the line.

I. ____________________ care of my dog ( Taking / taking )
A. _____________________ the dog ( Feeding / feeding )
1. Filling the _______________ bowl ( Water / water )
2. Filling the _________________ bowl ( kibble / Kibble )
___. Grooming my dog ( B / b )
1. _______________ the dog daily

( Brushing / brushing )

2. _______________ the dog monthly ( Bathing / bathing )
___. Where I bathe the dog ( A / a )
b. _______________ I bathe the dog
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( How / how )


5

!

TROUBLESHOOTER

Remember the error correction marks:

A. movies with animal characters

a. My Favorite movies

B
Mark the errors before rewriting the outline.

Seasons Of The Year
I. Winter

____________________________________________
___. ________________________________________

A. Things to Wear

___. ___________________________________

1. when it is raining

___. _____________________________

a. Raincoats

___. _______________________

B. rain boots

___. _______________________

2. When it is Snowing

___. _____________________________

A. Boots and gloves

___. _______________________

b. hats and coats

___. _______________________

b. Things to do

___. ___________________________________

1. go ice skating

___. _____________________________

2. Build a Fire

___. _____________________________

II. summer

___. ________________________________________

a. Things to wear
1. When it is Sunny

___. ___________________________________
___. _____________________________

A. sunscreen

___. _______________________

b. sunglasses

___. _______________________
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6

PROPER NOUNS
A proper noun names a particular person, place, or thing. Begin a
proper noun with a capital letter. A common noun names any
person, place, or thing. Do not begin a common noun with a capital
letter unless it is the first word in a sentence.
EXAMPLES:

Central Library, Gloria, Pacific Ocean,
Crestview Middle School (proper nouns)
building, aunt, ocean, school (common nouns)

A
If the noun is correct as written, write C on the line. If not,
write it correctly.

1. ___________________________ state
2. ___________________________ country
3. ___________________________ girl
4. ___________________________ Boy
5. ___________________________ river
6. ___________________________ Alabama
7. ___________________________ United States
8. ___________________________ cynthia
9. ___________________________ Roberto
10. ___________________________ mississippi river

B
Choose the word that correctly completes each sentence.
Write it on the line.

1. Luis is Clarice’s older ( brother / Brother ) _________________________.
2. Clarice’s best friend is ( Anna / anna ) _________________________.
3. Luis plays ( baseball / Baseball ) _________________________ after school.
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4. His team’s name is the ( Tigers / tigers ) _________________________.
5. Some elephants in our zoo are from
( Africa / africa ) _________________________.
6. My favorite zoo attraction is the ( monkey / Monkey )
_________________________ exhibit.
7. The funniest monkey is named
( buster / Buster ) _________________________.
8. One ( kangaroo / Kangaroo ) _________________________
carried a baby in her pouch.
9. We named it ( Joey / joey ) _________________________,
not knowing that ( Joey / joey ) _________________________
is what a baby kangaroo is called.

C
Complete each sentence with a proper noun. Don’t forget to
capitalize it!

1. My full name is ____________________________________________________.
2. I have a friend whose name is _______________________________________.
3. We live in the state of ______________________________________________.
4. The name of the street where I live is ________________________________.
5. The nearest body of water is ________________________________________.
6. If I had a pet iguana, I would name it ________________________________.
7. My favorite name for a dog is ________________________________________.
8. A good name for a cat is ____________________________________________.
9. We called our beautiful canary ______________________________________.
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1
A

UNIT REVIEW
Circle the word that correctly completes each sentence.
Then write it on the line.
1. ( Have / have ) __________________ you ever been to a ballet?
2. The ballet dancer said, “( There / there ) __________________ is a
trick to keep from getting dizzy.”
3. “When you turn your body,” she continued, “( You / you ) _______________
hold your head still.”
4. “( Of / of ) ____________ course, at some point, you must turn your head
around quickly,” she laughed.
5. “ This is a trick ( I / i ) __________ learned long ago,” she concluded.
6. Last year, my family went to see a ballet in ( San Francisco /
san francisco ) _____________________________.
7. Swan Lake is one of my favorite ( Ballets / ballets ) ____________________.

B

Choose a word or letter from the box to correctly complete each sentence
or group of words. Then write it on the line.
A

a.

Your

yours

O

oh

When

1. Hear us, ______________ mighty one!
2. ______________ devoted nephew,
3. I. Desserts
______________. Cold desserts
4. There were ______________ so many ants at the picnic.
5. Alice asked the queen, “______________ can I go home?”
6. “You may go home,” said the queen, “______________ I decide.”
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when


1
7. II. Beverages
A. Health drinks
1. Juices
______________ Citrus juices
8. Sincerely ______________,
C

Mark the errors before rewriting the letter.
dear Grandma,
thanks for coming to visit last week. Sarah and i really enjoyed
seeing you. After you left, sarah asked, “when is Grandma coming
to visit again?”
“The only way to find out,” I told her, “Is to ask her.” That is why
I am writing this letter. Please write back soon and tell us When we
can expect you.
Your Affectionate Granddaughter,
Amy
___________________________
____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
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UNIT

NAMES OF PEOPLE
FOR HELP WITH THIS UNIT, SEE THE REFERENCE GUIDE, RULES 7–10.

7

2

NAMES AND INITIALS
Capitalize people’s names and initials.
EXAMPLES:

My cousin’s name is Patrick Mahoney.
Patrick ’s sister, Erin G. Mahoney, has red hair.

A
Circle the answer that correctly completes each sentence.
Then write it on the line.

1. My friend ( Roland / roland ) ___________________ has a great new bike.
2. After the long meeting, ( Suzanne / suzanne ) ______________________
was tired and angry.
3. One of my favorite writers is ( E. L. Konigsburg / e. l. konigsburg )
_____________________________________.
4. We went to the art museum to see paintings by ( Mary Cassatt /
mary cassatt ) _____________________________.
5. ( Susan B. Anthony / Susan b. Anthony ) _____________________________
helped women get the right to vote.
6. She worked for women’s rights along with ( Elizabeth Cady Stanton /
elizabeth cady stanton ) ________________________________________.

B
Answer each question. Remember to capitalize all names and initials.

1. What is your mother’s full name? ____________________________________
2. What is the name of a friend of yours? _______________________________
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3. Who is your favorite singer? _________________________________________
4. Who is your favorite actor or actress? _________________________________
5. Carol Murphy’s middle name is Diane. How would she write her full
name, using her middle initial? ______________________________________
6. A boy named Richard has the last name of Garcia.
His middle name is Dominic. How would he write
his full name, using his middle initial? ________________________________

!

TROUBLESHOOTER

Remember how to show that a lowercase letter should be made capital:

“Mark Twain” was the pen name of Samuel l. clemens.

C
Mark the errors before rewriting the sentences correctly.

1. Carla f. johnson is a new student in our class.
_____________________________________________________________________
2. Carla has quickly become friends with suzy q. morgan.
_____________________________________________________________________
3. Both Suzy and carla like books by mildred D. taylor.
_____________________________________________________________________
4. They also like to listen to the music of celine dion.
_____________________________________________________________________
5. The two friends take music lessons from James b. tyson.
_____________________________________________________________________
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8

PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL TITLES
Begin the title that precedes a person’s name with a capital letter.
EXAMPLES:

Mr. James Monroe

Governor Margaret Smith

Do not use a capital letter if a title is not used before a person’s name.
EXAMPLES:

Do you have an appointment with the doctor?
The mayor of our city is only 28 years old.

A
Circle the word that correctly completes each sentence.
Then write it on the line.

1. A beautiful flower is named after ( Queen / queen ) _________________
Anne of England.
2. She became the ( Queen / queen ) _________________ of England after
marrying Richard II in 1382.
3. In Nigeria, the United States is represented by ( Ambassador /
ambassador ) ________________________ William H. Twaddell.
4. I wonder what an ( Ambassador / ambassador ) ________________________
does in a typical day.
5. The army recruits were trained by ( Sergeant / sergeant )
__________________________ John Timoney.
6. A ( Sergeant / sergeant ) __________________________ earns more
money than a corporal.

B
Write a word from the box to correctly complete each sentence.
doctor

Doctor

major general

Major General

president

President

1. When she went to the emergency room, Caroline was examined
by _____________________________ Linda Horvath.
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2. Linda Horvath had wanted to be a _____________________________
ever since she was in grade school.
3. A _____________________________ in the army wears two silver stars.
4. We had lunch with _____________________________ Arthur S. Goodman.
5. The _____________________________ of the university gave the
opening speech.
6. The opening speech was given by _____________________________
Katherine B. Free.

C
Mark the errors before rewriting the sentences correctly.

1. The suit worn by senator Dianne Feinstein was very stylish.
____________________________________________________________________
2. The Senator’s suit, scarf, and shoes were red.
____________________________________________________________________
3. The Doctor will see you now.
____________________________________________________________________
4. Our family has always gone to doctor Lawrence Finley.
____________________________________________________________________
5. In 1998, Bill Owens was elected Governor of Colorado.
____________________________________________________________________
6. Wes met governor Bill Owens on Friday.
____________________________________________________________________
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9

TITLES OF RELATIONSHIP
A word like aunt or grandpa may be used as a person’s name or as part
of a person’s name. Begin this kind of word with a capital letter.
EXAMPLES:

Only Aunt Alice and Grandpa call me by that nickname.

Sometimes a possessive pronoun comes before a word like aunt or
grandpa. In this case, do not begin the family title with a capital letter.
EXAMPLES:

Only my aunt and my grandpa call me by that nickname.

A
Circle the word that correctly completes each sentence.
Then write it on the line.

1. My ( Aunt / aunt ) _______________ has a brother named Garfunkel.
2. I don’t call him ( Uncle / uncle ) _________________ Garfunkel, though.
3. He likes to be called ( Uncle / uncle ) _________________ Gar instead.
4. My ( Cousins / cousins ) ___________________ and I don’t blame him!
5. When ( Cousin / cousin ) ___________________ Jill was visiting, we
went snowboarding.
6. We had gone to see our ( Grandma / grandma ) _____________________
in Lake Tahoe.
7. Every time we visit, ( Grandma / grandma ) _____________________
is glad to see us.

B
Write a word from the box to correctly complete each sentence.
Mom

mom

Brother

brother

Grandma

grandma

1. Last year, for a mother-daughter vacation, my __________________
and I took a long train ride.
2. When I said, “Let’s go again next year, __________________,” she said yes.
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3/1/07, 7:45 PM


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