CHUYÊN ĐỀ 11
GIỚI TỪ (PREPOSITIONS)
* PHẦN I: LÝ THUYẾT
Giới từ là từ hay cụm từ thường được dùng trước danh từ hay đại từ để chỉ mối liên hệ giữa các từ này với
các thành phần khác trong câu.
B. Kinds of prepositions
I. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME: (Giới từ chỉ thời gian)
On Sunday (morning) / 25th April / New Year’s Day …
On holiday / business / duty / a trip / an excursion / fire / sale / a diet…
In April / 1980
In summer / spring / autumn / winter
In five minutes / a few days / two years
In the morning / afternoon / evening
At 8 o’clock / the weekend / night / Christmas
At the end of... / at the age of
• From... to...
From 1977 to 1985
Since 1985 / Monday / 2 o’clock
For three days / a long time / one hour.
II. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE: (Giới từ chỉ nơi chốn, địa điểm)
On a table / a wall / a bus / a train / a plane / the floor / a horse / television / the radio / the
In a garden / a park / a town / the water / my office / hospital / a car
In the middle of...
At home / work / school / university / the station / the airport / a concert / a party / a football match
At 10 Pasteur Street
By car / bus / plane (on foot)
By accident / chance: tình cờ, ngẫu nhiên
For a walk / a swim / a drink
For breakfast / lunch / dinner
(*) SOME OTHER PREPOSITIONS:
: từ … Ex: I am from Vietnam, I get the book from the man
From … to …: từ … đến. Ex: From 4 o’clock to 6 o’clock; from my house to school
Next to = near
: ở cạnh
Ex: I live near her house
: ở phía sau Ex: the shop is behind the postoffice
In front of
: ở trước
Ex: my house is in front of the school
: ở trên
Ex:the book is on the table
: ở dưới
Ex: the pen is under the book
In the middle of
: ở giữa.
Ex:the tree is in the middle of the yard
: ở trong
Ex: he is in the room
: ở ngoài
Ex: he is out of the room
: đối diện
Ex: my house is opposite the shop
III. VERB + NOUN + PREP: (Động từ + danh từ + giới từ)
- give way to : nhượng bộ, chịu thua
- give place to : nhường chỗ cho
- catch sight of
- keep pace with
: thoáng thấy
: theo kịp
- lose sight of : mất hút, không nhìn thấy nữa
- lose track of : mất dấu vết
- lose touch with: mất liên lạc với
- make allowance for: xẫt đến, chiếu cố
- make use of : dùng, tận dụng
- make fun of : chọc ghẹo, chế nhạo
- make room for: dọn chỗ cho
- make a fuss over / about: làm om xòm về
- pay attention to : chú ý đến
- put a stop to
: put an end to: chấm dứt
- set fire to: burn : phóng hỏa
- take advantage of : lợi dụng
- take care of
: chăm sóc
- take account of : quan tâm tới, lưu ý tới
- take note of
: lưu ý đến
- take notice of
: chú ý thấy, nhận thấy
IV. VERB + PREP: (Động từ + giới từ)
1. VERB + TO
- apologize to sb for sth
- belong to
- complain to sb about sb / sth
- happen to
- introduce to
- listen to
- speak / talk to sb
- write to
- prefer... to...
- explain... to...
- invite... to...
2. VERB + FOR
- apply for
- care for
- pay for
- look for
- wait for
- blame... for
- leave... for
- search... for
- ask... for
3. VERB + ABOUT
- care about
- dream about sb / sth
- think about
- hear about: be told about
- warn... about
4. VERB + ON
- concentrate on / focus on
- depend on / rely on
- live on
- congratulate... on
5. VERB + OF
- consist of
- die of
- take care of
- accuse... of
6. VERB + AT
- laugh at / smile at
- shout at
- look at / stare at / glance at
- point at / aim at
- spend... on
- remind... of
7. VERB + IN
- succeed in
- arrive in / at
8. VERB + WITH
- provide... with
- charge... with
9. VERB + FROM
- suffer... from / borrow... from
- save / protect / prevent... from
V. ADJECTIVE + PREP: (Tính từ + giới từ)
1. ADJ + TO
2. ADJ + FOR
- accustomed to
- available for
- addicted to
- responsible for
- harmful to
- famous for
- similar to / agreeable to
- late for
- good / nice / kind / polite / rude /
…. to sb
- important to
3. ADJ + ABOUT
- angry about
- anxious about
- worried about
- excited about
4. ADJ + ON
- keen on
- dependent on
5. ADJ + OF
- afraid of / full of
- aware of / tired of
6. ADJ + AT
- surprised at
- quick at
- ashamed of
- capable of
- bad / good at
- brilliant at
8. ADJ + WITH
- equipped with
- bored with
- busy with
- acquainted with
9. ADJ + FROM
- different from
- absent from
- safe from
7. ADJ + IN
- confident in
- successful in
- interested in
- rich in
* PHẦN II: BÀI TẬP VẬN DỤNG
Choose the correct prepositions.
1. She was very surprised __________ the grade she received.
2. Tom’s grandfather died __________ 1977 __________ the age of 79.
3. Jane doesn't spend much money __________ clothes.
4. She always takes good care __________ her children.
5. There are usually a lot of parties__________ New Year’s Eve.
6. Mr. Smith is not accustomed ________ hot weather.
7. Tom has to try hard to keep pace __________ his classmates.
8. The librarian advised us to take full advantage__________ all the facilities available.
9. Don't make fun __________ that disabled boy.
10. Did you know that Linda is engaged __________ a friend of mine?
11. She stood there, saying nothing until she lost sight __________the plane.
12. The Vietnamese participants always take part ______sports events with great enthusiasm.
13. He isn’t independent _____ any means. He depends _____ his father _____ everything.
A. by/ on/ in
B. for/ on/ in
C. of/ in/ for
D. on/ in/ with
14. He may be quick _____ understanding but he isn’t capable _____ remembering anything.
A. in/ of
B. on/ at
C. at/ of
D. of/ at
15. Mum is always busy __________ her work in the laboratory.
16 Lan will stay there _____ the beginning in September _____ November.
A. from/ to
B. till/ to
C. from/ in
D. till/ of
17. I would like to apply _____ the position of sales clerk that you advised in the Sunday newspaper.
18. I have been looking _____ this book for months, and at last, I have found it.
19. My sister is very keen _____ eating chocolate candy.
20. Who’s going to look _____ the children while you’re away?
21. I’m not going out yet. I’m waiting __________the rain to stop.
22. Sorry I haven’t written __________ you for such a long time.
23. Who was that man I saw you talking __________in the pub?
24. What happened __________the gold watch you used to have?
25. I look stupid with this haircut. Everyone will laugh __________me.
26. George’s salary is very low. It isn’t enough to live __________
27. I’ve lost my keys. Can you help me look __________them?
28. I believe __________saying what I think.
29. When I realized I was wrong, I apologized to him __________my mistake.
30. Would you care _________a cup of coffee?
31. When I heard he had passed his examination, I phoned him to congratulate him ____his success.
32. Three students were accused _________cheating in the examination.
33. We had an enormous meal. It consisted_________seven courses.
34. I’m really satisfied _________. what I have.
35. I feel sorry __________ Bob. He has no friends and no money.
36. I’m sorry __________the noise last night. We’re having a party.
37. I wasn’t very impressed __________the film.
38. I’m sure you are capable __________passing the examination.
39. Are you interested __________art and architecture.
40. Mary is very fond __________animals. She has three cats and two dogs.
41. We are grateful ________ our teacher
42. I’m a bit short __________money. Can you lend me some?
43. I was amazed __________her knowledge of French Literature.
44. He is excellent __________playing the flute.
45. Why are you always so jealous __________other people?
46. He was proud __________himself for not giving up.
47. Are you excited __________going on holiday next week?
48. You get fed up __________doing the same thing every day.
49. I’m really satisfied _________what I have.
50. It’s silly _________you to go out without a coat. You’ll catch cold.