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Status of training program management of part time courses of TUAF basis for mangement regulation policies

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STATUS OF TRAINING PROGRAM MANAGEMENT OF PART-TIME
COURSES OF TUAF: BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT
REGULATION POLICIES

___________________________

A DISSERTATION
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, Philippines
in Collaboration with
Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam

___________________________

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Business Administration

___________________________


By
HA VAN CHIEN (SHUMACKER)
October 2014


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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Writing a doctoral dissertation is a gratifying but difficult and sometimes
nerve wrecking endeavor that only few engaged in because it requires a lot of
sacrifices and hard work from the researcher. However, at the end of the task,
one experiences a wonderful feeling of joy, happiness, relief and fulfilment.
The researcher would like to extend his sincerest gratitude and thanks
to the following people who were very instrumental in the fulfilment of this
research study.
Dr. Cecilia N. Gascon, President of the Southern Luzon State
University in the Republic of the Philippines, for her untiring effort and belief
that this collaboration is possible thus enabling us to pursue the PhD.EdM
degree;
Dr. Dang Kim Vui, President of Thai Nguyen University in the Socialist
Republic of Vietnam, for his untiring effort and belief that this collaboration is
possible thus enabling us to pursue the PhD.EdM degree
Dr. Nguyen Tuan Anh, Ph.D., former Director of the International
Training Center, Thai Nguyen College of Agriculture and Forestry - Thai
Nguyen University of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, for his enormous
pursuit to provide the Vietnamese people an opportunity to grow through
education;
Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa, his adviser, for the guidance and endless
support for the improvement of this study.
Dr. Cecilia N. Gascon, Dr. Teresita V. de la Cruz, Dr. Walberto A.
Macaraan, Dr. Bella R. Muello, and Dr. Leonisa O. Bernardo, who composed



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the Oral Defense Committee, for their suggestions, comments and corrections
to improve this study;
ITC staff, for enthusiasm help and providing the necessary research
materials;
His family and friends, for the love and support in one way or the other;
And to all who have contributed to make this study a success.

HVC


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………..

i

APPROVAL SHEET ……………………………………………………….

ii

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY ………………………………………..

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …………………………………………………..

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………..

vi

LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………….

viii

LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………...

x

LIST OF APPENDICES …………………………………………………...

xi

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………

xii

CHAPTER
I

II

III

IV

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………

1

Background of the Study …………………………………..

3

Objectives of the Study ………………………………….

15

Hypothesis ………………………………………………….

16

Significance of the Study …………………………………..

16

Scope and Limitations of the Study ………………………

19

Definition of Terms ………………………………………….

19

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ……………………………….

22

Research Paradigm ….………………………………….…

66

METHODOLOGY …………………………………………..

68

Locale of the Study…………………………………………

68

Research Design …………………………..………………

68

Population, Sample Size and Sampling Technique ……

68

Research Instrument ……………………………………….

71

Data Gathering Procedure …………………………………

72

Statistical Treatment ………………………........…….……

72

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ………………………….

75


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V

Status of Part-Time Training Programs of TUAF ………..

75

Curricula of Part-Time Training Programs ………………

81

Graduated Student’s Perceptions between Provinces….

84

Management Regulation Policy for Part-Time Training
Program of Thai Nguyen University College of
Agriculture and Forestry ……………………………..…….

109

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………..

113

Summary of Findings ………………………………………

113

Conclusions …………………………………………………

116

Recommendations …………………………………………

117

REFERENCES …….…………...……...…………………………………..

119

APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………...

124

CURRICULUM VITAE …………………………………………………….

141


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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE

PAGE

1

Population of Graduate Students …………………………….

69

2

Population of Local Leaders ………………………………….

70

3

Population of Instructors ………………………………………

71

4

Weighted Mean of Students and Instructor’s Opinions
about Training Facilities ………………………………………

76

Weighted Mean of Student’s Opinions about Teaching
Activities ………………………………………………………...

78

Weighted Mean of Instructor’s Opinions about Learning
Activities ………………………………………………………...

80

Weighted Mean of Students, Instructors and Local
Leader’s Opinions about Curricula of Part-Time Training
Programs of TUAF ………………………………………….…

81

Weighted Mean Distribution of Students’ Perceptions on
Part-time Training Programs by Provinces …………………

84

Anova Result in Graduated Student’s Perception by
Provinces ……………………………………………………….

86

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Student’s Perception of Ha
Giang Province with Other Nine Provinces on Training
Facilities ………………………………………………………...

88

Weighted Mean of Students’ Perceptions on Part-Time
Training Programs by Professional Majors …………………

89

12

Anova Results of Student Perceptions by Majors ………….

90

13

Post Hoc Multiple Analysis of Student’s Perception About
Training Facilities by Majors ………………………………….

91

Weighted Mean of Instructor’s Perceptions by Professional
Majors …………………………………………………………...

92

15

Anova Analyses of Instructor’s Perceptions by Majors ……

94

16

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Instructor’s Perception
About Training Facilities ………………………………………

95

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

14


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TABLE
17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

PAGE
Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Instructor’s Perception
About Learning Activities ……………………………………...

96

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Instructor’s Perception
About Curricula ………………………………………………...

98

Local Leaders’ Opinions on Part-Time Programs by
Provinces ……………………………………………………….

99

Anova Analysis on Local Leader’s Perceptions by
Provinces ……………………………………………………….

100

Post Hoc Multiple Analyses of Local Leader’s Perception
about Training Curricula ………………………………………

101

Comparison on Students’ and Instructors’ Perceptions on
Part-Time Training Programs ………………………………...

102

Chi-square Test of Homogeneity on Instructor’s and
Student’s Perception …………………………………………..

104

Comparisons between Students’ and Leaders’ Opinions
about Curricula by Provinces …………………………………

105

Chi-Square of Student’s and Instructors’ Perception on
Training Facilities ………………………………………………

107

Chi-Square of Student’s, Instructor’s, and Local Leader’s
Perception on Curricula ……………………………………….

108


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LIST OF FIGURE
FIGURE
1

PAGE
Research Paradigm ……………………………………………..

66


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LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX
A

PAGE
The Regulations and Policies Related to Part-Time
Training Programs in Vietnam

125

B

Location of Part-Time Courses of TUAF

127

C

Survey Questionnaire

128


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ABSTRACT
Title of Research

: STATUS OF TRAINING PROGRAM
MANAGEMENT OF PART TIME COURSES OF
TUAF: BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT REGULATION
POLICIES

Researcher

: HA VAN CHIEN (SHUMACKER)

Degree Conferred

: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATIONAL
MANAGEMENT

Name and Address
of Institution

: Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon,
Philippines and Thai Nguyen University, Socialist
Republic of Vietnam

Adviser

: Dr. Apolonia A. Espinosa

Year Written
: 2013 - 2014
______________________________________________________________

The study generally aims to investigate the current status of part-time
training programs of TUAF to enhance the management regulation policies.
Specifically, it aims to: determine the present status on the management of
the part-time training programs of TUAF as perceived by the respondents in
terms of: training facilities, teaching and learning activities, and curricula; find
out if there is any significant difference in the perception of the respondents by
province on the current status of the part-time training programs of TUAF in
terms of training facilities, teaching and learning activities, and curricula; and
prepare a management regulation policy. The descriptive survey method was
used in conducting this study using questionnaire as the main instrument. The
respondents were selected by random sample method composed of 304 out
of 1,267 graduated student’s respondents were selected of 304 from 1,267
118 Instructors, 30 Local leaders per province from districts, and 300 from
Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, and Department of Natural


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Resource and Environment Management. The researcher used the following
instruments such as questionnaires, direct interview, and question list to
gather the needed data. Weighted mean, Chi-square test of homogeneity, and
one way ANOVA were used to analyze data.
Based on the findings, it was concluded that training facilities such as
library and activity areas need improvement to meet social and economic
development demands. Most lecturers do not explain difficult matters,
especially practical and problem solving knowledge and skills, and job’s
direction for them. The lecturers are also having difficulty in checking and
testing student’s performance during their teaching activities Moreover,
students do not have enough time to prepare for their lessons before going to
classes because they have work and they are married. The present
curriculum of part-time training programs of TUAF are good and is closely
related to socio-economic development demands in the regions, but requires
more focus on group’s working and problem solving knowledge and skills,
communication skills, and the opportunity of selecting subjects to supply
specific training demands of students in different provinces. The three sets of
respondents’ answers were observed to have significant difference in certain
areas and no difference in others for they come from three different provinces
that have different needs and demands in the part-time training program of
TUAF. Finally, the management regulation policy constructed based on the
results of the data gathered in this study is now ready for implementation.
The conclusions drawn from the research results the dissertation
suggests that authorized institutions should be concerned for the development
of these training programs by implementing the management regulation policy


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created in this study so as to build up social support and encourage policies
for students of part-time training programs, especially for students who are
working in communes of remote, boarding, island, and ethnic people group’s
regions. Provincial leaders should support provincial training centers to
improve their training infrastructure by determining exactly training majors to
meet their specific socio-economic development demands in each truth
development stage. The Ministry of Education and Training may build up
specific student’s affair regulation for part-time training programs by reviewing
and innovating present management regulation policies for them to be more
appropriate, concrete and easy to apply. Finally, Universities in Vietnam
should develop training curricula which are more flexible to meet specific
demands of each province. Among of that should improve practical and job’s
knowledge

and

skills,

enhancement of

ability and

responsibility of

departments of controlling, checking and educational quality insurance. They
should likewise cooperate if they organize part-time courses in the same
provincial training center.


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Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

For generations, Vietnam has been recognized as a country with thousands
of years of culture and of people who have a traditional fondness of learning. Those
who are knowledgeable and capable have always been praised and extolled through
folk songs and allegories, from generation to generation to remind the future
generations. Those who achieved high grades were named in the rolls of honor in the
Temple of Literature in Hanoi or the temples and communal houses in their
motherlands to be worshiped and remembered forever.
Vietnam is actively implementing modernization and industrialization strategy
that requires high quality human resource. Besides, since 2010 the Government of
Vietnam has promoted the national goal program about new rural building program,
in which the training of qualified human resources is considered the most important.
Hence, the focus and investment is on the part-time training model, particularly in the
fields that relate to agriculture, forestry and fisheries because more than 70% of the
population are living and working in those fields.

Particularly, along with the development of the market economy and
international integration, Vietnam’s formal accession to the World Trade
Organization (WTO) with commitments to open the higher education market
have put direct pressure to force us to change our thinking on education and
training. One of the obvious forms of evidence is that we need to understand
the concept of the education market in its full meaning. Therefore, Vietnam
has defined the education innovation policy as a fundamental and
comprehensive improvement.


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However, education and training in Vietnam today retains a large gap
between training and application, between supply and demand for human resources,
or in other words, effectiveness of training is low. This "disease" has been mentioned
for tens of years, since the Government began referring to the policy of social
education, but so far it has not been overcome, if not tending to worsen under the
pressure of international integration. The said “disease" is a dual result of an
education system which not only is heavy on vainglory, formal examination
competition and degree preference, as in feudal times but also reflects the retreat of
education, separating education from community needs and practical business like a
model practiced by the former Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Moreover, this
"disease" has caused a serious imbalance in the structure of educated human
resources which has long been known as the state of "teacher redundancies and
worker shortage”. This refers to a circumstance where many university graduates
cannot get jobs while business sectors severely lack workers trained in accordance
with their needs, especially in the rural areas, mountainous areas, islands, and
difficult areas, where most of the graduates do not want to work.
Therefore, much importance has always been invested in education, by the
leaders of Vietnam. The 11th National Congress of Vietnamese Communist Party
affirmed: "The development of education and training together with the development
of

science

and technology is

a top national

policy.",

and emphasized:

"comprehensively innovate the basic education of Vietnam in the direction of
standardization, modernization, socialization, democratization and international
integration."
First of all, they need to identify training objectives, changing from "offer
training on whatever we have” to "offer training on what society needs" to meet the
demands of society, specifically, they should pay attention to the demands for
development of high quality human resources for the rural, mountainous, island and


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disadvantaged areas. Together with full-time, part-time education is considered to be
the most effective, influential and feasible because this form of training will enable the
local staff to take classes while working at the same time to improve their
qualifications.
Background of the Study
Along with the development of Vietnam, the education system has several
achievements. However, there still exist some weaknesses and inadequacies. The
quality of education has not met the demands of society or encouraged self-study,
creativeness and activeness of learners. The current training programs do not meet
the socio-economic development demands in the whole country.
The Secretary General of Vietnam, Mr. Nguyen Phu Trong said at the 6th
meeting of the 11th National Congress of Vietnamese Communist Party that “so far,
the education and training of Vietnam has not been prioritized. There even exist lots
of inadequacies and weaknesses, especially in educational quality, management
activities, mechanism of creating human resources and development motivations”.
Some of the weaknesses and inadequacies mentioned in the 9th and 10th National
Congresses of Vietnamese Communist Party include: the focus is on quantity rather
than the quality of learners; that the curricula are inappropriate and methodologies
are outdated and not practical; that quality assurance is ignored, especially the
attitude, ethics and lifestyle of the learners; that the national education system is not
synchronous and equal; that the education management at state level is still weak
and the educational management mechanism is slowly innovated; that the
educational managing staff and teachers have low ethics and capacity; that the role
of educational socialization and international cooperation in education are not fully
understood; that the education innovation is slow and educational science has not
been paid proper action to among others.


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The Resolution of the 11th National Congress of Vietnamese
Communist Party determined points of view for basic and global reform of
educational system as follows:
Firstly, education and training development being placed a top
national policy is an achievement of the Party, government and all of people.
Therefore, the leadership of the Party, mobility of all political system, and the
promotion of contribution of all people to career education and training
development must be improved.
Secondly, education and training development should achieve the
objective to build education system having characteristics of nationality,
modernization, to grasp thoroughly theory must go together with practice, to
ground argument in fact, close combination between schools with families and
society, to meet national human resource development, especially high quality
human resource, to contribute in building learning society,

to create

opportunities for all people can take part in learning and long life learning.
Thirdly, investment for education is investment for development;
diversifying investment resources for education and training and prioritizing it
in national fund allocation for education and training development in difficult
regions, for compulsory education and high quality human resource training
should be conducted. The education and training development must have a
strong attachment to socio-economic development, consolidation of national
defense and security, progress of science and technology, and international
integration.


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Fourthly, extend of international cooperation in education and training
should be based on national character’s conservation and promotion, to hold
fast to independent, sovereignty, and socialist direction.
There are basic strategy dimensions of education and training development in
Vietnam that can be considered as educational policies also: 1- Improving quality,
effectiveness of education and training; 2 - Extending educational scale; 3Investment priority for education; 4- Implementing social justice in education; 5Socializing educational career; 6- Enhancing international co-operation in education.
Currently, more than 70% of the population lives in the countryside and their
main incomes are from agricultural, forestry and fishery activities. The gap between
the income and economic status of those in the countryside and those in the city is
warningly big. In addition, recent research reveals that around 80%-90% of the
students enrolled in regular programs stay and work in the cities after their
graduation. The rest of the graduates, who return to their motherland, are of course
not enough, particularly in the remote and disadvantaged areas. Continuing
education is required in order to improve human resource in these regions.
The part-time model of training now is very important as it provides students
with more opportunities to enroll in academic programs where they do not have to
travel or move to the cities, which are far away from their motherland. This training
more should be invested and focused more in order for it to significantly contribute to
the development and success of the education system of Vietnam. From 2008,
Vietnam began implementing rural modernization and industrialization that caused
concerns and supports to improve human resource for rural regions. In 2010,
Vietnam has begun implementing the New Rural Strategy according to Decision
number 800, June 04th, 2010 justified by the Prime Minister. This strategy has 19
criteria, and one of the most important criteria is human resource development for
rural regions with priority for disadvantaged villages in remote zones. With the current


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conditions of Northern mountainous provinces, part-time training type plays a very
important role for human resource development.
TUAF is one of the members of Thai Nguyen University. It started as the
College of Agricultural Technology number 3 in 1970. In 1994, under the decision No.
31/CP of the Prime Minister of Vietnamese government, it became Thai Nguyen
University of Agriculture and Forestry. Since its foundation, TUAF has been
distinguished by its ability to maintain a higher standard of education and outstanding
research in the North of Vietnam. The mission of the university includes offering
higher education in agriculture, forestry, natural resource and environment
management, agricultural economics and rural development in the Northern
Mountainous Region of Vietnam; and conducting research and technology transfer in
the fields of agriculture, forestry, natural resources and environment management in
order to improve socio-economics in the region.
Since its establishment day, the university has developed continuously and
confirmed its important role to provide human resources with a high level of
professional knowledge and skills for not only the Northern Mountainous region but
also for other regions across the whole country. Up to June 2013, the University has
provided about 30,000 bachelors; 1,500 masters and over 40 doctoral students in the
fields of agriculture, forestry, natural resources and environment management,
agricultural economics and rural development. Of the graduates, over 40% came
from ethnic people groups and remote regions.
At present, the university is delivering 21 professional majors at BSc. level to
2,000 students per year, 7 professional majors at MSc. level and 8 professional
majors at PhD. Level. There are six professional faculties with a large number of
teachers, and they are also managing five professional majors, which have the
highest number of students of part-time training courses of the university. The


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Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science has 57 teachers and manages
majors of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science. Teacher’s numbers for the
other faculties are: the Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment: 46; Faculty of
Agronomy: 43; Faculty of Forestry: 43; Faculty of Economics and Rural
Development: 37, and Faculty of Biology and Food Technology: 36. Besides, the
university had got also the Faculty of Basic Science with staff of 44.
In addition, TUAF is a center of research and technology transfer in the fields
of agriculture, forestry, natural resource and environment management. In order to
implement these duties, the university established the following research centers:
Institute of Life Science, Center for Agricultural Experimentation and Practice,
Agriculture and Forestry Research and Development Center for the Northern
Mountainous Region, Center for Resources and Environment in the Mountainous
Region, Northern Mountainous Forestry Research Center, Research Center for
Temperate Fruit Crops, and Center for Foreign Language and Applied Informatics.
These centers provide experimental and practical opportunities for students to
conduct scientific research and practical application. The staff of TUAF comprises
518 officers, of which the teaching staff number 313.
In order to develop international training programs, the university has an
advanced education program. This program in the field of Environment Science and
Management has been imported from the University of California at Davis. At the
same time, the university has also improved international cooperation in education.
The International Training Center of the University has been established in 2008. At
present, the Center has cooperation agreements with universities from China, the
Philippines, Australia, and Korea.
Together with full-time training programs, the part-time training programs play
an important role in training activities of the university.


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According to Decision No. 42 of Ministry of Education and Training of
Vietnam, the provincial People Committees will determine professional majors for
their province based on socio-economic development demands and investigated
results about training needs. After that they will offer training task for relative training
foundations of the provinces, which has the right to cooperate with selected
universities. Thus, the selected universities have to have available training curricula
and training outputs. The TUAF have 32 training cooperative foundations in 19
provinces. Among which there are 3 foundations being stopped with different
reasons, and one new foundation is Agricultural and Industrial Technical School of
Quang Binh province.
According to the cooperation contracts, provincial People’s Committees
choose training majors based on their socio-economic development demands, the
provincial training centers provide the training infrastructure and prepare the needed
teaching-learning requirements, while the TUAF develops the training curricula and
appoints the teachers. In order to provide comfortable conditions for learners who are
working in communes and districts, most part-time training courses are located in
their provinces.
The total quantity of students in part-time training courses of TUAF is about
6,000 located in 32 cooperative training centers in 19 provinces. There are 5
provinces having annual quantity of training students is over 400 namely Ha Giang,
Phu Tho, Yen Bai, Cao Bang, and Son La. All of these provinces are Northern
mountainous provinces (to see the map). Meanwhile the quantity of students of fulltime training courses at the University from each this province is about 100 - 150.
That proves that the training needs in Northern mountainous region is high, and the
Part-time training type is suitable and needed for these provinces. That requires the
Vietnamese Government and relative ministries to build up available support policies
for learners from mountainous and difficult-to-reach provinces, because their salary is


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too low. Anyhow, the Ministry of Education and Training should improve
management regulations policies for Part-time training type to be more flexible,
suitable, and simple to meet training needs in these provinces.
In Northern mountainous provinces, the agricultural and forestry sector
comprise the largest component among all economic components. The soil and
climate conditions there favor agricultural and forestry production but income from
this sector is still too low, so that all of the provinces that wish to develop agricultural
and forestry production with focus on increasing its productivity and quality step by
step to build up the production of commodities. That requires high quality of human
resources in this field, and it requires relative professional majors for selection such
as: Agro-forestry, Land Management, Crop Science, and Silviculture.
The training curricula of TUAF were built up basing on investigation results of
socio-economic development needs and natural conditions of Northern Mountainous
provinces. So far all of Northern Mountainous provinces selected the TUAF for
training cooperation in the field of agriculture, forestry, natural resource and
environment management, agricultural economics and rural development. That
explains why the part-time training programs of TUAF are developing sustainably.
In the agricultural and forestry sectors of the Northern mountainous
provinces, the Agro-forestry major plays a centrally important role, because rice
production areas are mainly located in the valleys of these mountains. The soil and
climate conditions are available for forest, fruit, and industrial tree plantations. This
ensures a stable quantity of training students for the Agro-forestry major. With active
implementation of the New Rural Strategy of provinces, the quantity of students who
wish to take part in training courses of the Rural Development professional major is
increasing year by year.


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In summary, the Part-time training programs are closely related to and
necessary for socio-economic development in the Northern mountainous region,
especially the five professional majors: Agro-forestry, Land Management, Crop
Science, Silviculture, and Rural Development.
At present, the quantity of students taking Part-time training courses in TUAF
is about 6,000 on the average. The research data show that the annual quantity of
enrolled students of TUAF is sustainable at about 1,250 students over 5 recent
years, and about 83% of them graduated after 4.5 years.
The part-time training programs of TUAF have opportunities and challenges
as follows:
Opportunity
The Part-time training programs are supported, concerned and helped
actively from Directorate and functional departments of Thai Nguyen University, from
Managing Board, professional faculties, functional departments, and especially all
teaching staff of TUAF. The TUAF has got teaching staff with high professional
knowledge and skills, experience, enthusiasm, and high responsibility.
TUAF has just established the Training Center for Social Demands with main
task is management of Part-time courses. So the training management of Part-time
training programs of TUAF has become a special work. Officer of the Center have
experience and, knowledge in planning, training management and other related work.
Many alumni of TUAF became local leaders from provincial to district levels.
That leads to good understanding and close relationships between the university and
the provinces. Thus the university usually receives the benefit of feedback
information and advice from local leaders, especially for training curricula
improvement.


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The clearest advantage is very good understanding of each other and
engaging relationship between TUAF and cooperative foundations. They always
share any information and quickly resolve any problem arise during training
organization.
Provinces in the region have begun to implement “New Rural Strategy”,
“Rural Industrialization and Modernization” which requires enhancement of their
human resources. All of the Northern mountainous provinces focus on agricultural
and forestry production, and environment. These sectors closely related with the
professional majors of TUAF so that mobilize improvement of Part-time training
programs in their location. Therefore, most of the local leaders of these provinces are
actively concerned with and support the Part-time training programs of the university.
Most of the selected training cooperative foundations receive the enthusiasm
concern and help for investment from provincial leaders. So the training
infrastructure, teaching - learning facilities, pedagogy environment are enhanced day
by day.
The cooperative foundations always concern to livelihood and learning
conditions for all of learners. At the same time, most teachers who take part in Parttime training programs usually are interested, close relative, share information with
learner, especially learner having difficulties. That draws learners to take part in Parttime training programs of the university.
Challenges
The common disadvantage of the Vietnamese education system and the
main disadvantage of Part-time training program is inflexible training curricula.
According to Decision No 36 of the Ministry of Education and Training, the training
curricula for Part-time training programs are the same of Full-time training programs,
while Part-time training programs are organized in different provinces having to


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