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Linking the school, family and society in enhancing moral education program for high school students in ha noi

LINKING THE SCHOOL, FAMILY AND SOCIETY IN ENHANCING
MORAL EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR HIGH SCHOOL
STUDENTS IN HANOI

___________________________

A DISSERTATION
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
Southern Luzon State University, Lucban, Quezon, Philippines
in Collaboration with
Thai Nguyen University, Socialist Republic of Vietnam

___________________________

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management

___________________________

By

HOANG HONG TRANG (MOONLIGHT)

October 2014
i


APPROVAL SHEET

ii


CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

iii


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The researcher wishes to convey her gratitude to the following persons
who wholeheartedly devoted and helped make this piece of work a reality:
DR. TERESITA V. DE LA CRUZ, her adviser for the guidance, supervision,
suggestions and precious time in enthusiastically reading and checking
the manuscript, providing the researcher useful materials;
DR. CECILIA N. GASCON, president of the Southern Luzon State University
in the Philippines, for her incomparable contribution and support to the
development of the Doctor of Philosophy in Educational Management
program in Thai Nguyen University;
DR. NGUYEN VAN BINH, director of the International Training Center, Thai
Nguyen University of Socialist Republic of Vietnam, for his enormous
pursuit to provide Vietnamese people an opportunity to grow through
education;
DR. SUSANA A. SALVACION, DR.RICARYL CATHERINE P. CRUZ, DR.
APOLONIA A. ESPINOSA, and DR. BELLA R. MUELLO, panelists,
for constructive criticism and valuable comments and suggestions to
improve the study;
DR. PHAN VAN QUE, her former professor and mentor, for the dedicationin
guidingthe researcher throughout the research process;
TEACHERS, STUDENTS, and PARENTS in Hanoi high schools for support
and assistance in providing documents and data for this study;and


iv


Her FAMILY and FRIENDS, for the love and support in one way or another;
and to all who have contributed to make this study a success.
HHT

v


DEDICATION

The researcher humbly dedicates this piece of work toher colleagues
and fellow instructors, her students, her family and relatives, her friends, and
those who believed and hoped that she can make it.

HHT

vi


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………..

i

APPROVAL SHEET ……………………………………………………….

ii

CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY ………………………………………..

iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT …………………………………………………..

iv

DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………..

vii

LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………….

ix

LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………

x

LIST OF APPENDICES …………………………………………………...

xi

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………

xii

CHAPTER
I

II

III

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………

1

Background of the Study ……………………….…………..

2

Objectives of the Study ……………………………….…….

5

Significance of the Study …………………………………...

6

Scope and Limitation of the Study …………………….…..

7

Definition of Terms …………………………………………..

8

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ……………………….……….

11

Conceptual Framework …………………...….………..……

27

Research Paradigm ……………………………...….………

29

METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………

31

Locale of the Study ………………………….………………

31

Research Design …………………………….………………

31

Population and Sampling ………………….…...…………..

31

Instrumentation………………………...…………..…….….

32

Data Gathering Procedure ………………………………….

32

Statistical Treatment …….…………………………………..

33

vii


IV

V

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ……………………….….

35

Ethical Ranking of Students inHigh Schools of Hanoi ….

35

Status of the Moral Education in High Schools of Hanoi ..

37

Designed Moral Education Program for High School
Students in Hanoi to Link the School, Families and
Society for Moral Education ………………………………..

47

Acceptability of the Proposed Moral Education Program .

62

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary …………………..…………………………………

66

Findings…………………….………..…………………….…

66

Conclusions ……………………………………………….…

67

Recommendations ……………………………………..……

68

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………..

69

APPENDICES ……………………………………………………………...

72

CURRICULUM VITAE …………………………………………………….

82

viii


LIST OF TABLES
TABLE
1
2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

3.1

3.2

3.3

PAGE
Ethical Ranking of Students in Ten (10) High Schools for the
Academic Year 2009-2012 ……………………………………..

36

Frequency and Mean Distribution of the Status of Moral
Educationamong High Schools in Hanoi as to Principles and
Directions ……………………………………………………

38

Frequency and Mean Distribution of the Status of Moral
Education among High Schools in Hanoi as to Curriculum
Framework……………………………………………………….

40

Frequency and Mean Distribution of the Status of Moral
Education among High Schools in Hanoi as to Actual
Implementation …………………………………………………..

41

Frequency and Mean Distribution the Status of Moral
Education among High Schools in Hanoi in terms of
Learning Materials and Extracurricular Activities…………….

43

Frequency and Mean Distribution of the Status of Moral
Education among High Schools in Hanoi as to Linkages …...

45

Acceptability of the Proposed Moral Education Program as
to Objectives ……………………………………………………..

62

Acceptability of the Proposed Moral Education Program as
to Contents ……………………………………………………….

63

Acceptability of the Proposed Moral Education Program as
to Strategies ……………………………………………………..

64

ix


LIST OF FIGURE
FIGURE
1

PAGE
Modified Input-Process-Output (IPO) Model on Enhancing
the Linkage of School, Family and Society in the
Implementation of the Moral Education ……………………….

x

29


LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX

PAGE

A

Communication ………………………………………………

73

B

Instrument ………………………………..…………………...

74

C

Computations ………………………………………………...

78

xi


ABSTRACT
Title of Research

: LINKING THE SCHOOL, FAMILY AND SOCIETY
IN ENHANCING MORAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN HANOI

Researcher

: HOANG HONG TRANG (Moonlight)

Degree Conferred

: DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATIONAL
MANAGEMENT

Name and Address
of Institution

: Southern Luzon State University Lucban, Quezon,
Philippines and Thai Nguyen University, Socialist
Republic of Vietnam

Adviser

: Dr. Teresita V. de la Cruz

Year Written
: 2014
______________________________________________________________
The purpose of this study is to link the school, community and society
in enhancing the implementation of moral education program. Specifically, this
sought answers to the status of moral education in 10 selected high schools in
Hanoi, Vietnam in terms of principles and direction, curriculum framework,
actual implementation, learning materials and extracurricular activities, and
linkages. This study used the descriptive method of research which utilized
self-constructed questionnaires for data gathering. An acceptability test was
constructed for the proposed moral education program. The results of the
survey were treated using the weighted mean. Thus, it was found out that the
respondents give agree response to the status of moral education in terms of
the principles and directions (2.83), actual implementation (3.14), curriculum
framework (2.63), learning materials and extracurricular activities (3.01), and
linkages (2.95). An average weighted mean of 2.91 as a result of the experts’
evaluation reveals that the proposed moral education program is acceptable.
Based on the said findings, it was concluded that the respondents revealed
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that the status of moral education in 10 schools of Hanoi, Vietnam is in need
for further enhancement and supervision. Respondents disagreed that current
moral education program implemented in schools is successful. The proposed
moral education program is ready for the pilot implementation. The designed
moral education program is commendable as evaluated by experts. Hence, it
is recommended that teachers may create supportive teaching environment
with low stress and high support for students, moral education program may
be used by the ten (10) school respondents, and educators and curriculum
programmers may include the enhancement of moral education program for
the students.

xiii


1
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

Morality is a reflection of one’s personality as it is one of the aspects of
human personality that is hard to deal with and be moldedsince it involves the
affective phase of the human personality. In most cases, morality is acquired
through the influences of other’s culture, economic status, and educational
standards among others.According to Thang (2001), morality is customarily
developed with critical observation from the adults. In this case, teachers of
the society are the responsible individuals when it comes to the development
of a child’s personality. It is a huge challenge for every teacher in Vietnam.
Morality is an important aspect, the core element of personality of any
human being. Therefore, the formation of personality in general educational
and moral training in particular for the younger generation has always been
the priority task of the school all the time.
The twenty first century is the time of integration of knowledge and the
development of science and technology. Nowadays, high school students are
often morally affected by technological integration. In this case, school needs
to collaborate closely with families and society to minimize negative impacts
of technology integration in the morality of the students.
The advance progress of the scientific and technological revolution in
the twenty first century changed the physical living condition as well as the
social standard system, especially human values. Today’s Vietnamese youth
inherits many advantages in this new era such as intelligence, eagerness to
learn and enterprising spirits. However, economic growth, globalization, and
technological development in Vietnam resulted in the success of the country


2
in this field. On the other hand,moral degradation appears among students.
They also adopted hazy ideals, impractical lifestyles, as well as lack ambitions
to settle for the future of themselves and their country.
Hence, moral education for students becomes extremely an important
mission, especially in the country which is in industrializing and modernizing
period. However, institution like family and community did not performtheir
vital roles in education. They are not coordinatingclosely with the school in
educating the youth, especially in political morals to prevent social evils (The
theoretical issues of science education, 2011). This problem is only confined
within the school that Education is the process of profound social essence,
which can be seen in different aspects with paricipation of many social forces.
If Education and Training is only carried out within the campus, certainly it will
not bring in the general strength and thus leading to low quality result.

Background of the Study
The wide spread of the technology integration, the improvement of
country’s economic status, and building of good relationship with neighbouring
country brings some changes in the morality or attitudes of the people of
Vietnam.
The researcher observed some attitudes among high school students
in Hanoi, Vietnam – which is the locale of this study – which are not naturally
Vietnamese. The learning process involves three domains suchas cognitive,
psychomotor, and affective. It is a fact that the last domain mentioned is hard
to measure and include in the teaching process. Castaldi (2001) stated that
the good relationship among school, family and community will bring a fully
developed individual to be used by the society.


3
On the other hand, good communication and relationship among these
units in some cases is hard to achieve. Students’ achievement in school can
only be determined through assessment. The researcher observed that some
students do not attain a satisfactory result on some of teachers’ assessment.
One factor that caused these result is students’ attitude toward their studies.
Years past and the students’ good study habits were altered by the modern
technology. This is not given much focus by the Vietnamese family or even by
the community that resulted to the declined educational status and morality of
the students.
Moreover, a school, family, and community linkage is assumed to be
one of the foremost correlates to the implementation of moral education in
high school in Hanoi, Vietnam. Morality is more important than the knowledge
that can be easily acquired.Today’s Vietnamese youth inheritadvantages in
the new era likeintelligence, eagerness tolearn and enterprising spirits.
However, the economic growth, globalization, and technological development
in Vietnam resulted in the success of the country in these fields.
Highschool being the final level of general educational system has a
great mission in implementing educational objectives. Objectives of education
and training Vietnamese people are to have the comprehensive development
with morals, knowledge, health, aesthetics and professional career, the loyalty
with the ideal of national independence and socialism, forming and nuturing
the citizens’ virtues and abilities to meet the requirements of building and
protecting the country (Education Law, 2011).
At this level, the target of general educational system is to train youth
from ages 16 to 18 to acquire full knowledge, ethics and necessary abilities


4
for living. However, massive development in scale and number of high school
students in recent years is not proportional to the quality of culture and ethics.
There are manifestations of moral degradation of the high school students.
This is an issue being addressed by the Education – Training sector and the
whole society.
In this case, schools are in need to improve and strengthen morality of
high school students in Hanoi, Vietnam. It is the community that will greatly
help the school to enhance the morality of these individuals as well as with the
family of these students. However, one thing should be done and that is to
enhance the linkages of these factors to developed students’ morality. Proper
linkages between these units of our society will lead to the development of a
better individual. Several studies and experts mentioned that proper linkages
among school, family and community will bring good development of students’
morality and attitude. Good relationship among these three will also bring
competent individual who is prepared in all field or discipline.
In recent year. much attention has been paid to the improvement of the
moral education program in all levels of the education system. The schools in
general have gained a lot of achievements in the field of moral education.
However, there exist quite a number of problems related to the content of the
program, teaching methodology, assessment, training of the subject teachers,
especially the linkage between the schools with the family and society. The
role of the family and society to some extent has not been clearly clarified,
therefore many families and social organizations, even governments offices
are not fully aware of their roles and responsibilities in the implementation of
moral education for children. In the opinion of manyscholars and educators, if


5
the linkage between school with the family and society is properly established
and if the content of textbook is well combined with the out-school activities,
all these will result in better quality for moral education for students.
From this premise, it was decided upon by the researcher to conduct a
study on enhancing the linkage of the school, family and society to the very
implementation of moral education for high school students in Hanoi.

Objectives of the Study
This study aimed at enhancing the linkage of school, family and society
in the implementation of moral education for high school students in Hanoi,
Vietnam for the school year 2012-2013.
Specifically, it sought to achieve the following objectives:
1. Find out the ethical ranking of students in the 10 respondent-schools for the
following years;
1.1 2009-2010
1.2 2010-2011
1.3 2011-2012
2. Determine the status of the moral education program in terms of:
2.1principles and directions,
2.2curriculum framework,
2.3actual implementation,
2.4 learning materials and extra-curricular activities, and
2.5linkages.
3. Design a moral education program.
4. Evaluate the acceptability of the moral education program in terms of:
4.1 Objectives,


6
4.2 Contents, and
4.3 Strategies.

Significance of the Study
This study would be of great benefits to the students, families, school
administrators, and future researchers.
Students. This study will be beneficial primarily to the students
sinceunderstanding the nature of moralityand ethical standards of the
Vietnamese people in the modern society will give them complete
understanding of needs to train themselves with ethical standards. This study
will help the students in building habits of practicing ethical behavior in the
social activity. This study will also bring among the studentsself-awareness of
implementing the ethical behaviors,and obeying the convention of the law and
the culture.
Family. This research will also be beneficial to the family. There is/are
only one or two children in almost several Vietnamese families. This makes a
favourable condition for the success of family education. This study will give a
better understanding for every Vietnamese family that they have a big part in
developing their children’s morality.
School Administrators. The results of this research will also be useful
for the high schools in Hanoi in fostering ethics for students. This study will
give solutions to organize the coordination of the school, the familiesand the
society to create a close and effective communication in moral education for
the students. With good coordination of social forces, the school will have the
capability to promote higher education. This study will also help them engage
themselves in activitiesof schools to develop the youth’s morality.This study


7
will likewise bring better understanding of their rolesand in developing their
ethical practices.
Future researchers.Other researchers might find the results of this
study beneficial for them to delve with other dynamics of the variables under
study. This study could also be their frame of references for parallel and follow
up studies to be made.

Scope and Limitations
This researchaimed at determininglinkof school, family and society in
enhancing the implementation of moral education of high schools in Hanoi,
Vietnam. There were ten high schools in Hanoi, Vietnam used in the study
namely:

Chu

Van

An

High

School,

ThangLongHigh

School,

TranNhanTongHigh School, VietDucHigh School, NguyenTraiHigh School,
MarieCurieHigh School, Mai Hac De High School, TranPhuHigh School,
DinhTienHoangHigh School, Dong Da High School. A total 600 respondents
including the educational managers, educators, teachers, students, officials
working in the government’s office and in social organizations, parents and
relatives of students were subjected in the study.
Since morality is relative, i.e. what is moral to one society is not moral
to another, the context of morality in this study was limited to the Vietnamese
culture.Carrying out the study, data with the reference to general information
on the culture of Hanoi City and the reality of moral education for students in
high school and in the family were collected and analyzed. The information
from school, together with the information from outside school have enabled
the researcher to have a better picture of the reality of the moral education for


8
students in Hanoi and to suggest proper extracurricular program of activities
for them.
The instrument used for data collection was the survey questionnaire to
determine the status of the moral education of secondary schools in Hanoi,
Vietnam. The questionnaire was divided into five variables namely,principles
and directions, curriculum framework, actual implementation, assessment and
teaching resources and linkage. The researcher also conducted interview to
collect information about the moral education from the experts.
The time frame of this study is from March 2012 to March 2014.

Definitions of Terms
The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally for
clearunderstanding of the readers:
Assessment and teaching resourcesis defined as the instruments used to
measure learning outcomes in the implementation of moral education
program (Nguyen Quoc Chi & Nguyen Thi My Loc, 2001). In this study,
it is employed as one of the variables to assess the status of the moral
education in Vietnam.
Curriculum frameworkis used as one of the variables to measure the status
of moral education in Vietnam which includes thecompetencies and
skills that the student must take (Nguyen HuuChau, 2007).
Enhancing means strengthening or making better of something which is in
the status quo (Tuan, 2011), which in the context of the study is applied
to the moral education program.


9
Extracurricular Activitiesare the program of activities outside the classroom
instruction and curricular plans (KHGD Institute, 2005). In this study,
these are some of the undertakings to actualize the moral education.
Family is the cell of society, a group of people who live together as smallest
unit of society, they are bound together by the ties of marriage, blood,
and often includes spouses, parents and children(Ba Lam,2005). In this
study, it is one of the linkages to moral education in Vietnam.
Moralrefers to the object of the study which refers to a special form of social
consciousness, expressed in terms of principles, rules and standards
to regulate the human behaviors in relationships between human and
nature, between human to human(QuocBao2007).
Moral educationis a process of turning the system of moral standards, from
external demands of social for individuals, to the internal demands of
the individuals, forming beliefs, needs and habits of educational
object(QuocBao, 2007). It is one of the main variables in the present
study.
Implementationis used as one of the variables used to assess the status of
moral education program which includes the planning and strategies
used to apply the principles and philosophy of the moral education (Mai
HuuKhue, 2007).
Learning materialsare the tools to guide the teaching and learning process
(Gharajedaghi, 2005), and is operationally defined as the resources to
support the moral education program.
Linkage is the connection and the cooperation between people/ organization/
countries in order to implement and achieve something(Thang, 2002).


10
Organizationis the structure linking the individuals in a system in order to to
achieve the system’s objectives based on certain principles and rules
(Giang, 2001).
Principles and directionsrefers to one of the variables used as the criteria in
assessing the implementation of the moral education and pertaining to
underlying tenets and theoretical underpinnings of moral education (Le
Van Giang, 2001).
Schoolis the particular social organization with strict organizational structure,
specializes in educating, training the children toward the direction of
society(HuuChau, 2007). In this study, it is also a linkage to the moral
education in Vietnam.
Social forcesare the domestic administrations, socio-political organizations,
economic organizations, mass organizations, functional organizations
(Brockmann, 2007). These are likewise linkage to the moral education
in Vietnam.


11
Chapter II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter presents the theoretical bases of the documents related to
important issues which are significant to this study. This also includes studies
considered to strengthen the concepts. Moreover, this chapter provides the
conceptual framework that leads to the formulation of the hypothesis.

Moral Education
Moral is a special form of social consciousness, manifested in the form
of principles, rules and standards to regulate the behaviour of people in the
relationships between human and the nature and the society, human and
human and with themselves.So moral is a social phenomenon that reflects the
real relationship of human life. In life, person must be aware of the meaning and
the purpose of their activities in the past, present and the future. These activities
are governed by personal relationship between individual and society. These
are the standard tocompletely to have self-control in actions of each individual
in society (Thao, 2004).
Moral concepts, as Chuong (2004) underscored, can be understood as a
form of consciousness that is always affected by the history, the classes, and
the ethnicity, associated with the evolution of human race and the ethnicity.
Moral is not only subjected to the provisions of the economic and the physical
conditions, but also be affected by social interaction, the interplayed of other
social consciousness as law, culture, education, and customs.
On the other hand, Thang (2001) stated that the basic categories of the
morals exist and develop in the following opposite forms: 1) good and bad, 2)


12
conscientious and dishonest, 3) responsible and remiss, 4) loyal anddisloyal,
5) disrespectful, glorious and disgraceful, happy and unfortunate. He added
that the basic moral contents are affection for the people and country, passion
and positive workingattitude, sense of collectiveness, community, solidarity,
discipline, humanism, international consciousness in new era, and civilized
lifestyle. He also expressed that an individual should possess the following
positive behaviours: righteousness and honesty, principle and steadfastness,
modesty and politeness, generosity and delicateness, thrift and simplicity,
bravery and heroic quality.
Education is a social phenomenon – a process with purposeful impact,
organized by plan, actively affecting humans that leads to the formation and
development of personality, human’s ideals, ethics and behavior (Chi &Loc,
2003). Moral education is the process of changing the standard ethic system,
from the external social demands on individuals, into the internal social demands
on individual, build up the belief, need, and the habit of educational subjects.
According to Pham Viet Vuong(2007), moral education is the process that has
impact on students to form their ideas, emotion and moral belief and the ultimate
goal is to create the habit of ethical behavior.
Moral education aimed to form the basic moral principles of the society,
so that people have the ability to select and evaluate their own behavior. The
process of moral education includes the impact of the many factors, objective,
outside and inside. It is understandable that all the relationships in the school
and the society in which students participate have the educational impact on
students. These effects can be unified to strengthen and support the impact
results. Thus moral education is only effective when educators have the ability


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