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A topical approach to life span development 6e chapter 6

Infancy
Chapter 6


Socioemotional Development


Emotions- feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is in a state or an interaction that is
important



Positive or negative



Biological but also embedded in relationships and culture



.... Providing diversity in emotional experiences




Primary - early on... Like joy, anger, sadness, fear



Self-conscious - Self-Awareness, with a sense of 'me"....jealousy, empathy and
embarrassment


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships




Infant communication of emotions



Permits coordinated interactions with caregivers



Beginning of emotional bond

Mutually Regulated (reciprocal or synchronous)



Parents change emotional expressions in response to infants



Infants modify their emotional expression in response to parents


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships





Crying (most important communication)



Basic Cry - Rhythmic pattern



Anger Cry - Variation of the basic cry



Pain Cry- Sudden long

Smiling (key social signal)



Reflexive - not in response to stimuli



Social smile- in response to an external stimulus


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships



Fear - (typically appears around 6 months)



But can appear as early as 3 months in abused or neglected infants



Research - infant fear is linked to guild, empathy, and low aggression at
6-7 years of age.


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Stranger Anxiety (frequent expression of fear)



Fear and wariness of strangers



Usually about 6-12 months



Less when in familiar setting



Less fearful of child strangers



Less fearful of friendly, outgoing, smiling strangers


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships



Separation Anxiety



Fear of being separated from caregivers



6-12 months



Separation protest - crying when the caregiver leaves


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Emotional Regulation- infant gradually develops an ability to inhibit, or minimize,
the intensity and duration of emotional reactions



Thumb sucking



Caregivers soothing, such as rocking, lullabies, stroking



Influencing infants' regulation of emotions



Sooner the better


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships



Research - Spoiling cannot happen in first year.



Parents should soothe a crying infant



Helping infant develop a sense of trust and secure attachment to the
caregiver


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Temperament-individual differences in behavioral styles, emotions, and
characteristic ways of responding



How quickly the emotion is shown,



How strong it is



How long it lasts, how quickly it fades away


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Temperament (Chess and Thomas' Classification) - moderately stable
across childhood years.



Easy child -generally positive, adapts easily



Difficult child - generally negative, cries frequently, slow to accept
change



Slow-to-warm-up child- low activity level, somewhat negative, low
intensity of mood


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships



Biological Foundations, Kagan......



Children inherit a particular type of temperament



Through experience they may learn to modify their temperament to
some degree


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships




Gender and Temperament



Shapes environmental context that influences temperament



Parental reactions may be different for boys vs girls

Culture and Temperament



May vary with parents from different groups



Childs environment can encourage or discourage the persistence of temperament
characteristics


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Goodness of Fit and Parenting- Refers to the match between a child's
temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must
cope



Active child in quiet environment



Slow to warm child in a new environment



.... Can cause parenting challenges


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Parenting and the Child's Temperament"



Attention to and respect for individuality



Structuring the Child's environment



Understanding 'difficult child'



Be sensitive to the individual characteristics of the child



Be flexible in responding to these characteristics



Avoid apply negative label to the child (avoiding self-fulfilling prophecy)


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Personality Development



Personality--the enduring personal characteristics of individuals



Emotions and temperament form key aspects of personality



Trust (Eriksons. Trust vs Mistrust)



Developing Sense of Self. (Self recognition and self-awareness)



Independence (autonomy vs. shame)


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships



Social Orientation



Face-to-face play - linked to secure attachment



Interaction with peers (18-24 months) - increase their imitative and
reciprocal play


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Locomotion



Influences exploration and expanding social world



Allows more independent social interchanges



The rewards from these pursuits lead to further efforts to explore and
develop skills


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships



Social referencing



Reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a
particular situation



By end of second year... They tend to check with their mother before
the act


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Attachment



A close emotional bond between two people



Securely attached babies-caregiver is a secure base to explore the environment



Insecure avoidant babies-show insecurity by avoiding the caregiver (clinging
anxiously or resisting,



Insecure disorganized babies-show insecurity by begin disorganized and disoriented
(dazed, confused, extreme fearful)- stronger avoidance and resistance


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


The Family





Constellation of subsystems (Generational, Gender, Role)



Father and child



Mother and father



Mother, father, child



Etc.

All with reciprocal influences


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


The Family



Transition to Parenthood



Disequilibrium and adaptation



New family effects on attachments



Other friends



Careers



Each other



Own interests



etc


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Reciprocal Socialization- mutual influence that parents and children exert
on each other



Socialization that is bidirectional



Children socialize parents



Parents socialize children


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Scaffolding- A type of Reciprocal Socialization



Practice in which parents time interactions so that infants experience
turn taking with parents



Parental behavior support the child with positive reciprocal feedback



Skill building



Peek-a-boo, pat-a cake, etc


Emotional Expression and Social
Relationships


Managing and Guiding Behavior



To reduce or eliminate undesirable behaviors



Includes, child-proofing the environment



And corrective methods such as throwing objects, fussing, crying



Diverting Attention, reasoning, ignoring, negotiating



Harsh physical punishment can be harmful and progressive


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