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Biology today september 2016


21

Vol. XVIII

No. 9

66

72

September 2016

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CONTENTS
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NEET Essential

Class XI

Central and Peripheral Nervous System

21 NEET Foundation
31 High Yield Facts-Zoology
Animal Kingdom

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48 High Yield Facts-Botany
Strategies for Enhancement in
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Mathematics Today
Chemistry Today
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Biology Today

66 CBSE Board 2016

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82 Bio-Gram
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MT BIOLOGY

TODAY | SEPTEMBER ‘16

7


The syllabus for NEET is very vast which impedes students from
acquiring indepth knowledge and covering the entire syllabus
at the same time. An essential topic for NEET is therefore
presented here to enable students grasp the topic, analyse the
type of questions and SCORE HIGH.

CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

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Cranium

Cerebrospinal
fluid (CSF)

Brain

The central nervous system (CNS) is the processing centre
of the nervous system. It receives and sends information
to peripheral nervous system. The brain and spinal cord
are continuous structures, which together form the
CNS. They are both protected by hard bony coveringsthe brain by the cranium and the spinal cord by the
vertebral column and by a continuous, tough, layered
membrane called the meninges. Both the brain and
spinal cord are bathed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF),
which is continuously circulated through the
cerebral ventricles, the cavity of the spinal cord
and the sub-arachnoid space. It serves as a pad to
cushion the CNS from shocks and mechanical injuries.
The CSF also carries oxygen and nutrients from the
blood to the neurons and neuroglia of the CNS.
Together, the brain and spinal cord act as the central
control system of the body, receiving and interpreting
sensory information from the rest of the body and sending back
signals to glands and muscles for appropriate responses.

Ventricles

Meninges
Spinal cord
Spinal cord cavity

Vertebral column


HUMAN BRAIN
The human brain is the command centre for the human nervous system. It receives input from the sensory organs and sends output
to the effectors. It processes and interprets sensory information sent from the spinal cord. The brain is covered by three protective
layers of connective tissue called meninges.
Dura mater
Outermost, tough, fibrous
membrane adhering closely to the
inside of the skull

Veins
Arachnoid mater
Thin “spider webby” structure

Subdural space
Space between arachnoid
membrane and duramater
Arachnoid granulation villi

Sub-arachnoid space
Space between arachnoid
membrane and pia mater and is
filled with CSF

Longitudinal fissure
Separates two cerebral
hemispheres

Pia mater
Innermost, thin, very delicate and
vascular membrane

Cerebral cortex

Cerebral vein

Fig.: Diagram Showing Meninges of Brain

Parts of Brain
Human Brain
i id d into
i 3 parts
Divided

Forebrain or Prosencephalon
Includes olfactory lobes, cerebrum
and diencephalon.

Midbrain or Mesencephalon
Comprises of corpora
quadrigemina and crura cerebri.

Hindbrain or Rhombencephalon
Consists of cerebellum, pons varolii
and medulla oblongata.
Parietal lobe of cerebral hemisphere

Third ventricle

Corpus callosum
Anterior choroid plexus

Frontal lobe of cerebral
hemisphere

Occipital lobe of cerebral hemisphere

Anterior commissure

Thalamus (encloses third ventricle)
Pineal body (part of epithalamus)
Corpora quadrigemina

Hypothalamus
Optic chiasma
Infundibulum
Pituitary gland
Temporal lobe of cerebral
hemisphere
Mammillary body
Pons

Cerebral aqueduct

Mid brain

Cerebral peduncle of midbrain
Arbor vitae
Fourth ventricle
Posterior choroid plexus
Cerebellum

Medulla oblongata
Spinal cord

Fig.: Median Section of Human Brain

Forebrain
Olfactory Lobes- Paired club shaped structure, forming anterior part of brain, concerned with sense of smell. Each lobe consists
of two parts - anterior olfactory bulb and posterior olfactory tract.
Cerebrum
Largest and most complex part of human brain, consists of left and right hemispheres, connected by corpus callosum (large
band of myelinated fibres). Cerebral cortex forms outermost portion of cerebrum and makes up the grey matter. The surface of
cortex is highly folded, forming gyri (upward folds) alternating with sulci (downward grooves).
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Cerebral cortex forms white matter of the brain. It contains million of medullated nerve fibres, connecting neurons of cerebral cortex
with those located elsewhere in the brain. Large concentration of medullated nerve fibres gives an opaque white appearance.
Motor Area
s Lies in the frontal lobe
s Transmit impulses to effectors
s Control of voluntary muscles

Parietal Lobe
s Sensations
s Language
s Perception
s Body awareness
s Attention

Sensory Area
s Lies in the parietal lobe
s Receive impulses from receptors
s Perceive skin sensations
(temperature, pressure, pain)

Occipital Lobe
s Vision
s Perception
Wernicke’s Area
s Lies in the left temporal lobe
s Language comprehension

Frontal Lobe
s Movement
s Problem solving
s Concentrating, thinking
s Behaviour, personality, mood

Cerebellum
s Posture
s Balance
s Coordination of movement

Broca’s Area
s Lies in the frontal lobe
s Speech control
Temporal Lobe
s Hearing
s Language
s Memory
s Emotions

Brain Stem
s Consciousness
s Breathing
s Heart rate
Fig.: Functional Areas of the Brain

Diencephalon
Epithalamus

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

s Forms anterior choroid plexus.
s Lies superior to mid-brain.
s Hypothalamus lies above the pituitary gland and is attached
to it by stalk called infundibulum.
s Short pineal stalk, have pineal body, s Composed primarily of grey
secretes hormone melatonin.
matter.
s Maintains homeostasis, provides anatomical connections
between nervous and endocrine systems.

Mid Brain
s 2 pairs of rounded protrusions present on upper or superior surface
of mid brain are called corpora quadrigemina.

s One pair is called superior colliculi (concerned with sense of sight)
and other pair is inferior colliculi (concerned with hearing).

s The superior and inferior colliculi of each side are termed corpora
bigemina.

Cerebral peduncles (crura cerebri)

Mid Brain

Corpora quadrigemina

s Crura cerebri are two bundles of fibres
present on lower or inferior surface of the
mid brain.

s They relay impulses back and forth
between the cerebrum, cerebellum, pons
and medulla.

Hind Brain
Cerebellum
Second largest part of the human brain, consists of 3 layers, outer layer of cells, cerebellar cortex and deeper cell clusters.
Middle layer contains characteristically large flask shaped Purkinje cells.
Cerebellum has two lateral cerebellar hemispheres and central worm shaped part, vermis.
It contains branching tree like arrangement of grey and white matter called arbor vitae (tree of life).
Functions: Controls posture, balance and mainly involuntary activities, receives information from muscles, joints, skin, eyes.

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Pons Varolii
It is situated in front of cerebellum below the mid brain and above the medulla oblongata.
Functions: It relays impulses between the medulla oblongata and superior part of brain, between hemispheres of cerebellum and
between cerebrum and cerebellum.
Pneumotaxic centre present in pons varolii limits inspiration.

Medulla Oblongata
Pyramid shaped, extends from pons varolii above and is continuous with spinal cord below.
It has thin, non-vascular folded structure on its lower side called posterior choroid plexus.
Functions: Regulatory centres for heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, sneezing, salivation, coughing etc.

The mid brain, pons varolii and medulla oblongata are collectively called brain stem, connecting forebrain with spinal cord.

Limbic system
– Consists of certain components of cerebrum and diencephalon.
– Main components are - (i) Hippocampus (ii) Amygdala (iii) Septal nuclei (iv) Mamillary bodies (v) Basal ganglia.
– It controls emotional behaviour, food habits and sex behaviour necessary for survival of species. Also called “emotional brain”.
Ventricles of the Brain: Within the central nervous system is a system of hollow cavities called ventricles. The network of
linked cavities in the brain (cerebral ventricles) is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord. The ventricles are filled
with cerebrospinal fluid which is produced by specialised epithelium located within the ventricles called the choroid plexus.
Lateral ventricles
Present inside each hemisphere
of the cerebrum.

Corpus callosum

Interventricular foramen (Foramen of Monro)
Connects lateral ventricle to the third ventricle
Third ventricle
Consists of narrow channel between the
hemispheres through the area of thalamus.

Septum pellucidum

Inferior tip of lateral ventricle
Cerebral aqueduct or Aqueduct of Sylvius or iter
Present in the midbrain portion of brainstem, connects
third ventricle to fourth ventricle in pons and medulla.
Cerebellum

Fourth ventricle
Continuous with the central canal of the spinal
cord, openings in fourth ventricle, allows CSF to
move upward to the sub-arachnoid space that
surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

Central canal
Fig.: Ventricles of Human Brain

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID (CSF)

Functions

The cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by anterior choroid plexus and posterior choroid plexus and is found inside the ventricles
of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord and in the sub-arachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord.

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Protection of brain
and spinal cord
by providing shock
absorbing medium.

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Provides buoyancy
to the brain, as
brain is immersed in
the CSF.

TODAY | SEPTEMBER ‘16

Excretion- CSF carries harmful
metabolic wastes, drugs, and
other substances from brain to
the blood.

Endocrine medium for
the brain - CSF carries
hormones to different
parts of the brain.


HUMAN SPINAL CORD
Location-The spinal cord is a cylindrical shaped bundle of nerve fibres
that is connected to the brain. It runs down mid-dorsally, in the centre of
the protective spinal column extending from the neck to the lower back. It
lies in the neural canal of veretebral column. Spinal cord nerves transmit
information from body organs and external stimuli to the brain and send
information from the brain to other areas of the body.
Covering Meninges - The spinal cord is surrounded by three protective
membranes; innermost piamater, middle arachnoid membrane and
outer, tough duramater. The sub-arachnoid space is filled with cerebrospinal
fluid and the additional epidural space, above duramater contains fatty
and connective tissues and veins.

Skull bone
C1 nerve
C1 vertebra

Skull bone
Foramen magnum
C1 vertebra

C1

Dorsal side

Ventral side

Dura mater
Arachnoid mater
Pia mater
C7 vertebra
T1 vertebra

C8
T1

C7 vertebra

T1 vertebra
T1 nerve
Fig. : Coverings of Human Spinal Cord

Posterior (dorsal) root
ganglion
Consists of cell bodies of
dorsal nerve root, having
sensory axons.

Posterior (dorsal) root
spinal nerve.
Posterior grey horn
Axons of dorsal nerve
root forms synapse with
other neurons, called
interneurons.

Spinal nerve
A spinal nerve arises from
each side of cord, in each
segment of spinal cord.
Anterior (ventral)
root of spinal nerve
Aggregations of motor
axons from cell bodies
present in anterior (grey)
horn, form ventral
nerve root.

Posterior median sulcus*
White column
White matter having
bundles of myelinated
nerve fibres.
Axon of sensory neuron
Lateral grey horn
Lies between anterior
and posterior horn.

Grey matter
Inner butterfly (H)
shaped area of spinal
cord, lacks myelin.

Cell body of sensory
neuron

Central canal
Hollow, contains CSF.

Axon of motor neuron

Anterior grey horn
Contains cell bodies
of motor neurons.

Nerve impulses for
sensations
Nerve impulses to
effector tissues (muscles
and glands)

Anterior median fissure*
Cell body of motor neuron
Fig. : T.S of Human Spinal Cord

*Posterior median sulcus and anterior median fissure separate spinal cord into left and right symmetrical halves.
Functions- Spinal cord performs two main functions:
(i) The stimuli are passed from and to the brain through the spinal cord.
(ii) It is the centre of spinal reflex action.

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. It consists of cranial nerves (nerves
originating from brain) and spinal nerves (nerves originating from spinal cord).
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Cranial Nerves
There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. They are so named because they pass through various openings in the cranial bones.
Table: Cranial nerves
Name

Origin

Distribution

Nature

Functions

1.

Olfactory

Olfactory epithelium in Olfactory lobe or bulb
nasal cavity

Sensory

Smell

2.

Optic

Retina of eye

Optic lobe of midbrain

Sensory

Sight (Retina of eye)

3.

Oculomotor

Floor of midbrain

Eye, 4 muscles of eyeball

Motor

Movements of eye-ball, iris, lens,
eyelid and constriction of pupil

4.

Trochlear
(Smallest cranial
nerve)

Floor of midbrain

Superior oblique muscles of eyeball

Motor

Rotation of eyeball

5.

Trigeminal (Largest
cranial nerve)
Divided into three:
(i) Opthalamic

Ventral surface of pons
varolii

Mixed



(ii) Maxillary



(iii) Mandibular



6.

Abducens

7.

Skin sensations
Sensations
Sensations, tongue movements,
mastication

External rectus muscle of eyeball

Motor

Rotation of eyeball

Facial (bears
Lower part of pons
geniculate ganglion) varolii

Anterior 2/3 tongue (taste buds),
muscles of face, neck and salivary
glands.

Mixed

Taste, facial expression, chewing,
movement of neck

8.

Auditory (also called Comes from internal
vestibulo-cochlear)
ear and joins lateral
side of pons varolii

Organ of Corti in cochlea, semicircular Sensory
canals

Hearing and equilibrium

9.

Glosso-pharyngeal

Lateral side of medulla

Posterior 1/3rd of tongue, soft palate
and muscles of pharynx

Mixed

Taste and touch, movements
(swallowing) of pharynx,
salivation

10. Vagus (Pneumogastric) (Longest
cranial nerve)
(i) Superior laryngeal
(ii) Recurrent
laryngeal
(iii) Cardiac
(iv) Pneumogastric
(v) Depressor

Lateral side and floor
of medulla

Muscles of pharynx, vocal cords,
lungs, heart, oesophagus, stomach.
Also called wandering nerve as
it has maximum branches

Mixed

Vocal cords (sound production),
lungs, respiratory reflexes,
peristaltic intestine movements,
speech, swallowing, secretion
of gastric glands, inhibition of
heart beat.

11. Spinal accessory
nerves

Both medulla and
spinal cord

Muscles of palate, larynx, vocal cords,
neck, shoulder

Motor

Movement of muscles of
pharynx, larynx, neck, shoulder.

12. Hypoglossal

Ventral side of medulla Muscles of tongue, hyoid apparatus
oblongata

Motor

Movement of tongue.

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Pons varolii

Lacrimal glands, conjunctiva of eye, Sensory
skin of forehead, eyelids etc.
Cheeks, upper gums, upper teeth Sensory
and lower eyelids
Teeth and gums of lower jaw, pinna Mixed
of the ear, lower lip and tongue

TODAY | SEPTEMBER ‘16


Olfactory (I)
sensory: nose

Intermediate motor:
submaxillary and
sublingual gland

Optic (II)
sensory: eye
I

II

Trochlear (IV)
motor: superior
oblique muscle

sensory: anterior
part of tongue and
I intermediate soft palate
Vestibulocochlear
nerve
(VIII) sensory:
inner ear
II

III

Abducens (VI) Oculomotor (III)
motor: external motor: all eye
rectus muscle
muscles except those
supplied by IV and VI

VII
VIII
IX
X
XI

V

IV

III

VI VI

IV

XII

Sensory: posterior
part of tongue,
tonsil, pharynx

vestibular
cochlear
V

Vagus (X) motor:
heart, lungs, bronchi,
gastrointestinal tract

VII
VIII
IX
X
XI

Sensory: heart, lungs,
bronchi, trachea,
larynx, pharynx,
gastrointestinal tract,
external ear

XII

Trigeminal (V)
sensory: face,
sinuses, teeth, etc.
motor: muscles
of mastication

Accessory (XI) motor:
muscles of pharynx, larynx,
neck.

Hypoglossal (XII)
motor: muscles of
the tongue

Facial (VII) motor:
muscles of the face

Glossopharyngeal
(IX) motor: pharyngeal
musculature

Fig.: Cranial Nerves

SPINAL NERVES
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, named and numbered according to the vertebrae with which they are associated.

31 pairs of
spinal nerves

Cervical nerves
(8 pairs)

Thoracic nerves
(12 pairs)

Lumbar nerves
(5 pairs)

Coccygeal nerves

Sacral nerves
(5 pairs)

(1 pair)

Structure - The spinal nerves are formed by union of dorsal and ventral roots shortly after they leave spinal cord. Each spinal
nerve has afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) fibres, in general, efferent comes from ventral root and afferent go into dorsal
root. Thus, all spinal nerves are mixed nerves because they carry both sensory and motor impulses.
– After leaving vertebral column, each spinal nerve divides into:
Posterior branch- innervates muscles and skin of the posterior portion of the body.
Anterior branch- innervates limbs and the lateral and anterior portions of the body.

The main spinal
nerves join to
form plexus

Cervical plexus
Innervates neck and diaphragm

Coccygeal plexus
Innervates skin and pelvic region

Lumbar plexus
Innervates the legs

Brachial plexus
Innervates chest and arm

Sacral plexus
Connects pelvic region

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
This system controls and coordinates involuntary activities of various organs, e.g., secretion of digestive fluid.
ANS is divisible into two parts: Sympathetic and parasympathetic neural system.
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Table:

Differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural system

Sympathetic Neural System
Parasympathetic Neural System
Anatomical Differences
(i) It has paired chains of ganglia and other visceral ganglia. Chains of ganglia are absent. It has ganglia very close to
the organ supplied.
(ii) Its preganglionic fibres originate from the spinal cord.
Its preganglionic fibres originate from the brain and spinal
cord. Those preganglionic fibres which come from the brain
run along with the III, VII, IX and X cranial nerves while
those coming from spinal cord pass through 2,3 and 4 sacral
spinal nerves.
(iii) Its preganglionic fibres are shorter than the postganglionic Its preganglionic fibres are much longer than the
fibres.
postganglionic fibres.
(iv) Each preganglionic fibre forms synapses with many Each preganglionic fibre synapses with only a few
postganglionic fibres, so many organs are affected.
postganglionic fibres, thus, only one organ may be
affected.
Physiological Differences
(v) Its postganglionic fibres are adrenergic i.e., release the Its postganglionic fibres are cholinergic i.e., release the
neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
neurotransmitter noradrenaline (norepinephrine).
(vi) It stimulates the medulla of the adrenal glands to release None.
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Table: Differences between adrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibres
Adrenergic Nerve Fibres
Cholinergic Nerve Fibres
(i)

These nerve fibres release neurotransmitters
adrenaline and noradrenaline at their terminations.
(ii) These are generally preganglionic sympathetic
fibres.
The functions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neural

These nerve fibres release neurotransmitter acetylcholine at their
terminations.
These are generally all sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic
nerve fibres and all parasympathetic post ganglionic nerve fibres.
systems are antagonistic to each other.

Parasympathetic division

Sympathetic division
Eye

Constricts
pupil
Stimulates saliva
secretion

Dilates
pupil

Salivary
glands

Inhibits saliva
secretion
Lung

Dilates bronchi

Constricts
bronchi
Slows heart
beat
Promotes glycogen
formation

Accelerates heart beat

Heart
Liver

Adrenal
gland

Stomach
Pancreas

Stimulates stomach,
pancreas, and intestine
secretion
Constricts
bladder
Promotes erection of
genitals

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Intestines
Bladder

Stimulates epinephrine
and norepinephrine
release
Stimulates glucose release
Inhibits stomach, pancreas, and
intestine secretion
Relaxes
bladder

Promotes ejaculation and
vaginal contractions
Fig. : Functions of Autonomic Neural System
Genitalia


Central Nervous System
The central nervous system (CNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord
and is responsible for integrating,
processing, and coordinating sensory
data and motor commands.

Information processing
includes the integration and
distribution of information in CNS.

Peripheral Nervous System The
peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes
all the neural tissue outside the CNS.
The sensory division of the
PNS brings information to the CNS
from receptors in peripheral tissues
and organs.

Somatic sensory
receptors provide position,
touch, pressure, pain and
temperature sensations.

Special sensory
receptors provide
sensations of smell, taste,
vision, balance and hearing.

Visceral sensory receptors
monitor internal organs.
Start

Receptors are sensory structures that detect
changes in the internal or external environment.

The motor division of the PNS
carries motor commands from the
CNS to peripheral tissues and systems.
includes
The somatic
nervous
system (SNS)
controls
skeletal muscle
contractions.

The autonomic nervous
system (ANS) provides
automatic regulation of
smooth muscle, cardiac
muscle, glands, and
adipose tissue.

Parasympathetic
division conserves
energy and promotes
housekeeping
functions during rest.

Sympathetic
division mobilises
body systems
during activity (fight
or flight).

Effectors are target organs whose activities
change in response to neural commands.
Flow chart : Flow of information from receptors to effectors via CNS and PNS

New MCQs
1.

Membrane adhering closely to the skull is
(a) arachnoid
(b) endometrium
(c) piamater
(d) duramater.

2.

Purkinje cells are present in
(a) medulla
(b) hypothalamus
(c) cerebrum
(d) cerebellum.

3.

Which cranial nerves has the maximum number of
branches?
(a) Vagus nerve
(b) Trigeminal
(c) Facial nerve
(d) Hypoglossal

4.

How many pairs of cranial nerves are sensory?
(a) 3
(b) 5
(c) 4

5.

6.

Number of lumbar spinal nerves are
(a) 12 pairs
(b) 8 pairs
(c) 1 pair
(d) 5 pairs.
Pineal body is present in
(a) diencephalon
(b) rhombencephalon
(c) telencephalon
(d) mesencephalon.

7.

Which of the following cranial nerve of man is both sensory
and motor ?
(a) Olfactory
(b) Optic
(c) Trigeminal
(d) Vagus

8.

Given is the diagram of human brain.
Identify A, B, C and D correctly.
(a) A-Corpus callosum, B- Hind brain,
C- Medulla oblongata, D-Cerebral
aqueduct
(b) A-Thalamus, B-Cerebellum,
C- Spinal cord, D- Brain stem
(c) A-Corpus callosum, B- Cerebellum,
C- Medulla oblongata, D- Pons
(d) A- Cerebrum, B-Brain stem,
C- Spinal cord, D- Medulla oblongata

(d) 6
9.

A

B
D
C

The inner parts of cerebral hemispheres and a group of
associated deep structures like amygdala, hippocampus,
etc. form a complex structure called
(a) arbor vitae
(b) limbic system
(c) corpora quadrigemina (d) reticular system.
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10. The 3rd, 6th and 7th cranial nerves are

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

17. One reason for the division of the ANS is that the

oculomotor, abducens and facial
oculomotor, trigeminal and accessory
optic, facial and spinal accessory
trochlear, abducens and vagus.

(a) sympathetic signals are transmitted from the spinal
cord to the periphery through two successive neurons,
in contrast to one neuron for parasympathetic signals
(b) sympathetic fibres alone innervate organs in the
abdominal cavity
(c) sympathetic fibres alone arise from the spinal cord
(d) effects of the two divisions on the organs are usually
antagonistic.

11. Read the following statements carefully and select the

correct option.
(i) The medulla is connected to the spinal cord.
(ii) Medulla contains controlling centres for respiration,
cardiovascular reflexes and gastric secretion.
(iii) Hypothalamus influences respiration.
(iv) Corpora quadrigemina is concerned with hearing.
(a) (i) and (iv) only
(b) (ii) and (iii) only
(c) (iii) and (iv) only
(d) (i), (ii) and (iii)

18. Post ganglionic nerve fibres of parasympathetic ANS are

(a) cholinergic
(c) dopaminergic

19. Limbic system is involved in

(i) thermoregulation
(ii) regulation of sexual behaviour
(iii) expression of emotional reactions (e.g., excitement,
pleasure, rage and fear)
(iv) respiration
Choose the correct option.
(a) (ii) and (iii)
(b) Only (iii)
(c) (i), (iii) and (iv)
(d) (i), (ii) and (iii)

12. The grey matter of spinal cord is

(i) butterfly shaped and present outside the white matter
(ii) grey in colour in unstained preparation
(iii) matter lacking myelinated nerve fibres
(iv) contains interneurons.
Correct statements are:
(a) (i) and (iii) only
(b) (ii), (iii) and (iv) only
(c) (ii) and (iv) only
(d) (i), (ii) and (iii) only.

20. Which pair of nerve and organ innervation is incorrect?

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

13. In a man, abducens nerve is injured. Which one of the

following functions will be affected?
(a) Movement of the eyeball
(b) Movement of the tongue
(c) Swallowing
(d) Movement of the neck
division of the ANS and choose the correct option.
(I) All its neurons release norepinephrine as their primary
neurotransmitter substance.
(II) All the cell bodies of its post-ganglionic neurons lie in
or near the organ innervated.
(III) The cell bodies of its pre-ganglionic neurons lie in the
thoracic and lumbar regions.
(a) I is true
(b) II is ture
(c) III is true
(d) I and III are true
(a) It form a branching tree like core of white matter,
called arbor vitae.
(b) It is a very narrow cavity, the cerebral aqueduct,
extending through the forebrain.
(c) It is a very narrow cavity, the cerebral aqueduct,
extending through the midbrain.
(d) It connects the pons varolii and cerebellum.
16. Identify the ventricle of the brain

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Eye muscle
Abdominal viscera
Taste buds
Facial muscles

1.

The pneumotaxic centre and respiratory rhythm centres are
respectively present in
(a) pons and medulla oblongata
(b) corpus callosum and pons
(c) medulla oblongata and hypothalamus
(d) diencephalon and pons.
(AMU 2015)

2.

Which one of the following acts solely as an inhibitory
neurotransmitter?
(a) Norepinephrine
(b) Gamma (γ) amino butyric acid
(c) Acetylcholine
(WB JEE 2015)
(d) Dopamine

3.

Injury localised to the hypothalamus would most likely disrupt
(a) short - term memory
(b) coordination during locomotion
(c) executive functions, such as decision making
(d) regulation of body temperature.
(AIPMT 2014)

4.

How do parasympathetic neural signals affect the working
of the heart?
(a) Reduce both heart rate and cardiac output.
(b) Heart rate is increased without affecting the cardiac output.
(c) Both heart rate and cardiac output increase.
(d) Heart rate decreases but cardiac output increases.

15. Which of the following statements is correct for iter?

18

Trochlear
Vagus nerve
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Hypoglossal nerve

Exam Section

14. Consider the following statements about the sympathetic

represented by A in the given diagram.
(a) Third ventricle
(b) Foramen of Monro
(c) Iter
(d) Fourth ventricle

(b) adrenergic
(d) GABA nergic.

A

(AIPMT 2014)


5.

Which excitatory neurotransmitter is involved in the
transmission of impulse at the neuro-muscular junction?
(a) Epinephrine
(b) Serotonin
(c) Acetylcholine
(d) Glycine
(WB JEE 2014)

Which area of cerebral cortex is responsible for the
interpretation of speech?
(a) Broca’s area
(b) Wernicke’s area
(c) Premotor area
(d) Association area of sensory cortex
(WB JEE 2014)
7. Norepinephrine
(i) is released by sympathetic fibres
(ii) is released by parasympathetic fibres
(iii) increases the heart rate
(iv) decreases blood pressure.
Which of the above statements are correct?
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (ii) and (iv)
(d) (i) and (iv)
(NEET - Karnataka 2013)
8. A person entering an empty room suddenly finds a snake
right in front on opening the door. Which one of the
following is likely to happen in his neuro-hormonal control
system?
(a) Sympathetic nervous system is activated releasing
epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal medulla.
(b) Neurotransmitters diffuse rapidly across the cleft and
transmit a nerve impulse.
(c) Hypothalamus activates the parasympathetic division
of brain.
(d) Sympathetic nervous system is activated releasing
epinephrine and norepinephrine from adrenal cortex.
(AIPMT Prelims 2012)
6.

9.

Parasympathetic ganglia are present in
(a) head and neck
(b) chains of lateral ganglia
(c) grey matter of thoracic and lumbar region of spinal cord
(d) all of these.
(AFMC 2012)

10. The optic lobes in humans are represented by the corpora

(a) bigemina
(b) arenacea
(c) allata
(d) quadrigemina. (AMU 2012)
11. Integration of the visual, tactile and auditory inputs occurs
in the
(a) peripheral nervous system
(b) corpus callosum
(c) limbic system
(d) medulla oblongata (e) midbrain. (Kerala 2012)
12. Body posture, equilibrium and rapid muscular activities are

controlled by
(a) diencephalon
(c) olfactory lobes

(b) cerebellum
(d) hypothalamus.
(Odisha 2012)

13. Third and fourth ventricles of the brain are connected by

(a) aqueduct of Sylvius (b) foramen of Monro
(c) foramen of Magnum (d) corpus callosum.
(WB JEE 2012)

14. The tract of nerve fibres which connects the cerebral

hemispheres is
(a) corpus luteum
(b) corpus callosum
(c) corpora quadrigemina
(d) cerebral aqueduct
(e) foramen Magnum.
(Kerala 2011)
15. Movement of tongue muscle is controlled by

(a) facial nerve
(c) hypoglossal nerve

(b) trigeminal nerve
(d) vagus nerve. (WB-JEE 2011)

16. Which function will be lost due to damage of occipital

lobe?
(a) Hearing
(c) Vision

(b) Speech
(d) Memory

(WB-JEE 2011)

17. The third ventricle of the brain is situated in the

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

base of telencephalon
roof of metencephalon
roof of diencephalon
base of myelencephalon.

(AMU 2010)

18. Which of the following is not an effect of the sympathetic

nervous system ?
(a) Dilation of pupil
(b) Inhibition of peristalsis
(c) Elevation of blood pressure
(d) Stimulation for saliva secretion

(AMU 2010)

19. Which of the following nerves innervates alimentary

canal?
(a) Oculomotor
(c) Trigeminal

(b) Abducens
(d) Vagus
(Odisha 2010)

20. Parasympathetic nerves arise from which region of the

nervous system?
(a) Thoracolumbar
(c) Craniosacral

(b) Cervical
(d) Lumbar (UP-CPMT2010)

Assertion & Reason
The following questions consist of two statements each : assertion
(A) and reason (R). To answer these questions, mark the correct
alternative as directed below :
(a) If both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation
of A.
(b) If both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation
of A.
(c) If A is true but R is false.
(d) If both A and R are false.
1. Assertion (A) : Hypothalamus regulates secretion of
neurohormones.
Reason (R) : Hypothalamus links nervous system and
endocrine system.
2. Assertion (A) : The space between arachnoid membrane
and pia-mater of brain is filled with cerebrospinal fluid.
Reason (R) : Cerebrospinal fluid provides medium for
exchange of food materials and respiratory gases.
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3. Assertion (A) : All cranial nerves are sensory nerves.
Reason (R) : All cranial nerves carry impulses from receptors
to brain.
4. Assertion (A) : The cerebral cortex makes up the grey
matter of brain.
Reason (R) : Cerebral cortex has high concentration of non
medullated nerve fibres.
5. Assertion (A) : Sympathetic preganglionic neurons are
adrenergic.
Reason (R) : Sympathetic preganglionic neurons stimulate
adrenal gland to secrete adrenaline and noradrenaline.

Short Answer Type Questions
1.

(a) corpora quadrigemina
(c) foramen of Monro

2.

Functions of cerebrospinal fluid are:
(i) It acts as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal
cord.
(ii) It nourishes brain tissue by transporting constant supply
of food and oxygen.
(iii) It also carries harmful metabolic wastes, drugs and
other substances from the brain to the blood.
(iv) Maintains a constant pressure inside the cranium
inspite of variation in the pressure of blood in the cranial
vessels.

3.

The differences between cerebrum and cerebellum:
Cerebrum
Cerebellum
(i) It is a part of fore brain. It is a part of hind brain.

Short Answer Type Questions
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Fill in the blanks:
(a) Paired rounded protrusions present on superior surface
of mid brain are_______.
(b) Cranial nerve originating from both brain and spinal
cord is________.
(c) Lateral ventricle of brain is connected to third ventricle
by_______.
(d) _______ is the smallest cranial nerve and ______ is
the largest cranial nerve.
Write the functions of cerebrospinal fluid.
Differentiate between cerebrum and cerebellum.
Write the effects of sympathetic nervous system on heart,
pancreas, urinary bladder and sweat glands.
Briefly describe the internal structure of spinal cord.
Write a short note on cholinergic neurons.
Identify the central lobes of brain associated with following
functions :
(a) Decoding and interpretation of sound, language and
smell.
(b) Sensory perception of touch and pain.
(c) Decoding and interpretation of visual information.

ANSWER

KEY

(ii) It consists of two
cerebral hemispheres.
(iii) Arbor vitae is absent in
cerebrum.

(d)
(a)
(d)
(a)

2.
7.
12.
17.

(d)
(c)
(b)
(d)

3.
8.
13.
18.

(a)
(c)
(a)
(a)

4.
9.
14.
19.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(a)

5.
10.
15.
20.

(d)
(a)
(c)
(d)

(d)
(a)
(a)

4.
9.
14.
19.

(a)
(a)
(b)

5.
10.
15.
20.

(c)
(d)
(c)

Exam Section
1.
6.
11.
16.

(a)
(b)
(e)
(c)

2.
7.
12.
17.

(b)
(a)
(b)
(c)

3.
8.
13.
18.

(d)

(d)

4.

1.
20

(a)

2.

(b)

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(d)

4.

TODAY | SEPTEMBER ‘16

(d)

5.

(c)

Effects of sympathetic
are as follows:
Heart

Pancreas

Urinary bladder –
Sweat glands


nervous system on different organs
accelerates heart beat
inhibits secretion
relaxes bladder
increases secretion

5.

The internal anatomy of spinal cord shows grey matter and
white matter. Grey matter is inner, butterfly shaped area and
lacks myelin, thus, giving grey appearance. Surrounding the
grey matter is the white matter, with high concentration of
myelinated nerve fibres, giving opaque white appearance.
The dorsal and ventral nerve root connect spinal nerve with
spinal cord. The dorsal nerve root consists of sensory axon
and ventral nerve root contains motor axons.

6.

Cholinergic neurons release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
(Ach). In the ANS, the cholinergic neurons include (a) all
sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons,
(b) sympathetic postganglionic neurons that innervate most
sweat glands and (c) all parasympathetic postganglionic
neurons. The preganglionic fibres of both sympathetic and
parasympathetic neural system are cholinergic.

7.

(a)
(c)

(c)

Assertion & Reason

It consists of two
cerebellar hemispheres
and a vermis.
Arbor vitae is present in
cerebellum.

(iv) It contains various
It maintains posture and
functional areas and is
equilibrium.
mainly concerned with
intelligence, memory, etc.

New MCQs
1.
6.
11.
16.

(b) accessory nerve
(d) Trochlear, trigeminal

Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe

(b) Parietal lobe



Maximise your chance of success in NEET by reading this article. This section is specially designed to optimise your preparation
by practising more and more. It is a unit wise series having chapterwise question bank, allowing you to prepare systematically
and become more competent.
Recall question or single concept question – indicated by a single finger.
Application question or question which requires 2 or 3 concepts - indicated by 2 fingers.
Application question or question which requires 3 or more concepts - indicated by 3 fingers.

UNIT-IV : PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
CHAPTER-11 : TRANSPORT IN PLANTS

Multiple Choice Questions
1. The translocation of water in higher plants is always
(a) unidirectional
(b) bidirectional
(c) multidirectional
(d) both ‘a’ and ‘b’.
2. Consider two cells A and B. The cell has OP = 8 atm and
TP = 5 atm, while cell B has OP = 6 atm and TP = 2 atm.
What changes do you suppose to observe in the cells?
(a) Development of higher DPD in cell A
(b) Reduction of wall pressure in both the cells
(c) Development of higher DPD in cell B
(d) Development of same DPD in both the cells
3. Read the following statements carefully and choose the
incorrect statements.
I. The total water content present in soil is called chresard.
II. The water available to plants is called holard.
III. Capillary water is the only water available to plant roots.
IV. The soil water unavailable to plants is called echard.
(a) I and III
(b) II and IV
(c) I and II
(d) II, III and IV
4. Jams and jellies are preserved by addition of sugar because it
(a) kill bacterial and fungal spores
(b) cause plasmolysis of cells
(c) creates osmotic shock
(d) all of these.

5. During transpiration, the stomata opens when guard cells
(a) lose K+ ions
(b) lose H+ ions
+
(c) gain entry of K ions (d) lose Cl– ions.
6. Consider the following statements with reference
to translocation of mineral ions. Choose the correct
statements from the following.
I. Minerals are received by cells through active uptake.
II. Minerals pass through both xylem and phloem in an
inorganic form.
III. Minerals are unloaded at fine vein endings through
diffusion.
IV. All the minerals from older senescing parts are
remobilised to young growing parts.
(a) I, II and IV
(b) I and III
(c) III and IV
(d) All of these
7. The food or carbohydrates formed in leaf are translocated
through sieve tubes in the form of sucrose. It appears most
suitable for this purpose as
(a) it is a reducing sugar (b) chemically unstable
(c) does not react with other substances
(d) all of these.
8. Farmers can grow crops even in unirrigated areas or desert
areas with the help of some chemicals. Choose the correct
chemical that can help the farmer to grow plants in such
regions.
(a) Gibberellin
(b) Phenyl mercuric acetate
(c) Arsenic emulsion (d) Cyanide
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9. Maximum root pressure is observed during
(a) drought and starvation
(b) rainy season in temperate habitat
(c) low temperature
(d) spring season in temperate habitat.
10. Consider the following statements with reference to
guttation and choose the incorrect statements.
I. Guttation is exudation of water in the form of droplets
from the margins of leaves.
II. Guttated liquid is pure water.
III. Guttation may occur during any time in a day when
water is available in excess.
IV. Guttation takes places through special structures
called hydathodes.
(a) I and II
(b) II and III
(c) III only
(d) I and IV

Match The Columns
11. Match the Column I with Column II.
Column I
Column II
A. Root pressure
(i) Cell wall
B. Transpiration pull
(ii) Active water absorption
C. Apoplast pathway
(iii) Plasmodesmata
D. Symplast pathway
(iv) Passive water absorption
12. Match Column I with Column II. (There can be more than
one match for items in Column I).
Column I
Column II
A.
B.
C.
D.

Stomata
Hydathodes
Anti-transpirants
Wilting

(i) Reduction in photosynthesis
(ii) Abscisic acid
(iii) Epithem
(iv) Loss of turgidity
(v) Water drops
(vi) Exchange of gases
(vii) Silicon emulsions
(viii) Guard cells

Passage Based Question
13. Complete the given passage with appropriate words or
phrases.
(i)_ is directional movement of substances in plants. The
translocation of organic substances occur over long
distances between (ii)_ and _(iii)_. Since, the relationship
between the two is variable, it is (iv)_. When source and
sink lies on opposite sides, it shows _(v)_. The mechanism
of translocation of organic solutes is best explained by
_ (vi) _. It states that organic solutes move from region
of high to region of low osmotic pressure due to _ (vii) _
gradient. A high osmotic concentration develops in _(viii)
22

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TODAY | SEPTEMBER ‘16

of source, which absorb water and develop high turgor
pressure. This results in _(ix)__ of solutes in sink which
maintains _(x)_ by converting soluble solutes into insoluble
forms and water passes back into xylem.

Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A)
is given and a corresponding statement of Reason (R) is given
just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as :
(a) If both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) If both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) If A is true but R is false.
(d) If both A and R are false.
14. Assertion : The tallest trees of the world include redwoods
and conifers.
Reason : The tracheidal xylem is least affected by
gravitational pull under tension.
15. Assertion : Apoplast pathway is the rapid means of
movement of water through cells.
Reason : Apoplast pathway is affected by the metabolic
state of root cells.
16. Assertion : Aquaporins are membrane proteins for active
transport of water soluble substances.
Reason : Aquaporins transport substances against the
concentration gradient.
17. Assertion : Wind velocity does not always increase the
rate of transpiration.
Reason : A very high wind velocity results in closure of
stomata due to mechanical effect, drying and cooling.
18. Assertion : Phycocolloids show maximum imbibition
capacity.
Reason : Lignin being hydrophobic, remains unaffected
by imbibition.

Figure Based Questions
19. Consider the given figure and answer the following
questions.
Leaves
(a) What is being tried
to deduce from given
exprimental set-up?
Red
coloured
(b) State the significance
veins
of using eosine in
Shoot
the experiment.
Beaker
(c) How the colour
travels from solution
Eosine
to veins of leaf?
solution


20. Refer to the given figure showing stomatal apparatus and
answer the following questions.
Chloroplast
C
A
B
Epidermal cell

(a) Identify the parts A, B and C.
(b) State any two functions of A.
(c) What is the role of ‘C’ in stomatal apparatus?
CHAPTER-12 : MINERAL NUTRITION

Multiple Choice Questions
1. Which of the following nutrients is requried by plants in
least quantity?
(a) Nickel
(b) Molybdenum
(d) Zinc
(c) Copper
2. Identify the set of nutrients that are involved in translocation
of organic substances in phloem.
(I) Potassium
(II) Boron
(III) Magnesium
(IV) Calcium
(a) I and IV
(b) II and III
(c) I and II
(d) II, III and IV
3. Carefully read the following statements and choose the
correct statements from the options given below.
I. Hydroponics is the practice of growing plants in
nutrient enriched water, without soil.
II. Hydroponics is useful for cultivation of plants in areas
with thin, infertile and dry soils.
III. Hydroponics is not useful in controlling the soil
pathogens and problems of weeding.
IV. Only seasonal vegetables can be successfully grown
through hydroponics, but not flowering plants.
(a) I and IV
(b) II and III
(c) I, III and IV
(d) I and II
4. The microorganism responsible for conversion of nitrates
to gaseous nitrogen is
(a) Nitrosomonas
(b) Nitrocystis
(c) Micrococcus
(d) Bacillus ramosus.
5. The micronutrient ‘zinc’ acts as an activator of
(a) alcohol dehydrogenase
(b) amino acid oxidase
(c) phosphoenol pyrvuate carboxylase
(d) phosphofructokinase.

6. Choose the most appropriate function of leghaemoglobin
in leguminous plants.
(a) Protects plant tissues from damage due to invasion
of symbiotic bacteria.
(b) Reversibly absorbs oxygen which inhibit nitrogen fixation.
(c) Ability to absorb oxygen even at low concentration
and provide it to nitrogen fixing bacteria.
(d) Irreversibly binds to oxygen so as to inhibit nitrogen
fixation.
7. Identify the elements that causes toxic effect upon protoplasm.
(a) Carbon, sulphur, oxygen
(b) Arsenic, copper, mercury
(c) Copper, calcium, phosphorus
(d) Silicon, copper, arsenic
8. Metabolic energy utilised in uptake of ions is demonstrated by
(a) decreased ion uptake in presence of oxygen
(b) increased uptake in presence of NAD
(c) increased ion uptake in presence of oxygen
(d) increased ion uptake in presence of ATP.
9. Consider the given statements regarding mineral toxicity
and choose the incorrect pair of statements.
I. Critical toxic concentration is same for all
micronutrients in different plants.
II. Brown spots surrounded by chlorotic veins in leaf is
due to magnesium toxicity.
III. Magnesium toxicity reduces the uptake of iron and
calcium.
IV. The excess of manganese causes deficiency of iron,
magnesium and calcium.
(a) I, II and III
(b) III and IV
(c) I and IV
(d) None of the above
10. Corky core in apples is caused due to deficiency of nutrient
(a) zinc
(b) magnesium
(c) boron
(d) chlorine.

Match The Columns
11. Match the nutrients in Column I with their deficiency
symptoms or diseases given in Column II.
Column I
Column II
A. Iron
(i) Blossom end rot of tomato
B. Potassium
(ii) Disintegration of plastids
C. Calcium
(iii) Sterile flowers
D. Nickel
(iv) Inhibition of chloroplast formation
E. Manganese
(v) Leaf tip necrosis
12. Match the Column I with Column II. (There can be more
than one match for items in Column I).
Column I
Column II
A. Free living N2 fixing
(i) Anabaena
bacteria
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B. Symbiotic N2 fixing
bacteria
C. Free living N2 fixing
cyanobacteria
D. Symbiotic N2 fixing
cyanobacteria
E. Abiological N2
fixation

(ii) Trichodesmium
(iii) Klebsiella
(iv) Aulosira
(v) Rhizobium
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)

Nostoc
Frankia
Fertilisers
Beijerinckia
Chromatium

Passage Based Question
13. Complete the given passage with appropriate words or
phrases.
The most important source of nitrogen in plants is (i) ,which
though accumulates in cell sap but cannot be utilised
by plants as such. It is therefore reduced by enzyme
(ii) to nitrite. Another metalloflavoprotein, called
(iii) acts on nitrite. It requires NADPH (reducing power) and
(iv) to produce (v) . The product is not released, rather
combines with organic acids like oxaloacetic acid to form
_(vi)_. Ammonia reacts with glutamic acid in the presence
of enzyme _(vii)_ and ATP to form an amide called _(viii)_.
The transfer of amino group of one amino acid with keto
group of keto acid is called _(ix)_. _(x)_ is the primary
amino acid involved in amino group transfer.

Reason : Magnesium and potassium minimise the toxic
effects of heavy elements.
17. Assertion : Salt uptake increases with increase in rate
of transport of water.
Reason : Active absorption of mineral salts involves
carrier compounds present in plasma membrane of
cells.
18. Assertion : The root nodules in legumes are pinkish in
colour.
Reason : The enzyme dinitrogenase is present in plant
cell wall.

Figure Based Questions
19. Carefully observe the given figure and answer the
following questions.
Nutrient mist
chamber

(a) Name the process being depicted in the figure.
(b) How do the plants receive nutrients in absence of soil?
(c) Name a few plants successfully grown by given process.
20. Consider the figure showing stages of nodule formation,
and answer the given questions.

Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A)
is given and a corresponding statement of Reason (R) is given
just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as :
(a) If both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A.
(b) If both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) If A is true but R is false.
(d) If both A and R are false.
14. Assertion : The deficiency symptoms of nutrients like
calcium and sulphur appear first in young tissues and
leaves.
Reason : The calcium and sulphur are immobile elements
in plants.
15. Assertion : The movement and entry of ions takes place
by active absorption.
Reason : Absorption of ions into inner space takes place
passively.
16. Assertion : Elements like magnesium and potassium
exhibit similar balancing functions.
24

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Motor-driven rotor

Nutrient
solution

Root hair
Bacteria

A

B

Vascular strand
Vesicles

Vesicle containing
rhizobia

Infected
cells

C

D

(a) Identify the stages being shown through A, B, C and D.
(b) Name the bacteria and a plant showing this type of
relationship.
(c) Which enzyme and elements participate in the process
occuring inside the nodule?


Multiple Choice Questions
1. Chloroplast will show the maximum concentration of
(a) fructose
(b) RuBP carboxylase
(c) starch
(d) 3-PGA.
2. Study the following statements regarding chl a molecule.
(i) Molecular formula of chl a is C55H72O5N4Mg.
(ii) It is the primary photosynthetic pigment.
(iii) In pure state, it is red in colour and thus, it absorbs
more blue wavelength of light than the red
wavelength.
(iv) It is soluble in water as well as petroleum ether.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (iii) and (iv)
(c) (iii) only
(d) (iv) only
3. Choose the correct pair describing the location of
photosystems.
(a) PS I – appressed regions of granal thylakoids
(b) PS II – stromal thylakoids
(c) PS I – non-appressed parts of granal thylakoids
(d) PS II – partition regions of stromal thylakoids
4. Consider the following statements related to photosynthetic
pigments and identify the incorrect ones.
I. Chlorophylls are the primary photosynthetic pigments.
II. The pigment phycoerythrin imparts red colour to
tomatoes and chillies.
III. The yellowish colour of autumnal foliage is due to
phycobilin pigments.
IV. Carotenes act as accessory pigments as they help in
trapping most of the light energy.
(a) I and III
(b) I and II
(c) II, III and IV
(d) All of these
5. Which organism possesses a single photosystem with
reaction centre similar to PS I?
(a) Blue green algae
(b) Cryptomonads
(c) Red algae
(d) Rhodopseudomonas
6. Identify the correct statement regarding photorespiration.
(a) It is very useful process occurring in tropical plants.
(b) It occurs only when both temperature and oxygen is low.
(c) It protects the plant from photo-oxidative damage.
(d) It helps in conserving energy when stomata gets
closed due to water stress.

7. Given graph represents the absorption spectra of three
photosynthetic pigments, chl a, chl b and β-carotene.

 




CHAPTER-13 : PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN HIGHER PLANTS

B





















Which of the following statements are correct regarding
this?
(a) The curve showing the amount of absorption of
different wavelengths of light by a photosynthetic
pigment is absorption spectrum.
(b) Chl a and chl b absorb maximum light in blue and red
wavelengths of light.
(c) Both (a) and (b). (d) None of these.
8. The phenomenon of solarisation in plants occurs due to
(a) reduction in hydration and closure of stomata
(b) oxidation of photosynthetic pigments and enzymes
(c) decline in rate of photosynthesis
(d) all of these.
9. Identify the true characteristic of Kranz anatomy in C4
plants.
(a) Mesophyll cells have large and agranal chloroplasts.
(b) Chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells are agranal.
(c) Chloroplasts of mesophyll cells have peripheral
reticulum and starch grains.
(d) Bundle sheath cells have primary CO2 acceptor-PEP.
10. How many molecules of ATP and NADPH will be consumed
by a maize plant to produce 1 glucose molecule?
ATP
NADPH
(a) 6
12
(b) 3
18
(c) 30
12
(d) 18
20

Match The Columns
11. Match the names of scientists in Column I with their
discoveries in Column II.
Column I
Column II
A. Peter Mitchell
(i) Light and dark phases
of photosynthesis
B. Daniel Arnon
(ii) Z-scheme of photosystems
C. Caventou
(iii) Chemiosmotic hypothesis
D. Hill and Bendall
(iv) Discovered chlorophyll
E. Emerson and Arnold (v) Photophosphorylation
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25


12. Match the Column I with Column II. (There can be more
than one match for items in Column I).
Column I
Column II
(i) Succulents
A. C3 cycle
B. C4 cycle
(ii) Cyclic photophosphorylation
C. PS I
(iii) Chlorella
D. PS II
(iv) Tropical plants
E. CAM
(v) PEP
(vi) P680
(vii) P700
(viii) Kranz anatomy
(ix) Conserve water
(x) RuBP

17. Assertion : Photocatalytic splitting of water takes place
in oxygen evolving complex, attached to inner surface of
thylakoid membrane.
Reason : The release of oxygen cannot take place in
absence of Mn2+, Ca2+ and Cl– ions.
18. Assertion : C4 plants show a high tolerance to high
temperature, aridity and salinity.
Reason : RuBisCO acts purely as carboxylase.

Figure Based Questions
19.

Consider the given figure and answer the following
questions.

Passage Based Question
13. Complete the given passage with appropriate words or
phrases.
The primary CO2 acceptor of C3 plants is (i) . It binds with
(ii) as well as with (iii) . This affinity for latter causes a
‘glitch’ in photosynthesis called as (iv) . Certain plants have
evolved alternate methods to avoid this process and fix CO2
by (v) ,as in sugarcane. These plants exhibit characteristic
(vi) and enzyme (vii) to fix CO2. The Calvin cycle in such
plants takes place in (viii) cells. This costs the cell extra
energy. Therefore, plants in very hot climates have adopted
another pathway namely (ix) . These plants conserve water
as they keep their (x) closed during day and open them
only at night.,

Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A)
is given and a corresponding statement of Reason (R) is given
just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as :
(a) if both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) if both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation
of A
(c) if A is true but R is false
(d) if both A and R are false.
14. Assertion : The absorption spectra of chlorophylls a and
b show that they absorb maximum light in green and red
wavelength range.
Reason : Chlorophylls show blue, violet fluorescence.
15. Assertion : To produce a hexose molecule, six molecules
of CO2, twelve molecules of NADPH and 18 ATP are
consumed.
Reason : Light reaction results in formation of ATP and
NADPH.
16. Assertion : Rhoeo leaves contain anthocyanin pigments
in their epidermal cells.
Reason : Anthocyanins are accessory photosynthetic
pigments.
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20.

(a) What do X, Y and Z represent on the three curves in
the above given figure?
(b) Sometimes deviations are observed in Blackman’s
law and transitional curves are obtained. What could
be the probable reason for this?
(c) Mention the condition where light intensity and
temperature act as limiting factors in photosynthesis.
Refer to the given figure and answer the following
questions.


(a) Identify the products marked A, B and C.
(b) Name the cycle being represented in the above
diagram. Also, state its important steps.
(c) What is the site of carbon fixation by this cycle in C4
plants?
CHAPTER-14 : RESPIRATION IN PLANTS

Multiple Choice Questions
1. If the volume of CO2 liberated during respiration is more
than the volume of O2, the respiratory substrate is identified
as
(a) organic acid
(b) fat
(c) protein
(d) carbohydrate.
2. During Krebs’ cycle, at which reaction stage FAD participates
as electron acceptor?
(a) Conversion of succinyl CoA to succinic acid
(b) Conversion of succinic acid to fumaric acid
(c) Conversion of α-ketoglutarate to succinyl CoA
(d) Conversion of fumaric acid to malic acid
3. Which of the given observations most strongly support the
view that mitochondria contain electron transfer enzymes
aggregated into compact associations?
(a) Isolation of a contractile protein from mitochondria
which is capable of utilising ATP.
(b) Disruption of mitochondria yields membrane
fragments which are able to synthesise ATP.
(c) Presence of numerous folds on inner wall of
mitochondria.
(d) All of these.
4. If a molecule of pyruvic acid is subjected to anaerobic
respiration to produce lactic acid, there would be
(a) gain of 3 ATP molecules
(b) gain of 6 ATP molecules
(c) gain of 2 ATP molecules
(d) gain of 10 ATP molecules.
5. The fruits stored in refrigerator or cold storage maintain
their flavour and taste for longer period due to
(a) presence of excess of carbon dioxide
(b) non-availability of oxygen
(c) slower rate of respiration
(d) presence of excess humidity.
6. Consider the following statements regarding respiration in
plants and choose the correct ones.
I. In plants, gaseous exchange takes place only through
stems.
II. Plants respire at rates lower than animals.
III. Leaves are adapted to synthesise food and not for
respiration.

IV. Loosely arranged parenchymatous cells in stem
and roots of plants provide network of gaseous
exchange.
V. Plants do not have respiratory organs.
(a) I, III and V
(b) II, IV, V
(c) II and III only
(d) I, II, III and IV
7. Which of the following enzymes is inhibited by excess of
ATP production during respiration?
(a) Hexokinase
(b) Pyruvic decarboxylase
(c) Aldolase
(d) Phosphofructokinase
8. Read the given statements carefully and choose the
incorrect ones.
I. The stepwise release of chemical energy cannot be
always trapped in ATP molecules.
II. Cellular temperature becomes very high during
cellular respiration.
III. ATP acts as a phosphorylating agent for activating
certain metabolites like sugars.
IV. ATP cannot make energy available at a spot away
from area of release of energy.
(a) I, III and IV
(b) II and III
(c) I, II and IV
(d) All of these
9. Substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis occurs when
(a) Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate changes to 1,3-biphosphoglycerate
(b) 1, 3 biphosphoglycerate changes to 3 phosphoglycerate
(c) 3 phosphoglycerate changes to 2 phosphoglycerate
(d) 2 phosphoglycerate changes to phosphoenol pyruvate.
10. Identify the correct sequence of steps in glycolysis.
(a) Glucose 6-phosphate → 1,3 biphosphoglycerate
→ 3-PGAL (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) → PEP
(Phosphoenol pyruvate)
(b) Glucose 6-phosphate → 3-PGAL → 3-PGA (3-phosphoglycerate) → PEP (Phosphoenol pyruvate)
(c) Glucose 6-phosphate → PEP (Phosphoenol pyruvate)
→ 3PGA (3-phosphoglycerate) → 3-PGAL
(d) Glucose 6-phosphate → 3-PGAL → 1,3 biphosphoglycerate → 3-PGA (3-phosphoglycerate)

Match The Columns
11. Match Column I with Column II.
Column I
Column II
A. Isocitrate
(i) 2C compound
B. Malate
(ii) 3C compound
C. α-ketoglutarate
(iii) 4C compound
D. Acetyl CoA
(iv) 5C compound
E. Phosphoglycerate (v) 6 C compound
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27


12. Match the reaction intermediates of Krebs’ cycle in Column
I with the products they give rise to in Column II. (There
can be more than one match for items in Column I).
Column I
Column II
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Acetyl CoA
α-ketoglutarate
Succinyl CoA
Glycerol
Oxaloacetate

(i) Glutamate
(ii) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
(iii) Isoprenoids
(iv) Chlorophyll
(v) Terpenes
(vi) Aspartate
(vii) Pyrimidines
(viii) Cytochrome
(ix) Carotenoids
(x) Alkaloids

Passage Based Question
13. Complete the given passage with appropriate words or
phrases.
A single turn of Krebs’ cycle produces one molecule of (i),
one molecule of (ii) , two molecules of (iii) and three
molecules of (iv) . For each glucose molecule processed,
there are (v) turns of the cycle. Seven of the eight
steps of citric acid cycle take place within the (vi) of
mitochondrion, while the production of (vii) takes place
elsewhere. Electrons enter the electron transport system
as parts of hydrogen atoms attached to (viii) and (ix) .
The energy released during passage of electrons from one
carrier to another is used to (x) protons out of matrix into
intermembrane space.

Assertion & Reason
In each of the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A)
is given and a corresponding statement of Reason (R) is given
just below it. Of the statements, mark the correct answer as :
(a) if both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) if both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation
of A
(c) if A is true but R is false
(d) if both A and R are false.
14. Assertion : Anaerobic respiration is the complete breakdown
of respiratory substrate in absence of oxygen.
Reason : Anaerobic respiration occurs only in
microorganisms and not in higher animals.
15. Assertion : Anaerobic respiration cannot continue for
long in higher organisms as it depletes more substrate,
so, that little is left for growth and repair.
Reason : Anaerobic respiration powers active absorption
of minerals and protoplasmic streaming in higher
organisms.
16. Assertion : There exists an electrochemical potential
gradient across inner mitochondrial membrane.
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TODAY | SEPTEMBER ‘16

Reason : Energy released during passage of electrons
from one carrier to next, pumps H+ from matrix side
of inner mitochondrial membrane to its outer surface
creating proton gradient which establishes electrical
potential across it.
17. Assertion : ATP is the energy currency of living cells,
and serve as biologically useful energy.
Reason : The last two phosphate radicals of ATP are
attached by high transfer potential bonds, capable of
releasing around 8.15 Kcal/mole of energy.
18. Assertion : The RQ values of germinating seeds is usually
more than one.
Reason : The respiratory substrates in germinating seeds
are mainly carbohydrates.

Figure Based Questions
19. Refer to given figure and answer the following questions.

(a) What is the objective of the above experimental set
up?
(b) What can be inferred from the changes in set up after
sometime?
(c) Does anaerobic respiration always release CO2?
20. Consider the given figure and answer the following
questions.


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