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Financial accounting the impact on decision makers 9e chapter 13

Chapter 13
Financial Statement Analysis


Limitations and Considerations in
Financial Statement Analysis
Watch for alternative accounting principles
 Selection of a inventory valuation method
 Changes in accounting method
 Take care when making comparisons
 Recognizing trends in ratios
 Extra caution for extraordinary items and gains and
losses from discontinued operations


LO 1


Limitations and Considerations in
Financial Statement Analysis (continued)



Understand the possible effects of inflation
 Financial statements are based on historical costs
and are not adjusted for the effects of increasing
prices


Analysis of Comparative Statements:
Horizontal Analysis


Comparison of financial statement items over a period
of time

LO 2


Example 13.1—Preparing and Reading
Comparative Balance Sheets—Horizontal Analysis


Example 13.2—Preparing and Reading Comparative Statements of
Income and Retained Earnings—Horizontal Analysis


Example 13.3—Preparing and Reading Comparative
Statements of Cash Flows—Horizontal Analysis


Analysis of Common-Size Statements:
Vertical Analysis
Comparison of various financial statement
items within a single period with the use of
common-size statements
 Common-size statements recast items as a
percentage of a selected item


LO 3



Example 13.4—Preparing and Reading
Common-Size Balance Sheets—Vertical Analysis


Example 13.5—Preparing and Reading
Common-Size Income Statements—Vertical Analysis


Liquidity Analysis


A relative measure of the nearness to cash of the
assets and liabilities of a company

LO 4


Working Capital


The excess of current assets over current liabilities at a
point in time


Current Ratio
The ratio of current assets to current liabilities
 One of the most widely used financial statement
ratios



Acid-Test Ratio
A stricter test of liquidity than the current ratio
 Excludes inventory and prepayments from the
numerator



Cash Flow from Operations to Current
Liabilities


A measure of the ability to pay current debts from
operating cash flows


Accounts Receivable Analysis


Accounts receivable turnover ratio: a measure of the
number of times accounts receivable are collected in a
period



Number of days’ sales in receivables: a measure of the
average age of accounts receivable


Inventory Analysis


Inventory turnover ratio: a measure of the number of
times inventory is sold during a period



Number of days’ sales in inventory: a measure of how
long it takes to sell inventory


Cash-to-Cash Operating Cycle


The length of time from the purchase of inventory to
the collection of any receivable from the sale


Solvency Analysis


The ability of a company to remain in business over
the long term
 The ability of the firm to stay financially healthy over
the period of time that existing debt (short- and
long-term) is outstanding

LO 5


Debt-to-Equity Ratio


The ratio of total liabilities to total stockholders’
equity



The composition of debt and equity is an important
determinant of the cost of capital to a company


Times Interest Earned Ratio


Indicates the company’s ability to meet the current
year’s interest payments out of the current year’s
earnings


Debt Service Coverage Ratio


Measure of the amount of cash that is generated from
operating activities during the year and that is
available to repay interest due and any maturing
principal amounts


Cash Flow from Operations to Capital
Expenditures Ratio


A measure of the ability of a company to finance longterm asset acquisitions with cash from operations


Profitability Analysis


How well management is using company resources to
earn a return on the
= funds invested by various groups



Two frequently used profitability measures:

Gross Profit Ratio =

Profit Margin Ratio =

Gross Profit
Net Sales
Net Income
Net Sales
LO 6


Rate of Return on Assets


A measure of a company’s success in earning a return
for all providers of capital


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